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Adv Intro Mwd

Adv Intro Mwd

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Published by Shamia Essam
Advance Intro Mwd
Advance Intro Mwd

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Published by: Shamia Essam on Mar 23, 2013
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INTEQ MWD SYSTEMS

Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this presentation, as of the indicated date. TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT 11 Sept. 2000

MWD Overview

11 Sept. 2000

Measurement While Drilling •
Is the process of acquiring measurements from sensors housed in drill collars in the drilling assembly and subsequently transmitting those measurements in realtime to the rigfloor via wireless tele metry methods.

Measurements are acquired and transmitted such that there is no interruption in the drilling process.

11 Sept. 2000

Measurement While Drilling
HOW DOES IT WORK?
The method of transmitting data from the vicinity of the drill bit to the surface is called MUD PULSE TELEMETRY

• •

Mud Pulse Telemetry (MPT) is the constricting or opening of the fluid path, thus causing momentary changes to the flow of fluid The constricting or opening of the fluid flow path causes pressure changes which can be detected by a pressure transducer in the standpipe pressure manifold at surface

11 Sept. 2000

Types of MWD Telemetry
Pressure Pressure

Time

Time

NEGATIVE PULSE
FM Receiver

CONTINUOUS WAVE

Pressure

V

Insulation

Time

ELECTROMAGNETIC

*POSITIVE PULSE
11 Sept. 2000

Positive Pulse

Uses a hydraulic poppet valve to momentarily restrict a portion of the mud flow through an orifice in the tool This will generate a small increase in pressure in the form of a positive pulse which can be decoded at the standpipe INTEQ MWD tools create a positive pulse

Press ure

Time

11 Sept. 2000

Signal Decoding
•Combinatorial - Pulser not moving continuously to transmit data
Valve position

1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

• Splitphase - Pulser moving continuously to transmit data

11 Sept. 2000

HSTDecode

11 Sept. 2000

Directional Service

The purpose of surveying the wellbore is to ensure that the well’s Directional objectives are met.
Kick-Off Point

Build-Up Section

End Of Build Target

11 Sept. 2000

Why Wellbores are Surveyed
- - - WELL PROFILE DATA - - ---- Point - - - - MD Inc Dir TVD
Tie on KOP End of Build Target End of Hold 0 0.00 261.47 0 1165 0.00 261.47 1607 2090 37.02 261.47 1900 2451 37.02 261.47 2305 3140 37.02 261.47 2490 North East Deg/100 0 0 0.00 0 0 0.00 -43 -268 4.00 -75 -500 0.00 -122 -800 0.00

l

West
800 800 Scale 1 : 100,00 600 400 200

Scale 1 : 100.00

0 200
- - - North : South - - - Scale 1 : 100.00

SURFACE LOCATION X = 2,658,408 Y = 112,566
AA

1000

0

1200

50’ RADIUS TARGET PBHL 2365”TVD 2490”MD 790’ AT 261.47 AZM S -122’ W -800’ X = 2.657,492 Y = 112.430 KOP 1600’ MD

200

True Vertical Depth

1400

TARGET 2305’ TVD 2451’ MD 706’ AT 261.47 AZM S -55’ W -379’ X = 2.657,902 Y = 112.491

l

1600

BUILD 4/100’ MD

1800

2000

North

37.02 DEG

2200
Mag to Grid corr -9.0 Deg AA
TGT 2305’ TVD - 2451’ MD: 706’ SECT

l
PBHL 2365” TVD 2490” MD: 832” SECT

2400

2600 200 0 200 400 600 800
Vertical Section on 261.47 azimuth with reference 0.00 N, 0.00 E from 11

Accurate Survey data and survey calculations enables the engineer to plot the position of the borehole. This then allows him to determine the borehole’s relative position to the desired position. Any discrepancy can then be adjusted for by reorienting the drilling assembly.
11 Sept. 2000

Steerable Motors
Adjustable Kick-off Motor (AKO)

Double Tilted Housing Motor (DTU)

• •

Angle hold configuration Course correction
ä ä

Oriented drilling Rotary drilling

Hole slightly over size

Θ

Θ

11 Sept. 2000

Oriented Mode

l

Wellpath
– Controlled curvature
– –

Controlled direction No drill string rotation

11 Sept. 2000

Rotary Mode

l

Wellpath
– Behavior same as a

rotary drilling assembly

Hole slightly over size

11 Sept. 2000

Applications Of Directional Drilling
l

Multiple wells from offshore structures

11 Sept. 2000

Applications Of Directional Drilling

Re-entry/Multi-lateral wells

11 Sept. 2000

MWD FE Services

Neutron

Resistivity

Inclination Measurement

Density

Gamma Ray

11 Sept. 2000

Gamma Ray Service
0 a00pi 150

Shale Sand

Shale

Sand

Shale
11 Sept. 2000

Natural Gamma Ray Theory
• •
Various clay minerals emit low levels of radiation. Shales generally contain more radioactive minerals than cleaner reservoir rocks.
ä ä

