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Truss Full Report

# Truss Full Report

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Cantilever truss lab report
Cantilever truss lab report

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12/12/2014

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TABLE OF CONTENT
1.0 OBJECTIVE
1.1The effect of redundant member in a structure is observedand the method of analyzing type of this structure isunderstood.
(Group 7)(DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIALENGINEERING)
NumberDescription Page
1.0Objective of the experiment22.0Learning Outcome23.0Theory24.0Application of Truss65.0Procedures106.0Result and Analysis117.0Discussion198.0Conclusion 209.0Appendix21

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2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME
2.1 Application of engineering knowledge in practicalapplication.2.2 To enhance technical competency in structure engineeringthrough laboratory application.
3.0THEOR
A truss that is assumed to comprise members that areconnected by means of pin joints, and which is supported at bothends by means of hinged joints or rollers, is described as beingstatically determinate. Newton's Laws apply to the structure as awhole, as well as to each node or joint. In order for any node thatmay be subject to an external load or force to remain static inspace, the following conditions must hold: the sums of allhorizontal forces, all vertical forces, as well as all momentsacting about the node equal zero. Analysis of these conditions ateach node yields the magnitude of the forces in each member of the truss. These may be compression or tension forces. Trusses that are supported at more than two positions aresaid to be statically indeterminate, and the application of Newton's Laws alone is not sufficient to determine the memberforces. In order for a truss with pin-connected members to bestable, it must be entirely composed of triangles. Inmathematical terms, we have the following necessary conditionforstability:
M +R ≥ 2j
(Group 7)(DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIALENGINEERING)

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where
m
=total number of truss members
j=
total number of joints
r=
number of reactions (equal to 3 generally)When m = 2j 3, the truss is said to be
statically determinate
, because the (
m
+3) internal member forces andsupport reactions can then be completely determined by 2
j
equilibriumequations, once we know the externalloadsand the geometry of the truss. Given a certain number of joints, this isthe minimum number of members, in the sense that if anymember is taken out (or fails), then the truss as a whole fails.While the relation (a) is necessary, it is not sufficient for stability,which also depends on the truss geometry, support conditionsand the load carrying capacity of the members.Some structures are built with more than this minimumnumber of truss members. Those structures may survive evenwhen some of the members fail. They are called
structures, because their member forces dependon the relativestiffnessof the members, in addition to theequilibrium condition described.In a statically indeterminate truss, static equilibrium alonecannot be used to calculated member force. If we were to try, wewould find that there would be too many “unknowns” and wewould not be able to complete the calculations. Instead we willuse a method known as the flexibility method, which uses anidea know as strain energy. The mathematical approach to the
(Group 7)(DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIALENGINEERING)