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Unit Unit P4 P4

ParticIes in Motion

BoyIe's Law

Iexxnn Objectlvex Iexxnn Objectlvex

º îtote tbe te|ot|easb|o betweea tbe otessete

oa4 ve|eme eI o I|xe4 moss eI qos, ot teastoat

temoetotete

· P ~ 1 / V or P

1

V

1

= P

2

V

2

º Cotty eet to|te|ot|eas es|aq tb|s te|ot|easb|o

Pressure and Volume Pressure and Volume

igh P,

smaII V

P x V is constant

Low P,

Iarge V

oyle's Law oyle's Law

· or a fixed mass of gas at a constant

temperature, the voIume of the gas is

inverseIy proportionaI to the pressure

· If the pressure is doubIed, the voIume is

haIved; if the pressure is tripIed, the

voIume is reduced to one-third, etc.

· This can be mathematicaIIy written in

these three ways:

· P / V P x V = constant P

V

= P

2

V

2

·

This reIationship is caIIed BoyIe's Iaw

oyle's Law oyle's Law

Experiment Experiment

· This is the

demonstration

you wiII see to

investigate

BoyIe's Law

Pressure

Gauge

VoIume

scaIe

Gas

(air)

P P -- V Graph V Graph

· This is the

typicaI curve

for two

variabIes

which are

inverseIy

proportionaI

to each

other

P / V

moving versionl moving versionl

ote : the

temperature

is constant!

(cm

3

)

(Pa)

P / V

More Tricky graph.. More Tricky graph..

· If you pIot a

graph of P

against / V,

you wiII get a

straight Iine

through the

origin. This is

the proof that

P and V are

inverseIy

proportionaI

P (Pa)

/ V

( / cm

3

)

P / V

8ome Results 8ome Results

Pressure (kPa) VoIume (cm

3

) / V

50 000

00 500

50 330

200 250

250 200

Use these resuIts to get P - V and P - /V

graphs Iike the ones in the previous sIides

oyle's Law oyle's Law

The voIume of

a gas is

inverseIy

proportionaI to

its pressure if

temperature is

constant

Robert

Boyle

Try 8ome Ouestions Try 8ome Ouestions

. A bubbIe of air reIeased by a SCUBA diver

has a voIume of 6cm

3

when reIeased under

water where the pressure is 3 atmospheres

(300 kPa). What is the voIume of the bubbIe

when it reaches the surface where the

pressure is atmosphere (00 kPa)?

2. The fueI mixture in the cyIinder of a car

engine has a voIume of 400cm

3

at a

pressure of 00kPa. It is then compressed

untiI its voIume is reduced to 50cm

3

. What

is the new pressure?

¡GC8E 8cience {Physics· ¡GC8E 8cience {Physics·

Unit Unit P4 P4

ParticIes in Motion

The Pressure Law

Iexxnn Objectlvex Iexxnn Objectlvex

º îtote tbe te|ot|easb|o betweea tbe otessete oa4

temoetotete eI o I|xe4 moss eI qos, ot teastoat

ve|eme (sl

· P | T or P

1

/ T

1

= P

2

/ T

2

8

º Cotty eet to|te|ot|eas es|aq tb|s te|ot|easb|o (sl

º lxo|o|a bew tb|s te|ot|easb|o |eo4s te tbe ke|v|a

temoetotete sto|e (sl

º Ceavett betweea temoetotetes |a ke|v|a oa4 SC

(sl

Pressure Law Pressure Law

· The

pressure of

a gas

increases

when the

temperature

increases, if

the voIume

stays

constant

Low particIe

energy

igh particIe

energy

Constant

voIume

Pressure law Pressure law

· This is the

apparatus

used to

investigate

the

reIationship

between

temperature

and pressure

of a gas at

constant

voIume

Pressure Law apparatus

Pressure Pressure- -Temperature Graph Temperature Graph

· If temperature is in °C the graph is Iinear,

but not through the origin

P (kPa)

T (°C) - 273°C

At -273°C the

pressure

(theoreticaIIy)

wouId be zero. This

means that the

particIes have zero

kinetic energy.

elvin Temperature 8cale elvin Temperature 8cale

· The pressure-temperature graph suggests that

a true zero of temperature is at -273°C

· This is known as absoIute zero

· Lord KeIvin used this to invent a new scaIe of

temperature caIIed the keIvin scaIe

· AbsoIute zero is zero keIvin (0K) which is the

same as -273°C

· To change temperatures from °C to K you add

273

· To change temperatures from K to °C you

subtract 273

elvin and Celsius elvin and Celsius

Try These Try These

Change these to keIvin

. 0°C

2. 00°C

3. 27°C

4. -20°C

Answers :

. 273K

2. 373K

3. 300K

4. 253K

Change these to °C

. 0K

2. 00K

3. 273K

4. 000K

Answers :

. -273°C

2. -73°C

3. 0°C

4. 727°C

nother P nother P -- T Graph T Graph

· If the

temperature is

measured in

keIvin, the

graph passes

through the

origin

· In other words,

pressure is

directIy

proportionaI to

temperature (in

keIvin)

P (Pa)

T (K)

P T

The moving versionl The moving versionl

(K)

(Pa)

P T

The Pressure Law The Pressure Law

· or a fixed mass of gas at a constant

voIume, the pressure of the gas is directIy

proportionaI to the temperature (in keIvin)

· If the temperature is doubIed, the pressure

is doubIed; if the temperature is tripIed, the

pressure is tripIed, etc.

· This can be mathematicaIIy written in these

three ways:

· P T P T = constant P

V

= P

2

V

2

Volume and Temperature Volume and Temperature

· We aIso find

that voIume

and

temperature

are directIy

proportionaI,

but again

onIy if

temperature

is in keIvin

-273°C again! This is obviousIy a speciaI temperature

Volume and Temperature Volume and Temperature

· If the

temperature

increases, the

particIes move

faster, coIIide

harder and more

often with the

piston, pushing

it further up and

increasing the

voIume.

The moving versionl The moving versionl

(cm

3

)

(K)

V T

Volume and Temperature Volume and Temperature

· ere is a fuIIy infIated

baIIoon at room

temperature

· ere is the same baIIoon,

containing the same amount

of air, after very coId Iiquid

nitrogen has been poured

over it

Try These Try These

. Some gas in a fixed voIume container

is at a temperature of 27°C and a

pressure of 00kPa. If the gas is

heated to a temperature of 77°C,

what wiII its pressure be? (Don't

forget : kelvin!)

2. ot air in a strong can is at a

temperature of 77°C and a pressure of

20kPa. The can is then Ieft in a fridge

so that the pressure of the air reduces

to 96kPa. What is the temperature of

the fridge, in K and °C?

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