High Gamma readings usually indicate Shale formations. Low Gamma readings usually indicate clean formations

MWD Applications
ä ä ä

Correlation (open & cased hole) Marker Bed ID Casing / Coring Point Selection

11 Sept. 2000

Resistivity Service

11 Sept. 2000

6 3/4” Modular MPR

Figure 2: 6 3/4” Modular MPR Tool

11 Sept. 2000

NaviGator - RNT

Azimuthal Gamma (13.8ft) (4.2m) Inclinometer (12.7ft) (3.9m)

Receiver Antennas (15ft) (4.6m) Upper Transmitter

Lower Transmitter

Bit

Adjustable Kick Off Sub Bearing Assembly with Stabilizer

Sleeve Stabilizer

Positive Displacement Motor

28318

11 Sept. 2000

Ultra Slim MPR - 3 1/8”
• • • • • • • • • •
Battery Powered only 3 3/4” Borehole minimum 30 meter radius sliding 2 MHz and 400 KHz Phase and Attenuation 4 borehole compensated resistivity measurements Better than 0.5 mmho accuracy (2MHz Phase) 0.1 to 3000 ohm-meter range (2 MHz Phase) Weight 77 kg Length 2.28m 150C & 20,000 psi
11 Sept. 2000

MPR - Multiple Propagation Resistivity
ä

Transmits electromagnetic waves into formation and measures the change in physical character of the wave on its return. The change in physical character of wave gives an indication of the Resistivity of the drilled formation.
High Resistivity Low Resistivity

ä

ä

Hydrocarbons !!!! – maybe perhaps
Water …..

11 Sept. 2000

Resistivity
0.2
1

Ohmm’s
10 100

2000
1000

Shale Sand

Shale Shallow Hydrocarbon Sand Deep water Shale
11 Sept. 2000

Caliper Corrected Neutron Sub (CCN)


Source

AmBe source in tool emits neutrons into formation. Maximum absorption of neutron energy occurs with Hydrogen. A measurement of returning energy at Lithium6 scintillation detectors is taken and this is equated to a Porosity value of the formation Porosity is amount of space between grains.


Detectors

M30 Hatch

11 Sept. 2000

Neutron - CCN
45 Porosity -15

Shale Sand

Shale

Sand

Shale
11 Sept. 2000

Optimized Rotating Density (ORD)

Caesium source emits high energy gamma radiation into formation. The amount of returning energy is measured at the detectors - NaI scintillator.

Spacer Ring Source


Detectors

ASO #2

ASO #3

The amount of energy absorption can be related to bulk density of formation. Low absorption - low bulk density and vice versa. Low bulk density - sand

ASO #1
11 Sept. 2000

Density
1.95

- ORD
G/cc 2.95

Shale Sand

Shale

Sand

Shale
11 Sept. 2000

Density and Neutron
1.95 45 Density Neutron 2.95 -15

Shale Sand

Shale

Gas Sand Liquid Shale
11 Sept. 2000

Slimhole Density Neutron Sub (SDN)
• •
Collar Size
ä

4 3/4"

Hole Size / Blade Stabilizer Size
ä

5 7/8” - 6 3/4"

• •

blade stabilizers should be minimum 1/4" undergauge hatch covers are 1/8” recessed from the blades

• • • • •

Nominal Sub Length
ä

16 feet (4.9m)

Max. Temperature
ä

320 deg F / 150 deg C

Acoustic Standoff Sensor
ä

measures Standoff with1 transmitter (No Caliper)

Porosity Detectors - LFIN Design Density - “Stand-off Binning Technique”
11 Sept. 2000

Acoustic Service
APX

APX FEATURES
- Porosity

- Hydrocarbon Identification - Correlation: tie-in lithological - Pore pressure/fracture pressure determination

