Global Positioning System (GPS
• The current global positioning system (GPS) is the culmination of years of research and unknown millions of dollars. • The current system is managed by the U.S Air Force for the Department of Defense (DOD). • The current system became fully operational June 26, 1993 when the 24th satellite was lunched.
• GPS provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed with a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time. • A minimum of four GPS satellite signals are required to compute positions in three dimensions and the time offset in the receiver clock.
• Accuracy and precision of data increases with more satellites.
• Space segment • Control segment • User segment
• The GPS uses a constellation of 24 satellites that orbit the earth at about 11.000000003 seconds
. • Each satellite has a very accurate clock. once every 12 hours.000 nautical miles. 0. • The signal travels at the speed of light. • The orbital position is constantly monitored and updated by the ground stations. • Each satellite is identified by number and broadcasts a unique signal.
– Code-phase ranging – Carrier-phase ranging
. he task of the receiver is to determine its distance from multiple satellites.Space Segment--Satellite Signals
• Because the GPS receiver calculates its location by trilateration. • The GPS system uses two types of signals to calculate distance.
• It continuously broadcasts its signal and also sends out a time stamp every time it starts. • The receiver has a copy of each satellite signal and determines the distance by recording the time between when the satellite says it starts its signal and when the signal reaches the receiver.Space Segment--Satellite Signals--Code-Phasing Ranging
• Each satellite has a unique signal.
Space Segment--Satellite Signals--CodePhasing Ranging – cont.
• Distance is calculated using the velocity equation. the distance between the sender and the receiver can be determined.
Distance Velocity = • Rearranging the equation for distance: Time Distance= Velocity x Time
• If the system knows the velocity of a signal and the time it takes for the signal to travel from the sender to the receiver.
000 miles/second.8400 ft sec mi
• It should be clear that this system requires very accurate measurement of time and synchronization of clocks.Distance Example—Code Phase Ranging
• The signals from the GPS satellites travel at the speed of light-186.23 sec= 2. • How far apart are the sender and the receiver if the signal travel time was 0.257.
.000 x 5208 0.23 seconds?
Distance (ft)= Velocity (mi/sec) x Time (sec) mi ft = 186. • These time errors limit the precision of this system.
• The proportion of a partial cycle is difficult to determine. • This is called phase ambiguity. • Phase ambiguity error is resolved by comparing multiple signals from multiple receivers.
. • Easy to determine number of cycles.Space Segment—Carrier-Phase Ranging
• Surveying quality receivers use the underlying carrier frequency. • More precise system.
• The receiver collects. • The receiver determines its location by trilateration. decodes and processes the satellite signals.
. • The basic receiver does not include a transmitter. • Different levels of precision are available.
• Each satellite knows its position and its distance from the center of the earth. • Each satellite constantly broadcasts this information.
. • With this information and the calculated distance. • Just knowing the distance to one satellite doesn’t provide enough information. the receiver calculates its position.
• Represented by the circle in the illustration.
• When the receiver knows its distance from only one satellite.GPS Trilateration--cont. • The receiver must have additional information.
. its location could be anywhere on the earths surface that is an equal distance from the satellite.
With signals from two satellites. the receiver can narrow down its location to just two points on the earths surface. Were the two circles intersect.GPS Trilateration--cont.
the receiver is located at b. • The more satellite that are used. the greater the potential accuracy of the position location. the receiver can determine its location because there is only two possible combinations and one of them is out in space.
• Knowing its distance from three satellites.GPS Trilateration--cont. • In this example.
and at the time of measurement the number available was less than that.
– Because of the way the satellites orbit. the same number are not available at all times.Factors Influencing Position Accuracy
The number of satellites (channels) the receiver can track. – The higher the number of channels---the greater the potential accuracy. the data will be less accurate. – When planning precise GPS measurements it is important to check for satellite availability for the location and time of measurement.
– WAAS [Wide Area Augmentation System] FAA & DOT – GLONASS [GLObal'naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema] Russian
– The number of channels a receiver has is part of it’s design.
The number of different systems that the receiver can track. – The higher the number of channels---the greater the cost.
The number of satellites that are available at the time. – If a larger number of channels are required (6-10).
The system errors that are occurring during the time the receiver is operating.
– The GPS system has several errors that have the potential to reduce the accuracy. – The rover data is adjusted for the error.
– The stationary unit compares its calculated GPS location with the actual location and computes the error.Factors Influencing Position Accuracy--cont.
• Real Time Kinematic (RTK) • Post processing
• Differential GPS uses one unit at a known location and a rover. – To achieve high levels of precision. differential GPS must be used.
Once the GPS receiver has located its position it is usually displayed in one of two common formats:
– Latitude and longitude
– Universal transverse Mercator (UTM).
Both use the center of the earth as the vertex.
