WORK STUDY

Introduction, Definition, Objectives, Importance, Components.

WORK STUDY.
 It’s

a Mgt tool to achieve higher efficiency.  Concerned primarily with manual work  Any industry to survive, must use latest technology & most efficient method improvised with a consistent aim of producing best quality goods at lower prices.  One way to improve is by efficient use of plant, equipment and Labor.

WORK STUDY.
 Work

study is simply study of work.  It is analysis of work dividing it into smaller parts followed by rearrangement of these parts to give the same effectiveness at a lesser cost.  Work study examines both the method and duration of the work involved in the process.  Robert Owen, Taylor and Bedeaux gave their contributions to this topic.

Definitions.
 Work

Study is primarily concerned with discovering the best ways of doing the job and establishing standards based on such methods.  Work study is the technique of Method study and work measurement employed to ensure the best possible use of human and material resources in carrying out a specified activity. -ILO

Definitions.
 Work

study can be defined as the analytic investigation of the methods, conditions and effectiveness of industrial work and thereby the determination of the ways in which human efforts may most economically be applied.

Objectives of Work-Study

2. 3. 4. 5.

Primary function of work study is to increase the productivity and reduce the waste. So it should be capable :Investigate and analyze the situation. Examination of weakness in production pro Most efficient use of existing plant. To recommend & implement d improvement

Objectives of Work-Study
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Efficient use of human efforts. Measurement of work values. Set standards for labor cost control. Initiate & maintain incentive bonus schemes To standardize material and machines used Determine the time required by an ideal operator to perform the task with efficiency.

IMPORTANCE
1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

It is a mean of raising the productivity of a factory by reorganization of work involving little or no capital expenditure. Systematic study where no factor of production is overlooked. Most accurate method of determining standards of performance. Results in saving and efficient use of resources. Results in improved safety. Reduction in training time. It can be applied everywhere.

COMPONENTS of WORK STUDY.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Method Study Work Measurement. Ergonomics. Job-Evaluation. (Financial and Non-Financial)

Method Study
 Method

study is systematic recording, critical analysis, development and implementation of new methods to perform job to reduce costs with regards to existing or proposed jobs.  It may also be called as MOTION STUDY, as it deals with the movement of goods and the activities & events in the transformational process.

Method Study

Method study is examination of work performance and its subsequent rearrangement to produce the same results with less efforts. Work performance depends on number of interrelated operations and activities. Any combination of these activities is called as Method. The function of method analyst is to study the way in which the level of performance would increase resulting in minimization of effort and cost for same or better output.

Indicators of Method Study.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Some common indicators, which show that there is a necessity of method study in Org. Bottlenecks in system resulting in long delivery time and unbalanced work flow. Idle time of plant or Labor. Higher absenteeism & poor moral of worker Inconsistency in sales and earning.

Technique of Method Study.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Selection of job to be studied. Collection, recording and presentation of necessary information. Analysis of existing methods. Develop the new method. Install the new method. Maintain the new method.

Charts for Method Study
 

Production order and method study are generally displayed in charts. Process charts  It is a diagrammatic representation of sequence or order of operations from start to finish.  It uses various symbols to represent multiple activities  They are generally not drawn to scale.  The symbols are drawn in vertical columns according to their sequence and description is given.

Process Charts

SYMBOLS used in process charts.
1.

2.
Operation 3.

It represents a broad category of operations executed during a production process. Operation occurs when an object changes its properties physically or chemically. Small alphabets are written inside the circle to denote a specific operation.

SYMBOLS used in process charts.
 
Inspection

It represents an inspection during a production process. The object is examined for its verification with required quality & other characteristic.

Movement

1. It represents a movement during a production process. 2. It shows the flow/movement of men, material and document from 1 place to other

SYMBOLS used in process charts.


Storage

It represents a storage during a production process, protected against unauthorized removal. Distinction can be made between permanent and temporary storage by writing TS or PS in diagram.

Delay

1. It represents a delay during a production process. 2. It occurs when immediate performance of next planned step cannot be taken.

Types of Process charts
1.    

Outline process charts. It mainly shows operation, inspections and entering point of materials. Operations and inspections are numbered separately for every occurrence. Description is given adjacent to the process in the sequence. Let’s see an example.

Types of Process charts
1. 

Flow process charts. It is improved version of outline chart, as it has more detailed description. These chart also include information on storage, delay and transportation activities. The flow process chart can be further subdivided into 3 types i) Material type, ii) Men type, and iii) Machine type. Lets see and example on board.

Types of Process charts
1.   

Two-Handed process charts. It is chart which helps to study an activity performed by both the hands or limbs. It is done to explore the possibility of improvement if any. For ex. Activities performed by an operator in packing of match boxes into corrugated boxes and its sealing with both hands

Types of Process charts
1. 

 

Multiple Activity Chart. Men and machine simultaneously perform many operations. And Multiple activity chart helps to analyze and evaluate these activities. It helps to get valuable information regarding utilization and present the voluminous and haphazardly placed data in presentable form. It shows busy and idle times of Men and Machines. Which in turn helps rescheduling. These charts provide basis for work measurement and operational analysis.

Types of Process charts
 

Multiple Activity Chart. (contd..) Technically speaking, it is graphical representation of combined activities of man and machine. It gives the details of situation where both work independently or jointly, and also where one or both are idle.

Symbols used in Activity Chart.
Blank rectangle or space is used to show that one of the two, i.e. Man or machine is idle. Rectangle with horizontal lines shows that man is working alone and machine is idle or working. Rectangle with horizontal & vertical lines shows that machine is working alone and men are idle or working. Rectangle with slant lines shows that man and machine are working together.

Some Special Charts
1. 2. 3. 4.

Relationship Chart String Diagram Simultaneous Motion charts Memeo Motion Photography.

Now lets see what is Work Measurement.

Time Study/ Work Measurement

 

Work measurement is identified as a scientific method of fixing standard of production or standard time for a given job. To manage, one must measure first. Work measurement means the application of a set of techniques intended to establish the i. Amount of work to be done by an operator ii. At a given time iii. Under a specific condition and iv. At defined level of performance.

Time Study/ Work Measurement
Work

measurement can be done by following either of 2 things.
A.

Direct time study 1. Stop watch approach. 2. Work sampling. 3. Analytic estimation.

A.

Indirect time study 1. Synthetic timing data. 2. Pre-determined time and motion study.

Steps in Work Measurement

Selection:- As it follows the method study, the selection process is already done. But it should eliminate the inferior methods, as it won’t justify the cost & efforts involved. Obtain the necessary information. In terms of worker, machines, material, quality, standards, layout etc.

Steps in Work Measurement

Divide the job into elements. The division of jobs is necessary for the following reasons.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Provide better understanding. Break the study into manageable size. Workers efficiency thorough out job. Distinguish between various parts. Isolate man and machines.

Steps in Work Measurement

Time the elements. Stop watch is generally used in the system. Either of continuous or Fly-back method is used for recording time. The number of cycles to be timed. There should be sufficient readings to get reasonably accurate results. It depends on
1. 2. 3.

Variation in times of element. Degree of accuracy required. Prescribed level of confidence.

Steps in Work Measurement
 

Rating of operator. Objective rating. Here emphasis is laid on speed and difficulty experienced in performing a job. At first operator is rated on normal speed and movement. Then other factors are considered. Allowances.