NAV n Radio both 1. Diff between GPWS n EGPWS. KInd of warning EGPWS gives, how does it work 2.

RNP, what exactly is that, RNP 1 better or RNP 10 3. GRID MORA on jepp chart 4. CANPA-Constant angle non precision approach 5. VOR, DVOR(Doppler VOR), NDB, which one would you prefer to use and why 6. RADIO ALT 7. RVSM contingencies 8. ALL types of projections, if you are at equator which type of chart would you use(projection type) 9. What are ILS components 10. Gyro 11. What airspaces are there in India? 12. How many satellites are required for RAIM? 13. Diff b/w ILS X & ILS Y 14. Instruments VOR, NDB, DME, INS, IRS, GPS, Working of a Servo Altimeter, TCAS 15. ILS reference point 16. degrees of freedom is plane of freedom 17. TCAS TA,RA range - Forward Range for TCAS 2 = 40 Nm 18. Speed to be maintained in a DME arc = 230 KIAS 19. TODA and TORA / Clearway and stopway 20. Can you do ILS approach without Glideslope? Ans.-Yes 21. What is the required instrumentation for RVSM? 22. If a pilot is unable to maintain RVSM, what is the RT phraseology? 23. What is ETOPS, Different extensions available 24. Questions on runway lighting (from jeppesons) 25. Questions on runway marking (Jeppesons) 26. Radio failure procedure in Radar, Non-Radar and during a SID 27. Requirements for ILS Cat IIIb? What DH and RVR requirement for cat IIIb 28. Is middle marker mandatory for ILS approaches NO 29. -Marker Locators(NDB co-located with the fan markers) 30. Outer marker – colour of visual lighting, frequency, morse code and distance 31. Wind shear mode in GPWS. What is predictive wind shear 32. If you are navigating using triple INS and if all three fail, how will you navigate. GPS 33. What is CANPA? How is it useful? 34. Why is 50 feet added to MDA to calculate DDH in a CANPA approach? 35. Why is 50 feet not added to the DH in an ILS approach if the same if done for a CANPA approach to calculate the DDH? (ILS more accurate and inline with r/w center line) 36. What is FANS? 37. What is RNP? Required equipment for RNP-521.Why is the instrumentation for RNP-10 more complex than RNP-5?

38. ETOPS: What is the difference between adequate airport and suitable airport? 39. What is MORA? How is MORA calculated? 40. What is mountainous area? 41. Questions on lighting in TVASI, Pulsating VASI 42. ILS error 43. How do you carry out a CANPA approach if FAF is not published? How is theFAF crossing height calculated? 44. How is the height of cloud base calculated using weather radar? 45. Frequency of operation, working of weather radar? 46. In NDB chart for Runway 07 chennai, visibility minima for cat c and cat d aircraft is published as 3400 and 5000 m respectively. If prevailing visibility is3400 m, can the approach be carried out for a cat b category aircraft? 47. VOR interception angles while going outbound and inbound to a station 48. Working of GPS35.Questions on WAAS and LAAS36.Questions on type of FMS aboard the aircraft you fly 49. How do you navigate to the north pole(the answer examiners are looking for isgrid navigation) 50. In Chennai, what is the direction of the runway slope? (the whole idea is supposedly to check if you are familiar with the aerodrome you operate out of) 51. Why is circle to land operations not allowed south of RWY 27 in Mumbai? 52. If the wavelength is 2 cm, what is the frequency? 53. Primary radar v/s secondary radar. 54. Working of weather radar. 55. How is cloud height calculated using weather radar? 56. Frequency band of SHF. 57. What is a BFO? 58. Construction of various Instrument like ASI, IVSI, Mack Meter, etc 59. Fail Passive and Fail Operational App. 60. Difference between tcas i and tcas ii. What type is on you’re a/c. also what version of TCAS used TCAS 7.0? 61. What is TAU in terms of TCAS (The estimated time in wich a intruder aircraft becomes a thread is called TAU. There is a different TAU value for TA as there is for RA because the RA range is smaller) Tau TCAS primarily uses time-to-go to CPA rather than distance to determine when a TA or an RA should be issued. The time to CPA is called the range tau and the time to co-altitude is called the vertical tau. Tau is an approximation of the time, in seconds, to CPA or to the aircraft being at the same altitude. CPA (Closest Point of Approach) 62. What is TAWS, FANS? 63. They ask me on B777 where is the EGT sensor located…. As in have u ever physically seen it ???? of course they were Airbus guys asking wrong question!!! 64. How does GPS give positions information? 65. Difference between Predicted Wind shear (PWS) and Reactive Wind shear which one is given by weather radar and which one by EGPWS?