.Latitude and Longitude
Latitudes and longitudes are angles. but they use a different zero reference.
.485.79 miles north of the equator.05 miles/degree Degree 360 degrees
Each degree of latitude 69 miles
Stillwater has a latitude of 36.Latitude
• Latitude gives the location of a place on the Earth north or south of the Equator.82 miles around the poles.
Miles 24859.82 miles = = 69. This puts Stillwater 2.859. • Latitude is an angular measurement in degrees (marked with °) ranging from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the poles (90° N for the North Pole or 90° S for the South Pole) The earth’s circumference is approximately 24.
The Equator is an imaginary circle drawn around the planet at a distance halfway between the poles. The latitude of the equator is. 0°. The equator divides the planet into a Northern Hemisphere and a Southern Hemisphere. by definition.
– – – – Arctic Circle — 66° 33′ 39″ N Tropic of Cancer — 23° 26′ 22″ N Tropic of Capricorn — 23° 26′ 22″ S Antarctic Circle — 66° 33′ 39″ S
Four lines of latitude are named because of the role they play in the geometrical relationship with the Earth and the Sun.
Longitude describes the location of a place on earth east or west of a northsouth line called the Prime Meridian.
– Longitude is given as an angular measurement ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian to +180° eastward and −180° westward. – In 1884.
. the International Meridian Conference adopted the Greenwich meridian as the universal prime meridian or zero point of longitude.
086.17 Miles Degree Degree 360 degrees
Each degree of longitude 69 miles
Stillwater has a longitude of -97.698.
.901. at the equator.
The circumference of the earth at the equator is approximately 24.934 miles west of the prime meridian. This puts Stillwater 6.55 miles.55 miles = = 69.
55 34.Longitude--cont. This means the miles per degree of longitude changes with the latitude.06 44.67 23. This makes determining the distance between two points identified by longitude more difficult.13 65.95 53.73 12. 69. The circumference of the earth declines as the latitude increase away from the equator.
Latitude (o) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Miles/deg.17 68.03 59.05
• • There is an important difference between latitude and longitude.
What you often see on poster-size maps of the world is an equatorial Mercator projection that has relatively little distortion along the equator. but quite a bit of distortion toward the poles.
• A Mercator projection is a ‘pseudocylindrical’ conformal projection (it preserves shape). to the surface of the cylinder. on an angle from the center of the earth.
Points on the earth are transferred.
• In this illustration it can be seen the the projected distance is greater than the earth distance. but the distortion increases as latitude increases. • Within a few latitudes of the equator the distortion is very small.Mercator Projection-cont.
Transverse Mercator Projection
• Transverse Mercator projection rotates the earth 90 degrees with in the cylinder.
. • In this projection a small increases in longitude are relatively undistorted.
Transverse Mercator Projection
• This illustration shows that when transverse Mercator is used. narrow vertical slices of the earth have little distortion.
each 6o wide at the equator.UTM Zones
The world is divided into 60 zones of latitude. that extend from 84o N to 80o s.
These zones begin at 180o longitude and are numbered consecutively eastward.
• The conterminous United States is covered by 10 UTM grid zones.000 and is numbered north in meters.
The easting coordinates are measured from an artificial reference line drawn perpendicular to the equator and centered in the zone at the equator. In the Northern Hemisphere each zone's northing coordinate begins at the equator as 0.
• The UTM system uses a different grid for the polar regions. • The UTM coordinates are called "false northing" and "false easting. one direction on the grid is arbitrarily designated "north-south" and the other "east-west" regardless of the actual compass direction. • These areas are covered by a different conformal projection called the Polar Stereographic.”
. • Since compass directions have little meaning at the poles.UTM--cont.
Advantages Best method for determining distances between two points.
Disadvantages Not as useful for finding a location. Latitude and longitude Advantages
• With the proper instruments.
.Using Location Information
Each system has its advantages and disadvantages. a person can determine their position at the site without using GPS. Used by most maps Disadvantages Difficult to determine distances between two or more points.
Determining UTM Zone
• Treat west longitude as negative and east as positive.8 = 14 6
. this converts the longitude to a number between zero and 360 degrees. • Example:
– The location of the intersection of Hall of Fame and Virginia on OSU campus is 56 7 23.079 W.
-97. • Add 180 degrees.912
82.71 N and 97 05 16.088 +
180 = 82. • Divide by 6 and round up to the next higher number.192 = 13.
360 scales). 1:62.Determining a UTM Grid Value for a Map Point
• The UTM grid is shown on all quadrangle maps prepared by the U. the UTM grid lines are indicated at intervals of 1.000 meters.000.
