Automatic lamp with morning alarm

INTRODUCTION

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

1. INTRODUCTION
This circuit automatically turns on a night lamp when bedroom light is switched off. The lamp remains ‘on’ until the light sensor senses daylight in the morning. A yellow LED is used as the night lamp. It gives bright and cool light in the room. When the sensor detects the daylight in the morning, a melodious morning alarm sounds. The circuit utilizes light-dependant resistors (LDRs) for sensing darkness and light in the room. The circuit is designed around the popular timer IC NE555, which is configured as a monostable. NE555 is activated by a low pulse applied to its trigger pin 2. Once triggered, output pin 3 of NE555 goes high and remains in that position until until timer is triggered again at its pin 2. The musical tone of the alarm is generated by UM66 IC. The circuit can be easily assembled on a general purpose PCB. Enclose it in a good-quality plastic case with provisions for LDR and LED. Use a reflective holder for LED to get a spotlight effect for reading. Place LDRs away from the LED, preferably on the backside of the case, to avoid unnecessary illumination. The speaker should be small so as to make the gadget compact.

1.1Circuit Diagram:

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

2.Components used:

2.1. IC NE555N

2.2 . LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR

2.3.MUSIC GENERATOR UM66

2.4. 8Ω, 4.5W SPEAKER

2.5. RESISTORS 220Ω, 560Ω, 580Ω, 1k, 120k, 150k

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

2.6. LIGHT EMITTING DIODE

2.7. ZENER DIODE

2.8. TRANSISTOR BC548

2.9. CAPACITOR 0.01µF

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

3. NE555 TIMER

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

3.1. Introduction:
The 555 timer IC was first introduced around 1971 by the Signetics Corporation as the SE555/NE555 and was called "The IC Time Machine" and was also the very first and only commercial timer ic available. It provided circuit designers and hobby tinkerers with a relatively cheap, stable and user-friendly integrated circuit for both monostable and astable applications. The 555, come in two packages, either the round metal-can called the 'T' package or the more familiar 8-pin DIP 'V' package. About 20-years ago the metal-can type was pretty much the standard (SE/NE types). The 556 timer is a dual 555 version and comes in a 14-pin DIP package, the 558 is a quad version with four 555's also in a 14 pin DIP case.I nside the 555 timer, are the equivalent of over 20 transistors, 15 resistors, and 2 diodes, depending of the manufacturer. The equivalent circuit, in block diagram, providing the functions of control, triggering, level sensing or comparison, discharge, and power output. Some of the more attractive features of the 555 timer are: Supply voltage between 4.5 and 18 volt, supply current 3 to 6 mA, and a Rise/Fall time of 100 nSec. It can also withstand quite a bit of abuse. The Threshold current determine the maximum value of Ra + Rb. For 15 volt operation the maximum total resistance forR (Ra +Rb) is 20 Mega-ohm. The supply current, when the output is 'high', is typically 1 milli-amp (mA) or less.

3.2. General Description:
The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if desired. In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor. For astable operation as an oscillator, the free running frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms, and the output circuit can source or sink up to 200mA or drive TTL circuits.

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

3.3. Features:
• • • • • • • • •

Direct replacement for SE555/NE555 Timing from microseconds through hours Operates in both astable and monostable modes Adjustable duty cycle Output can source or sink 200 mA Output and supply TTL compatible Temperature stability better than 0.005% per °C Normally on and normally off output Available in 8-pin MSOP package

3.4. Pin Diagram:

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

Pin 1 (Ground):The ground (or common) pin is the most-negative supply potential of the device, which is normally connected to circuit common (ground) when operated from positive supply voltages. Pin 2 (Trigger):This pin is the input to the lower comparator and is used to set the latch, which in turn causes the output to go high. This is the beginning of the timing sequence in monostable operation. Triggering is accomplished by taking the pin from above to below a voltage level of 1/3V+(or,in general,one-half the voltage appearing at pin 5). Pin 3 (Output):The output of the 555 comes from a high-current totem-pole stage made up of transistors Q20 - Q24. Transistors Q21 and Q22 provide drive for source-type loads, and their Darlington connection provides a high-state output voltage about 1.7 volts less than the V+ supply level used. The state of the output pin will always reflect the inverse of the logic state of the latch, and this fact may be seen by examining Since the latch itself is not directly accessible, this relationship may be best explained in terms of latch-input trigger conditions. To trigger the output Pin 4 (Reset): This pin is also used to reset the latch and return the output to a low state. The reset voltage threshold level is 0.7 volt, and a sink current of 0.1mA from this pin is required to reset the device. These levels are relatively independent of operating V+ level; thus the reset input is TTL compatible for any supply voltage. The reset input is an overriding function; that is, it will force the output to a low state regardless of the state of either of the other inputs. It may thus be used to terminate an output pulse prematurely, to gate oscillations from "on" to "off", etc. Delay time from reset to output is typically on the order of 0.5 µS, and the minimum reset pulse width is 0.5 µS. Pin 5 (Control Voltage):This pin allows direct access to the 2/3 V+ voltage-divider point, the reference level for the upper comparator. It also allows