Future Air Navigation System The Future Air Navigation System (FANS) is an avionics system which provides direct data link communication between the pilot and the Air Traffic Controller. The communications include air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting FANS-1 and 2 by Boieing FANS-A and B by Airbus FANS-1/A common

The ILS Has Five Components
Part 1 the Localizer The localizer at departure end of runway provides lateral references. Frequencies are 108.l by odd tenths to 111.9. It is identified by "I" (..) as first of four letters. Fan width varies from 3 to 6 degrees and may not be aligned with the runway. It is useable within 35 degrees of course. An LDA’s range of tolerance is identical to that of the ILS’s but is more likely to be in the 6 degree range. It is 4 times more sensitive than VORs. One degree of localizer fan sensitivity is only 25' at one mile. Back course should not be used for navigation unless authorized. An ADF (simplified directional facility) is fixed at either 6 or 12 degrees, whichever is best at the site. Part 2 the Glide Slope The glide slope is abeam 1000' marker of runway and provides threshold crossing height (TCH). It is not useable if crossing threshold below 50'. The course width of the glide slope is 1.4 degrees. Useable course distance is 10 nautical miles. On the glide slope approach will give a touchdown at 1000' markers. UHF frequencies at 330 paired with localizer. Same angle as VASI. The reason for a glide slope interception altitude is because of higher "false slopes". May have DME but more often not. (see Reno). No levelling off at decision height (DH). Reverse sensing on back course standard VOR but not on HSI. The glide slope angle is usually 3 degrees. You can determine the descent rate of the 3 degree slope by using the charts in Jeppesen or a rule of thumb based on your ground speed. The thumb rule is good for practice. Multiply your ground speed by 5 and add 50. (90 kts x 5 + 50 = 500 (Should be 485) Part 3 Outer marker You cannot fly an ILS if the outer marker is out and no other authorized definition/substitution for the fix exists. AIM 1010 and FAR 91.175(k) The outer marker is five miles from runway. It is the Blue light. Interception of ILS glide slope may be before, at or after OM. ILS final approach fix often is different from localizer only approach. Timing of localizer approach is always from OM as the non-precision FAF. Put this altitude into your need to know approach checklist. ILS Outer Marker (OM) is fan-shaped across ILS localizer course about 4 1/2 miles from approach end of runway. In the United States, the outer marker has often been combined with an NDB to make a Locator Outer Marker (LOM). Some ILS approaches have no navigation aid at all situated at the final approach fix, but use other means, such as VOR radial intersections, distance measuring equipment (DME), GPS, or radar fixes, to identify the position. Part 4 the Middle marker (amber) A point on the ILS glide slope Final altimeter check. MM should be part of briefing. The middle marker is 1/2 (3500 feet) mile from runway at decision height which is typically 200' AGL above TDZ. MM inoperative does not change minimums as of 1993. Check the marker crossing altitude as an altimeter check. The middle marker is not a required component for full ILS minimums nor the localizer. The Inner Marker (IM) is fan shaped across ILS localizer course about 1/2 mile from approach end of runway. On a back-course the marker, if used, is white. The traditional inner marker is becoming obsolete. Removal of the inner marker does not affect minimums. Up until the 1970s there were still LF/MF four course radio ranges in use known as radio range, Adcock range, standard radio range, A/N range and L/MF range. The range uses a 200-425 kilocycle (Hertz) signal to provide course guidance through the ADF. These ranges are still in use worldwide. Older aircraft will have an "Airway Marker Beacon" light along with Outer and Inner marker lights which transmit on 75 megacycles (Hertz) to provide definite position information. Marker Beacons

Fan Marker: 100 watts power with 3000 cps (cycle per second) tone emitted in a fan shape three miles wide and 12 miles across an airway. Dumbbell Marker Same as fan marker but narrow middle is only 1-1/2 miles wide. Z Marker (Station Locator Marker) Located at radio range site and identifies centre of range. (cone of silence). Part 5 Approach Lighting System (ALS) (See AIM for variations) MALSR and SSALR have runway alignment lights (R means runway) MALS and SSALS do NOT have runway alignment lights Approach Lights Approach lights define the runway threshold. With approach lights an NDB can have minimums of 3/4-mile with 250’ height above touchdown (HAT). Approach lights do not affect DA or MDA just visibility. Any loss of approach lighting will increase visibility minimums from 1/4 to 1/2-mile. (ODALS) Omni-directional approach light system gives 1/4 mile credit. (MALS) Medium intensity approach light system of 1400’ likewise. (SALS) Simplified approach light system 1200’+ light-bar likewise. (SSALR/MASR) Simplified short approach light system, sequenced flashing lights and medium approach light system from 1400’ to 2400’ NDB gets 1/4 mile credit while other non-precision get 1/2 mile. (ALSF-1) Highest standard of non-precision approach lighting with sequenced flashers (‘the rabbit’) extending to 3000’ gives 1/2-mile credit. Has red termination bar. 5-levels of brightness. RAILS (ALSF-1) Like ALSF-1 but has red side row bars and low/high modes.

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