Computer Networking Principles ICS 216

Classification of computer networks

Classification of computer networks
‡ There is no generally accepted taxonomy into which all computer networks fit ‡ Two dimensions stand out: transmission technology and scale

Classification of computer networks
Transmission technology dimension

Classification of computer networks
‡ There are broadly two types of transmission technologies  Broadcast links  Point to point links

Broadcast networks .

Broadcast networks ‡ Broadcast systems have a single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network. ‡ Packets sent by any machine are received by all others. .

a machine checks the address field. . ‡ Upon receiving a packet. If the packet is intended for some other machine it is ignored.Broadcast networks ‡ An address field within the packet specifies for whom it is intended.

Broadcast networks ‡ Broadcast systems generally also allow the possibility of addressing a packet to all destinations by using a special code in the address field. ‡ This mode of operation is called broadcasting . it is received and processed by every machine on the network. ‡ When a packet with this code is transmitted.

it is delivered to all machines subscribing to the group . ‡ May be achieved by reserving one bit for multicasting with the remaining n-1 bits address bits holding the group number ‡ Each machine can subscribe to any or all of the groups ‡ When a packet is sent to a certain group.Broadcast networks ‡ Some broadcast systems also support transmission to a subset of the machines. something known as multicasting.

Point-to-point networks .

.Point to point Networks ‡ Point to point networks consist of many connections between individual machines ‡ The network contains numerous cables or leased telephone lines which link individual computers indirectly via intermediate computers.

they must do this indirectly via intermediate machines ‡ Often multiple routes of different lengths are possible .Point to point networks ‡ If two individual computers that do not share a cable nevertheless wish to communicate.

Point-to-point networks ‡ Point-to-point transmission with one sender and one receiver is often called unicasting .

Point-to-point networks ‡ A general rule:  Smaller geographically localized networks tend to use broadcasting  Larger networks tend to use point-to-point .

classification of computer networks Scale dimension .

classification of computer networks ‡ An alternative criterion for classifying networks is their scale ‡ These can be divided into  Local Area networks (LAN)  Wide area networks (WAN)  Metropolitan area networks (MAN)  Internetworks .

classification of computer networks Classification of computer networks by scale .

Local area networks .

Local area networks ‡ LANS are usually privately owned. ‡ They are widely used to connect Personal computers and workstations in offices to share resources and exchange information ‡ The management responsibilities of a LAN are carried out solely by the owning organization . The owning organization usually owns all the attached devices.

Local area networks ‡ LANs can be distinguished from other kinds of networks by their  Size  Transmission technology  Topology .

a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet. .  Cost low (thousands of dollars).Local area networks ‡ Size  A LAN covers a small geographical area  A LAN is usually the interconnection of a collection of computer systems in a single building or a cluster of buildings  Network is usually up to a few kilometers in size  In TCP/IP networking.

.Local area networks ‡ Transmission technology  A cable to which all machines are attached and can transmit  The internal data rates of LANs are typically high (10Mbps-10 Gbps).

Local area networks ‡ Topology: Various topologies are possible for broadcast LANS  Bus  Ring .

Local area networks Two broadcast networks (a) Bus (b) Ring .

Local area networks ‡ Characteristics ‡ Geographical scope? ‡ Ownership? ‡ Transmission Technology? .

Metropolitan area networks .

 A MAN is larger than a LAN and smaller than a WAN and is constrained to a defined geographical area. . entire town or city).Metropolitan area networks ‡ A MAN covers a medium-size geographic region (e. ‡ A MAN may be controlled by an organization. or by a Telecommunications provider or may be a regional resource.g.

Metropolitan area networks ‡ Best known example of a MAN is the cable television network ‡ This type of network is based on high bandwidth copper wire and/or fiber optic cabling installed in towns and cities for the transmission of television programming and other services directly to peoples homes over distances of up to 50 kilometers . .

Metropolitan area networks ‡ A number of television channels collected at a central location (called a headend) is distributed to subscribers within a community by means of a network of optical fibers and/or coaxial cables. .

Metropolitan area networks ‡ With the increased use of internet. ‡ Both the TV signals and internet are being fed into the headend for subsequent distribution into peoples homes. cable TV systems are now offering two way internet services in the unused part of the spectrum. .

Metropolitan area networks Metropolitan area network based on cable TV .

Metropolitan area networks ‡ Characteristics ‡ Geographical scope? ‡ Ownership? ‡ Transmission Technology? .

Wide area networks .

Wide area networks ‡ A WAN covers a large geographical area (e. ‡ The type of WAN can be Enterprise wide Private network (leased circuits) or simply use Public carrier networks. ‡ Typically a WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. ‡ Connects multiple LANs to one another over great geographic distances.g a country or continent). the size of a country or continent. .

Wide area networks ‡ Most organizations do not build their own WANs by laying cables. building Microwave towers or sending up satellites. ‡ Instead most organizations lease circuits from Public communication providers and use those to transmit their data. Hence WANs depend on telecommunication providers for actual data transmission when communicating computers are located in different sites. . ‡ They require crossing of public right-of-ways.

‡ The speed available on a WAN varies depending on the cost of the connections (which increases with distance) and may be low .Wide area networks ‡ WAN circuits come in all Types and sizes but typically span hundreds or thousands of miles and provide data transmission rates from 56Kbps to 10Gbps.

Wide area networks ‡ WANs operate using an interconnection of routers which can "choose" the most appropriate path for data to take to reach a network node .

Wide area networks Relationship between hosts and subnet .

‡ The subnet. consists of a number of inter connected switching nodes (or routers).Wide area networks ‡ The network consists of a collection of user machines (hosts) connected to a communication subnet. ‡ The transmission lines interconnecting routers can be made of copper wire or optical fiber or even radio links . typically owned and operated by a telephone company or internet service provider.

‡ A transmission is routed through these internal nodes to the specified destination device. More recently we have Frame relay and ATM networks ‡ The Speed of data transmission over a WAN is usually slower than the speed of data transmission over a LAN .Wide area networks ‡ The job of the subnet is to carry messages from source host to destination host. ‡ Traditionally WANs have been implemented using one of two technologies: Circuit switching and packet switching. These nodes are not concerned with the content of the data but the moving data from node to node until they reach destination.

Wide area networks Sending from source host to destination host .

Internetworks .

.g.Internetworks ‡ An internetwork is a collection of networks that are interconnected together ‡ People connected to one type of network often want to communicate with people attached to a different one. This requires incompatible networks to be connected. ATM. E.  LAN and WAN or  LAN and LAN ‡ Internetworking means connecting different types of networks that use different technologies such as Ethernet. FDDI.

‡ These different networks are connected. sometimes by means of machines called gateways to make connections and provide the necessary translation in terms of both hardware and software .Internetworks ‡ An internetwork is therefore a logical network built around multiple separate physical networks.

. ‡ The Internet is an internetwork of widely used networks.Internetworks ‡ A common form of internet is a collection of LANs connected by a WAN  LAN-WAN-LAN ‡ The world wide Internet is the most widely used interconnection of networks to which a large number of networks are connected.

Internetworks ‡ While Internet is a specific world-wide connection of networks. . internet is a generic term.

Internetworks ‡ Additional Reading/Assignment: ‡ Personal Area Network ‡ Storage Area Network ‡ System Area Network ‡ Intranet/Extranet .

References ‡ Local Area networks by Behrouz A. Forouzan Chapter 1 .

Questions? .

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