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm indirect access to the lower comparator, as there is a 2:1 divider (R8 - R9) from this point to the lower-comparator reference input, Q13. Use of this terminal is the option of the user, but it does allow extreme flexibility by permitting modification of the timing period, resetting of the comparator, etc. When the 555 timer is used in a voltage-controlled mode, its voltage-controlled operation ranges from about 1 volt less than V+ down to within 2 volts of ground (although this is not guaranteed). Voltages can be safely applied outside these limits, but they should be confined within the limits of V+ and ground for reliability. By applying a voltage to this pin, it is possible to vary the timing of the device independently of the RC network. The control voltage may be varied from 45 to 90% of the Vcc in the monostable mode, making it possible to control the width of the output pulse independently of RC. Pin 6 (Threshold):Pin 6 is one input to the upper comparator (the other being pin 5) and is used to reset the latch, which causes the output to go low. Resetting via this terminal is accomplished by taking the terminal from below to above a voltage level of 2/3 V+ (the normal voltage on pin 5). The action of the threshold pin is level sensitive, allowing slow rate-of-change waveforms. The voltage range that can safely be applied to the threshold pin is between V+ and ground. A dc current, termed thethreshold current, must also flow into this terminal from the external circuit. This current is typically 0.1µA, and will define the upper limit of total resistance allowable from pin 6 to V+. For either timing configuration operating at V+ = 5 volts, this resistance is 16 Mega- ohm. For 15 volt operation, the maximum value of resistance is 20 MegaOhms. Pin 7 (Discharge):This pin is connected to the open collector of a npn transistor (Q14), the emitter of which goes to ground, so that when the transistor is turned "on", pin 7 is effectively shorted to ground. Usually the timing capacitor is connected between pin 7 and ground and is discharged when the transistor turns "on". The conduction state of this transistor is identical in timing to that of the output stage. It is "on" (low resistance to ground) when the output is low and "off" (high resistance to ground) when the output is high. In both the monostable and astable time modes, this transistor switch is used to clamp the appropriate nodes of the timing network to ground. Saturation voltage is typically below 100mV (milli-Volt) .

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm Pin 8 (V +):The V+ pin (also referred to as Vcc) is the positive supply voltage terminal of the 555 timer IC. Supply-voltage operating range for the 555 is +4.5 volts (minimum) to +16 volts (maximum), and it is specified for operation between +5 volts and +15 volts. The device will operate essentially the same over this range of voltages without change in timing period. Actually, the most significant operational difference is the output drive capability, which increases for both current and voltage range as the supply voltage is increased. Sensitivity of time interval to supply voltage change is low, typically 0.1% per volt. There are special and military devices available that operate at voltages as high as 18 volts.

3.5. Monostable Multivibrator Circuit details
Pin 1 is grounded. Trigger input is applied to pin 2. In quiescent condition of output this input is kept at + VCC. To obtain transition of output from stable state to quasi-stable state, a negativegoing pulse of narrow width (a width smaller than expected pulse width of output waveform) and amplitude of greater than + 2/3 VCC is applied to pin 2. Output is taken from pin 3. Pin 4 is usually connected to + VCC to avoid accidental reset. Pin 5 is grounded through a 0.01 u F capacitor to avoid noise problem. Pin 6 (threshold) is shorted to pin 7. A resistor RA is connected between pins 6 and 8. At pins 7 a discharge capacitor is connected while pin 8 is connected to supply VCC.

