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Opt.

Amps
DCMs
PMD Compensation
Mux Demux
Fiber
Lasers Connectors
Modulators Photodiodes

Transmitter Receiver

Fig. 1 Components in DWDM systems (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components, 5)

Fig. 2 Original DWDM signal spectrum (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components, 9)

Filter mask

Linear crosstalk power

Fig. 3 Filtered signal spectrum (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components, 9)

11) .Interference Fig. 4 Interference (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

a ½ a b c d Fig. 13) . 5 Fabry-Perot interferometer (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

6 Dielectric thin film filter (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 15) . Transmitted Beam Reflected Beam Low index High index Fig.

17) . 7 Bragg grating (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.d d d Fig.

4 3 Fig.4 1. 8 Fiber Bragg grating (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.2.3.1. 17) .2.

Heater  and 2 L+L  L  Coupler Coupler Fig. 9 Mach Zender filter (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 18) .

10 Effect of a prism (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 21) . Red i te Wh Blue Fig.

21) . 11 Effect of a grating (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Fig.

12 Demultiplexing using narrowband DTF filters (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Fig. 23) .

. 25) . Array of waveguides 1 1.n n Fig. 13 Functionality of an arrayed waveguide grating (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components..

4 -0.2 0. Transmission in dB -40 -30 -20 -10 0 -0.8 Fig. 25) .2 0 Wavelength in nm 0.6 -0.8 -0.4 0.6 0. 14 Example for the transmission of a channel of an AWG (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

15 Functionality of a mach Zender interferometer (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.1 to 4 1 M-Z filter 2 M-Z filter 3 M-Z filter 4 Fig. 27) .

16 Fiber grating as demultiplexer (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. Optical Fiber-Bragg Grating Circulator     Fig. 27) .

17 Passage from optical/electrical regenerators to optical amplifiers (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.ODMX OMX O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O Optical Amplifier Fig. 31) .

31) . Tx Tx Tx Booster In-line amplifier Preamplifier Rx Rx Rx Fig. 18 Applications for optical amplifiers (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

pumplight Pumplaser at 980/1480nm Isolator Coupler Isolator weak erbium amplified input doped fiber output signal signal Fig. 33) . 19 Layout of an EDFA (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

33) . 20 Functionality of an EDFA (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Doped Fiber E2 E1 980 nm Pump Laser Fig. Erbium .

35) .Fig. 21 Generation of noise (ASE) in an EDFA (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

2 Holmium Praseodym Neodym Thulium Erbium Thulium Attenuation [dB/km] 1.4 Ho3+ Pr3+ Nd3+ Tm3+ Er3+ Er3+ Tm3+ 1.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 Wavelength [nm] Fig. 35) . 1.6 0. 22 Materials used for fiber amplifiers (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.8 Window 2 5 3 4 0.

23 Functionality of a Raman amplifier (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. Excited Atoms Pasing photon Incident photon Atoms in ground state Fig. 36) .

Receiver Amplification Signal Pump Light Fig. 24 Layout of a contradirectionally pumped Raman amplifier (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 37) .

Power in dBm Route Length in km Fig. 25 Typical power graph along a contradirectionally Raman pumped line (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 37) .

62. Fig. 50 m.:8m. 41) Fibre cross section and refraction index.5 m Diameter with cladding:125 m Diameter with the coating:250 m . 125 250 Otical fibres used in transmission applications have the following dimensions: Diameter of the core approx. 26 Typical structure of an optical fiber with common dimensions (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

0 1.8 Wavelength in m DWAV -50 Fig.2 1.6 1.4 1. 43) . 27 Dispersion shifted fiber (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. +50 Dispersion in ps/(nm*km) DMAT DCROM 1.

43) . 28 Examples of doping profiles for dispersion shifted fiber (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Doping Doping 0 Radius 0 Radius Fig.

29 Example of non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 5 C-Band Dispersion in ps/nm*km 4 F 3 NZD 2 1 undesired 0 range 1530 1550 1570 -1 -2 Wavelength in nm -3 -4 Fig. 45) .

30 Example for NZDF (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 45) . 1 0 D (ps/nm/km) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600  (nm) Fig.

655 effects w/Small Aeff Intensity Light Large effective area fiber Radius Fig. 47) .The lower peak reduces non-linear G. 31 Power density in large effective area fibers (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

47) . 32 Large effective area fiber (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Fig.

