Advantages , features and application

of electro dialysis in water processing
ELECTRODIALYSIS
• ED is an electrochemical separation
process in which ions are transferred
through ion exchange membranes by
means of a direct current (DC)
voltage. The process uses a driving
force to transfer ionic species from
the source water through cathode
(positively charged ions) and anode
(negatively charged ions) to a
concentrate wastewater stream,
creating a more dilute stream .
General principles in electrodialysis
Most salts dissolved in water are ionic, being positively (cationic)
or negatively (anionic) charged.
Membranes can be constructed to permit selective passage of
either anions or cations.
The dissolved ionic constituents in saline solution are Na
+
, Ca
2+
,
and Co
3
2+
are dispersed in water, effectively neutralizing their
individual charges. When electrodes connected to an outside
source of direct current like a battery are placed in a container of
saline water, electrical current is carried through the solution,
with the ions tending to migrate to the electrode with the
opposite charge.

INTRODUCTION
First commercial equipment based on electrodialysis (ED) technology was developed in
1950’s to demineralize brackish water.
ED has advanced rapidly because of improved ion exchange membrane properties,
better materials of construction and advances of technology.
Applications of ED :
1. To reduce inorganics like radium, perchlorate, bromide, fluoride, iron and manganese
and nitrate in drinking water
2. To recycle municipal and industrial waste water
3. Recovering reverse osmosis reject
4. Desalting wells, surface waters
5. final effluent treatment for reuse in cooling towers
6. whey and soy purification
7. Table salt production etc…
ELECTRODIALYSIS
Advantages
• ED system separates without
phase change, which results in
relatively low energy
consumption.

• When brackish water is desalted
by ED system, the product water
needs only limited pre-treatment.
Typically only chlorination for
disinfection is required.
DISADVANTAGES
• Organic matter, colloids and SiO
2

are not removed by ED system.



• Feedwater pre-treatment is
necessary to prevent ED stacks
fouling
ELECTRODIALYSIS
ADVANTAGES
• Because ED system removes only
ionised species, it is particularly
suitable for separating non-ionised
from ionised components.

• Osmotic pressure is not a factor in
ED system, so the pressure can be
used for concentrating salt
solutions to 20% or higher.
DISADVANTAGES
• Elaborate controls are required, and
keeping them at optimum condition
ca be difficult.


• Selection of materials of
construction for membranes and
stack is important to ensure
compatibility with the feed stream.
ELECTRODIALYSIS
ADVANTAGES
• Low cost for capital equipment

• Self- regulating, responsive to
water condition and flow
demands

• Recover higher concentration of
ion than reverse osmosis


DISADVANTAGES
• Adequate electrical safety
measures should be taken
• It may cause local air pollution.
Because H
2
and Cl
2
may be
generated at the electrode
surface

• Uncertainty in membrane life and
integrity
ELECTRODIALYSIS
Advantages
• Low chemical usage for chemical
pretreatment

• Construction is almost entirely of
plastic materials with minimum
metal components, eliminating the
problems of corrosion

• No mechanical moving parts, silent
and vibration free operation


disadvantages
• Efficiency drops as purity of the
product water increases


Application of electrodialysis in water
treatment
• Potable water from brackish water
• Production of high purity water for pharmaceutical
industries
• Production of demineralised water for food industries
• Treatment of rinse water for electronic industries
• Industrial water purification for removal of ionic
components
• Cooling tower water treatment
APPLICATION ELECTRODIALYSIS IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS
• Concentration of rejected salt in RO brine
• Table salt manufacturing process
• Reclaiming and recovering and recovering nickel and gold from
electroplating rinse water
• Reclaiming and recovering silver from photographic rinse water
• Reclaiming and recovering zinc from galvanizing rinse water
• Remove of citric acid from fruit juice
• Removal of tannic acid from wine
• Recover amino acids from proteins
• Electrodialysis uses an electric current in the water to
remove contaminants. The electric current pulls
impurities through a membrane that filters out these
impurities from water. The result is purified water.
• Electrodialysis requires a large amount of electricity to
produce a current in the water strong enough to
manipulate the impure ions.
• Electrodialysis also has a limited range of contaminants
with which it can filter. It cannot remove organics,
pyrogens and elemental metals
DESALINATION BY ELECTRODIALYSIS
• The production of potable water from brackish water sources is
certainly the most important application of electrodialysis
• The brackish water treated by ED has generally a relatively low salt
concentration in the range of 2000 to 5000 mg/l TDS
Features of electrodialysis which makes suitable for desalination of
brackish water
1. ED is less sensitive to membrane fouling and scaling
2. higher recovery rates and minimum brine disposal problems
3. ion exchange membranes can be operated at elevated temperatures
4. membrane is stable at high and low p
H
values
5. less sensitive to oxidizing agents
Configuration of desalting process
1.Cation exchange membrane
2.Anion exchange membrane
3.Cathode
4.anode

REDUCTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
• The most common application of ED is reduction of TDS to
meet drinking water standards
• Plants treating brackish sources contain 10,000mg/l TDS
can reliably and economically yield product water
containing less than 500mg/l of TDS.

Control of inorganics and ionized contaminants
• ED control specific inorganic constituents or ionized
contaminants in water
• ED used to remove or reduce some of the following
common ionized constituents:
TDS, chromium, sodium, mercury, chloride, copper,
sulfate, uranium, fluoride, nitrate and nitrite, iron,
selenium, hardness, barium, bicarbonate, cadmium,
strontium