• The 1.000-meter value of the ticks is shown for every tick or grid line.html
.000 scale) and 15-minute quadrangle maps (1:50.5-minute quadrangle maps (1:24. Geological Survey (USGS). either by blue ticks in the margins of the map or with full grid lines.S.usgs. • On 7.500. and standardedition 1:63.000 and 1:25.gov/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs07701.
or you can draw lines on the map connecting corresponding ticks on opposite edges. • The northing of the point is the value of the nearest grid line south of it plus its distance north of that line.
. • The distances can be measured in meters at the map scale between any map point and the nearest grid lines to the south and west.Determining a UTM Grid Value for a Map Point--cont. you can place a transparent grid overlay on the map to subdivide the grid.
• To use the UTM grid. its easting is the value of the nearest grid line west of it plus its distance east of that line.
• The distance can be determined using Pythagorean Theorem because UTM is a grid system.Determining Distance Using UTM
• In the illustration the UTM coordinates for two points are given.
= 574011. • Subtracting the northing proves the length of the vertical side: 535. 000 meters
Note: this is the plane distance..
.000 meters.UTM Example--cont.0002 208.000 meters. To find surface distance a curve equation must be used. • The distance between the two points is:
• Subtracting the easting proved the length of the horizontal side: 208.32. or 574.
The ground segment has one master control. one alternative master control station. 12 command and control antennas and 16 monitoring sites.
• • •
Multipath Atmospheric effects Clock
• The Positional Dilution of Precision (PDOP) is an indication of the quality of the 3D coordinate satellite geometry.Error-Satellite Geometry
• Describes the position of the satellites with each other.
– General surveys PDOP’s should be less than 3. and least error.
• Satellite geometry error is not measureable.
. it tends to enhance other errors. • Satellite geometry error occurs when the satellites are concentrated in on quadrant or in a line. occurs when the satellites are equally distributed. • The best geometry.
slight shifts are possible do to the gravitational influences of the sun and moon. • Orbit errors can be as high as 2 meters.
• Even though the satellites are positioned in very precise orbits.
• Multipath errors are caused by satellite signals reflecting off of objects. • Increase chance of occurrence when around tall buildings.
• The majority of this effect can be eliminated by the receiver. – The receiver can determine the difference in the arrival time of high and low frequency signals and calculate a correction. but are slowed down by the atmosphere.
• Radio signals travel at the speed of light in space.
– Lower frequency signals are slowed down more that high frequencies.
• To keep clock errors to 1 meter or less. the time error must be be limited to 20-30 nanoseconds. and small amount of inaccuracy in timing remains. • This can result in errors up to 1 meter.
• In spite of the synchronization of the satellite and receiver clocks.
the number of satellites available at any one time is not constant.com/cs.Availability
• Because GPS satellites are not stationary above one point of the earth.cgi
.calsky. • The satellite availability should be checked before scheduling a GPS survey. Especially when high precision is required and /or you know that some stations may be partially blocked. • One site is: http://www. like telecommunication satellites.
Example of Satellite Availability
HDOP – Horizontal Dilution of Precision – Measure of the quality of the horizontal position.
• • • •
GDOP – Geometric dilution of Precision – A combination of navigational position and time error
PDOP – Positional Dilution of Precision – The spatial geometrical quality of the positional solution. VDOP – Vertical Dilution of Precision – Measure of the quality of the vertical position TDOP – Time Dilution of Precision – Mean error of the time estimation.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Terms
• As the size of the area increases the dilution of precision increases.
. The dilution of precision is given in multiple measurements.
20 – 50
Measurements are +.150 feet and are probably useless.
. but a more open sky view is recommended.DOP
DOP 1 2–3 4–6 7–8 9-20 Rating Ideal Excellent Good Description Highest possible.
Moderate Sufficient for calculations.
Values below 2 will produce acceptable results for most surveys. Fair Positional information should only be used to indicate rough locations. Minimum level appropriated for business decisions. Required for surveys requiring the highest precision. Values over three should not be used. Positional measurements are sufficient for all but the most stringent surveys.
• Because the receiver continuously calculates its position. increasing the time it is stationary improves the precision.
– Static – Fast static – Kinematic
. • Static time can be divided into three categories.
– Static times of 30 minutes to 2 hours are recommended for distances of 1 to 20 miles.
• To qualify for a static survey.Static Surveys
• The recommended time is related to the distances being surveyed. both receivers must observe a minimum of the same four satellites for the duration of the time.
. • Static surveys have the highest precision and can be used for any surveys. • Data is post processed.
– Five (5) to 10 minutes are usually sufficient for surveys that do not require the highest level of precision. just shorter observation times.
• Uses the same procedures as static surveys.
24 inches to 0. • Accuracy can be as good as 0.RTK
• Requires two receivers recording observations simultaneously. • Must have radio or other link to transfer data and calculate error in real time. 0.02 to 0. • RTK requires receivers that can use the dual frequency L1/L2 observations.6 inches.
.05 feet. • Can lock onto satellites while on the move.