Fig. 48) . 33 Different fiber crossections and examples for splices (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

51) . 34 Dispersion compensation using compensation fiber (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. dispersion compensation fibre with module with negative positive dispersion dispersion End End System System Fig.

red blue red blue Fig. 51) . 35 Effect of chirped fiber Bragg grating (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

Optical fiber Tx Rx All wavelengths transmitted Dispersion causes some Different wavelengths arrive at the same time wavelengths to delay at different times Initial impulse -100 -50 0 50 100 Final impulse Fig. 52) . 36 Example of transmission without chirp (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

37 Example of transmission with chirp induced degradation (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 53) . Optical fiber Tx Rx Different wavelengths are Dispersion induces more Different wavelengths arrive transmitted with some delay differences in delay at different times Initial impulse -100 -50 0 50 100 Final impulse Fig.

38 Example of transmission with chirp induced dispersion compensation (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 53) . Optical fiber Tx Rx Different wavelengths are Dispersion causes some In the end all the wavelengths transmitted with some delay wavelengths to delay arrive at the same time but opposite to dispersion delay Initial impulse -100 -50 0 50 100 Final impulse Fig.

39 Layout of a PMD compensator (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 57) . TAP coupler optical PMD EDFA equalizer Detector Electrical Controller Filters Fig.

40 Laser configuration with direct modulation (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. Optical output Input current LASER Fig. 61) .

Input voltage Optical output Constant input current External LASER modulator Fig. 41 Laser configuration with external modulation (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 61) .

63) . 42 Fabry-Perot laser (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Terminal Optical Output p-type n-type Fig.

63) .Terminal Optical Output p-type n-type Fig. 43 DFB laser (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

65) . 44 Properties of different LED and laser types (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Intensity -15 to -25 dBm 0 to -10 dBm +5 to -10 dBm FWHM FWHM FWHM ~100 nm ~ 3 nm «1 nm  (nm) LED FP laser diode DFB laser diode (MLM laser) (SLM laser) Fig.

67) . 45 Possible laser hazards (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Fig.

67) . 46 Table of laser classes (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Fig.

Channel Spacing Central Wavelengths Fig. 47 Effect of modulation on the channel bandwidth (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 69) 10Gbit/s modulation allowable totally used modulation wavelengths spectral bandwidth tolerance range 40Gbit/s modulation no totally used modulation wavelengths spectral bandwidth tolerance range .

Fig. 48 Spectral broadening by modulation (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components, 69)

Contact

p-type
MQW stack
n-type

n-type substrate

Fig. 49 Semiconductor MQW modulator (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components, 71)

Phase control

Fig. 50 Layout of a Mach Zender modulator (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components, 71)

51 Layout of a photodiode (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.- p-type intrinsic n-type + Fig. 74) .

52 Functionality of PIN and APD diode (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 75) . + PIN Diode APD Diode n-type n-type Fig. - . p-type p-type + - + + .

75) .Sensitivity 1.5 Ge (0°C) 850 1300 1550  (nm) Fig.0 InGaAs Si Ge (23°C) 0. 53 Spectral response of different detector materials (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

Fig. 79) . 54 Function of an optical isolator (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

79) . Port 2 Port 1 Port 3 Circulator Fig. 55 Optical circulator (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

.. / PC . / APC Fig. / APC HRL-10 .. / APC .... / PC .. Physical contact Angled physical connector LAN contact connector WAN WAN CATV .. / APC SIMPLEX FC ST SC D4 Biconic DIN-LSA E2000 Mini-BNC F-SMA . / PC .. / PC .... / APC . / PC . / PC . / PC ..... / PC ....... 56 Connector types (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components..... 81) .. / PC .... / PC .

. Angled air-gap WAN CATV connector SIMPLEX DUPLEX VFO EC/RACE HRL-11 Escon SC Duplex Duplex-MIC FDDI .. / PC . / PC .. 57 Connector types (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components..../APC Fig.. 81) .. / PC .

. 85) .. N electrical or optical switch fabric 1. N 1. 2.3 m transponder WDM transponder add channels 1. 2... 2.. 58 Functionality of an optical crossconnect (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components...... 2.. ATM Switch IP Router SDH/SONET Gigabit Ethernet 1. N drop channels Fig. N 1..

85) .Fig. 59 Rise of the OXC (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.

Fig. 60 Use of bubbles for switching (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 87) .

87) . 61 Thermo optical switches (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.Fig.

TECHNOLOGY BASED ON SILICON MEMS Fig. 62 Functionality of a MEMS module (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components. 89) .

Fig. 89) . 63 Electron microscopic photo of a MEMS (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Components.