32ft seismic
Monopole 1

Dipole Y Dipole X Monopole 2

XMAC
11 Sept. 2000

Applications
DT Density

Rock Mechanics

Seismic Tie
Ov erb ur de n

φ = ∆t - ∆t
Pore Pressure Acoustic Porosity

ma

Actual
Hydr osta tic

∆tf - ∆tma

Predicted

11 Sept. 2000

Modular Advanced Pressure Sub - MAP

Modular
MAP™ Service features and benefits
ä Annular and Internal pressure sensors ä Improved drilling performance through real-time ECD monitoring. ä Optimised hole cleaning ä Fewer circulation losses ä Reduced stuck pipe / wellbore stability risks ä Faster/more accurate LOT / FIT procedures ä Flow -on and flow off measurements ä Flow -off pressure data are recorded in on-board memory for detailed, post-well analysis. ä Minimum and maximum pressures determined during flow-off are transmitted to the surface once circulation resumes.
2.1 ft (0.63m) 3.9 ft (1.2m)

Modular

TesTrak – Formation Pressure Sampler

Pad Sealing Element

6,09m /19,98 ft Sensor Offset

7,14m / 23,43 ft

Memory Dump Port

8 1/8” Stabilizer

11 Sept. 2000

LWD Formation Pressure Testing
6000 150 130 110 90 70 50 30 3500 10 3000 70 90 110 130 Time, sec 150 170 -10 Drawdown Volume, cm 3 5500 4631.97

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Pressure, psi

5000 4632.13 4500 4631.97

Fast and Reliable Pressure Measurements Test Uncontaminated Formation Fluid Test within Minutes not Days or Week (DST) Reduce Rig Time on Expensive Deep Water Rigs No Additional Logging Time After Drilling Horizontal Application Options for Geo-Steering Pore Pressure Calibration Annular Pressure While Drilling Control Overbalance / ECD (Deep Water) Real-time automated Flow Rate Analysis Test Oil Compartments for Reservoir Connectivity

4000

11 Sept. 2000

Rotary Closed Loop System
• Lead the industry in developing a modular, cost-effective automated directional drilling system • Automated directional drilling system to provide steering-while-rotating and reduced-tortuositydirectional drilling capabilities

11 Sept. 2000

AutoTrak Generation Plan
1.5
RNT VMM, MEM SPACER, MEM, BAT, MASTER, DIR

ATK1.5

2.5
ATK2 BCPM
XO

ATK2, BCPM & RNT = ATK2.5
Short flex
RNT VMM, MEM SPACER, MEM, BAT, MASTER, DIR

3.0
ATK 2

ATK2, OnTrak & BCPM = ATK3.0
OnTrak BCPM

11 Sept. 2000

AutoTrak Benefits

Continuous steering while rotating
ä ä ä

Improved hole cleaning (sliding v rotary drilling) Improved gross ROP (fewer BHA trips) Reduced chance of differential sticking Improved horizontal TVD control Reduced tortuosity - less torque and drag Realtime control of hole direction MPR, GR PDC bits chosen for performance instead of steerability Optional Navidrill operation
11 Sept. 2000

• • •

Automated drilling control
ä ä

Reservoir navigation
ä ä

Optimized performance
ä ä

Modular Tool Configuration
Triple Combo service - Newest AutoTrak G3 Configuration
Bi-directional Communication Power
BCPM

OnTrak Sensor Module
Resistivity Directional Pressure

AutoTrak Steering Unit
Inclination ATK G3

OnTrak™
Vibration & Stick-Slip Gamma

Caliper Corrected Neutron

Optimized Rotational Density

APLS S M

11 Sept. 2000

MWD Benefits

• • • • • • • •

Directional control Relief well drilling Bottom hole location Casing seat selection Gas influx identification Lithological identification Offset well correlation Coring point selection

• • • • • •

Invasion profiling Pore pressure analysis Geosteering in high angle wells Hydrocarbon identification Shallow gas control Cost effective wireline replacement

11 Sept. 2000

Advantage Concept
Surface Sensors Cementing
(Third Party)

Engineering Fluids Drilling Systems

Geological

Directional Wireline MWD Surveys

Completions Reports

11 Sept. 2000

Advantage HARDWARE
Utilizing SARA Acquisition
ZONE 1
DEPTH ENCODER CAL BOX HAZ JUNCTION BOX

CABIN

ETHERNET
SAFE AREA

HOOKLOAD PRESSURE TRANSDUCER RD DIAL RPM - optional HAZ JUNCTION BOX HAZ JUNCTION BOX

SPP

RDD
ADVANTAGE RACKMOUNT
NT PC

SARA
ARCNET

TORQUE - optional

PRINTER
Bartec VSS Display

ETHERNET

F.Optic Media Converter

H U B

PLOTTER

NT PC

SWWP, SWWPDASTOOL

POWERCOM POD

POWERCOM MODULE

OFFLINE DELL

11 Sept. 2000

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