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Homework #2, Sec 10.2

# Homework #2, Sec 10.2

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Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote
Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

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03/07/2015

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Section 10.2. Homework #2 Masaya Sato2.
Show that the relation ”is
R
-module isomorphic to” is an equivalence relation on any setof
R
-modules.
Proof.
(Reﬂexive) For every
R
-module
consider the identity
R
-module map
id
:
. Then
id
is an isomorphism and
is isomorphic to itself.(Symmetric) Suppose
R
-modules
and
are isomorphic via an
R
-module isomorphism
ϕ
:
. Then
ϕ
1
:
is also an isomorphism and thus
is isomorphic to
.(Transitive) Suppose
is isomorphic to
, and
is isomorphic to
L
via
R
-module isomor-phisms
ϕ
:
and
ψ
:
L
, respectively. Then their composite map
ψ
ϕ
is anisomorphism between
and
L
. Thus
is isomorphic to
L
.
4.
Let
A
be any
Z
-module, let
a
be any element of
A
and let
n
be a positive integer. Provethat the map
ϕ
a
:
Z
/n
Z
A
given by
ϕ
a
(
k
) =
ka
is a well deﬁned
Z
-module homomorphismif and only if
na
= 0. Prove that Hom
Z
(
Z
/n
Z
,A
)
=
A
n
, where
A
n
=
{
a
A
|
na
= 0
}
(so
A
n
is the annihilator in
A
of the ideal (
n
) of
Z
).
Proof.
(
) Suppose ﬁrst that
ϕ
a
is a well-deﬁned
Z
-module homomorphism. Then
na
=
ϕ
a
(
n
) =
ϕ
a
(0) = 0
a
= 0as desired.(
) Conversely suppose that
na
= 0. Then let
l
k
be an element in the equivalence class
k
. Then for some
m
Z
k
=
l
+
nm
and
ϕ
a
(
k
) =
ϕ
a
(
l
+
nm
) = (
l
+
nm
)
a
=
la
+ (
nm
)
a
=
la
+ (
mn
)
a
=
la
+
m
(
na
)=
la
=
ϕ
a
(
l
),so
ϕ
a
is a well-deﬁned map. Moreover for all
k,l
Z
/n
Z
ϕ
a
(
k
+
l
) =
ϕ
a
(
k
+
l
) = (
k
+
l
)
a
=
ka
+
la
=
ϕ
a
(
k
) +
ϕ
a
(
l
)and for all
r
Z
ϕ
a
(
rk
) =
ϕ
a
(
rk
) = (
rk
)
a
=
r
(
ka
) =
a
(
k
)and thus
ϕ
a
is a
Z
-module homomorphism.Now we claim that Hom
Z
(
Z
/n
Z
,A
)
=
A
n
, where
A
n
=
{
a
A
|
na
= 0
}
. Since everyhomomorphism
ϕ
Hom
Z
(
Z
/n
Z
,A
) is of the form
ϕ
a
(
k
) =
ka
, where
a
A
, consider amap Ψ : Hom
Z
(
Z
/n
Z
,A
)
A
n
deﬁned byΨ(
ϕ
a
) =
ϕ
a
(
n
) =
na
.
Abstract Algebr
by Dummit and Foote 1

Section 10.2. Homework #2 Masaya Sato
Then for all
ϕ
a
and
ϕ
a
in Hom
Z
(
Z
/n
Z
,A
)Ψ(
ϕ
a
+
ϕ
a
) = (
ϕ
a
+
ϕ
a
)(
n
) =
ϕ
a
(
n
) +
ϕ
a
(
n
) = Ψ(
ϕ
a
) + Ψ(
ϕ
a
)and for all
r
Z
Ψ(
a
) = (
rn
)
a
=
r
(
na
) =
r
Ψ(
ϕ
a
)and thus Ψ is a
Z
-module homomorphism. Moreover the argument above implies that
na
= 0 if and only if each
ϕ
a
is a well-deﬁned homomorphism. Therefore Ψ is bijective andHom
Z
(
Z
/n
Z
,A
) and
A
n
are isomorphic.
5.
Exhibit all
Z
-module homomorphisms from
Z
/
30
Z
to
Z
/
21
Z
.
Solution:
For
ϕ
:
Z
/
30
Z
Z
/
21
Z
observe that a
Z
-module homomorphism
ϕ
is a homo-morphism from a ﬁnite cyclic group
Z
/
30
Z
to another cyclic group
Z
/
21
Z
. The order
k
of
ϕ
(1) divides 21, the order of
Z
/
21
Z
. Moreover0 =
(1) =
ϕ
(
k
1) =
ϕ
(
k
),so
k
ker
ϕ
and
k
divides 30, which is the order of
Z
/
30
Z
. Therefore
ϕ
(1) is 0, 7, or 14 andthen they all determine distinct homomorphisms.
6.
Prove that Hom
Z
(
Z
/n
Z
,
Z
/m
Z
)
=
Z
/
(
n,m
)
Z
.
Proof.
Let
ϕ
:
Z
/n
Z
Z
/m
Z
be a
Z
-module homomorphism, and let
k
=
ϕ
(1). Then theorder of
k
is
m/
(
m,k
), where (
m,k
) is the
g.c.d
of
m
and
k
, and the order divides both
n
and
m
. So if
d
is the
g.c.d
of
n
and
m
, then
n
=
n
d
and
m
=
m
d
,where
n
and
m
are relatively prime. Then
m/
(
m,k
)
|
n
,
i.e.
there exists some
p
Z
such that
p
(
m/
(
m,k
)) =
n
. So
pm
= (
m,k
)
n
pm
d
= (
m,k
)
n
d
pm
= (
m,k
)
n
.Since
n
and
m
are relatively prime,
m
divides (
m,k
) and hence
m
divides
k
. In otherwords,
m/d
=
m/
(
m,n
) divides
k
. Now consider a homomorphism
ϕ
:
Z
/n
Z
Z
/m
Z
explicitly deﬁned by
ϕ
(
x
) = (
km/d
)
x
,where
k
= 0
,
···
,d
1. Therefore there are
d
homomorphisms and they form a cyclic groupof order
d
= (
n,m
). HenceHom
Z
(
Z
/n
Z
,
Z
/m
Z
)
=
Z
d
=
Z
(
n,m
)
=
Z
/
(
n,m
)
Z
.
Abstract Algebr
by Dummit and Foote 2

Section 10.2. Homework #2 Masaya Sato7.
Let
z
be a ﬁxed element of the center of
R
. Prove that the map
m
zm
is an
R
-modulehomomorphism from
to itself. Show that for a commutative ring
R
the map from
R
toEnd
R
(
) given by
r
rI
is a ring homomorphism (where
is the identity endomorphism).
Proof.
We ﬁrst claim that
ϕ
:
deﬁned by
ϕ
(
m
) =
zm
, where
z
is some ﬁxed elementof the center
(
R
) of
R
, is an
R
-module homomorphism. Then for all
m,n
and all
r
Rϕ
(
m
+
rn
) =
z
(
m
+
rn
) =
zm
+
z
(
rn
)=
zm
+ (
zr
)
n
=
zm
+ (
rz
)
m
=
zm
+
r
(
zm
)=
ϕ
(
m
) +
(
m
)since
z
(
R
),
i.e.
z
commutes with every element in
R
under multiplication. So
ϕ
is an
R
-module homomorphism.Next suppose that
R
is a commutative ring and let Φ :
R
End
R
(
) be a map deﬁned byΦ(
r
) =
rI
,where
:
is the identity endomorphism. Then for all
r,s
R
Φ(
r
+
s
) = (
r
+
s
)
=
rI
+
sI
= Φ(
r
) + Ψ(
s
)andΦ(
rs
) = (
rs
)
= (
sr
)
= (
rI
)(
sI
) = Ψ(
r
)Ψ(
s
)since
R
is commutative,
2
=
, and(
rI
)(
sI
)(
m
) = (
rI
)(
s
(
(
m
))) = (
rI
)(
(
sm
)) = (
rI
)(
sm
) = (
rsI
)(
m
)for every
m
.
9.
Let
R
be a commutative ring. Prove that Hom
R
(
R,
) and
are isomorphic as left
R
-modules. [Show that each element of Hom
R
(
R,
) is determined by its value on the identityof
R
.
Proof.
Observe ﬁrst that Hom
R
(
R,
) is an
R
-module, and deﬁne an
R
-module map Ψ :
Hom
R
(
R,
)
byΨ(
) =
(1),where 1
R
is the multiplicative identity. Also denote
o
Hom
R
(
R,
) is the zero function,
i.e.
o
(
r
) = 0 for all
r
R
. If
Hom
R
(
R,
) is not the zero function, then Ψ(
) =
(1)
= 0since
(1) = 0 implies that
(
r
) =
(
r.
1) =
r.f
(1) = 0
r
R
.
Abstract Algebr
by Dummit and Foote 3