3.6. 555 monostable-multivibrator-operation
The operation of the circuit is explained below: Initially, when the output at pin 3 is low i.e. the circuit is in a stable state, the transistor is on and capacitor- C is shorted to ground. When a negative pulse is applied to pin 2, the trigger input falls below +1/3 VCC, the output of comparator goes high which resets the flip-flop and consequently the transistor turns off and the output at pin 3 goes high. This is the transition of the output from stable to quasi-stable state, as shown in figure. As the discharge transistor is cutoff, the capacitor C begins charging toward +VCC through resistance RA with a time constant equal to RAC. When the increasing capacitor voltage becomes slightly greater than +2/3 VCC, the output of comparator 1 goes high, which sets the flip-flop. The transistor goes to saturation, thereby discharging the capacitor C and the output of the timer goes low, as illustrated in figure.Thus the Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 10

Automatic lamp with morning alarm output returns back to stable state from quasi-stable state. The output of the Monostable Multivibrator remains low until a trigger pulse is again applied. Then the cycle repeats. Trigger input, output voltage and capacitor voltage waveforms are shown in figure.

3.7. Monostable Multivibrator Design Using 555 timer IC
The capacitor C has to charge through resistance RA. The larger the time constant RAC, the longer it takes for the capacitor voltage to reach +2/3VCC. In other words, the RC time constant controls the width of the output pulse. The time during which the timer output remains high is given as tp=1.0986RAC where RA is in ohms and C is in farads. The above relation is derived as below. Voltage across the capacitor at any instant during charging period is given as vc = VCC (1- e-t/RAC) Substituting vc = 2/3 VCC in above equation we get the time taken by the capacitor to charge from 0 to +2/3VCC. So +2/3VCC. = VCC. (1 – e-t/RAC) or t – RAC loge 3 = 1.0986 RAC So pulse width, tP = 1.0986 RAC s 1.1 RAC The pulse width of the circuit may range from micro-seconds to many seconds. This circuit is widely used in industry for many different timing applications.

In this mode of operation, the timer functions as a one-shot. The external capacitor is initially held discharged by a transistor inside the timer. Upon application of a negative trigger pulse of less than 1/3 VCC to pin 2, the flip-flop is set which both releases the short circuit across the capacitor and drives the output high. The voltage across the capacitor then increases exponentially for a period of t = 1.1 RA C, at the end of which time the voltage equals 2/3 VCC. The comparator then resets the flip-flop which in turn discharges the capacitor and drives the

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm output to its low state. Since the charge and the threshold level of the comparator are both directly proportional to supply voltage, the timing interval is independent of supply.

3.4.1. Monostable Mode

3.4.2. Waveforms generated in this mode of operation.

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

4. MUSIC GENERATOR UM66

4.1. General Description

UM66 is a pleasing music generator IC which works on a supply voltage of 3V. The

required 3V supply is given through a zenor regulator. Its output is taken from the pin no1 and is given to a push pull amplifier to drive the low impedance lowd speker. A class A amplifier before pushpull amplifier can be used to decrease the noise and improve output. UM66 is a 3 pin IC package just looks like a BC 547 transistors.

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm Here is the simplest melody generator circuit you can make using an IC.The UM66 series are CMOS IC’s designed for using in calling bell, phone and toys. It has a built in ROM programmed for playing music. The device has very low power consumption.Thanks for the CMOS technology.The melody will be available at pin3 of UM66 and here it is amplified by using Q1 to drive the speaker.Resistor R1 limits the base current of Q1 within the safe values.Capacitor C1 is meant for noise suppression.

4.2. Features:

62 Note ROM Memory Voltage rating: 1.3V to 3.3 V Power on reset

4.3. Pin Diagram:

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

5. LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTER (LDR)

5.1. Light Dependent Resistor figure:
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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

5.2. Operation:
A light dependent resistor or photo resistor is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referenced as a photoconductor. A photo resistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electrons conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. Photo resistors come in many different types. Inexpensive cadmium sulfide cells can be found in many consumer items such as camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, alarms, and outdoor clocks. LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms, but when they are illuminated with light resistance drops dramatically. The animation opposite shows that when the torch is turned on, the resistance of the LDR falls, allowing current to pass through it. When the light level is low the resistance of the LDR is high. This prevents current from flowing to the base of the transistors. Consequently the LED does not light. However, when light shines onto the LDR its resistance falls and current flows into the base of the first transistor and then the second transistor. The LED lights. The preset resistor can be turned up or down to increase or decrease resistance, in this way it can make the circuit more or less sensitive. Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 16

Automatic lamp with morning alarm A photoresistor or light dependent resistor or cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor.A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g. silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (i.e., longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor.

5.3. Applications
Photoresistors come in many different types. Inexpensive cadmium sulfide cells can be found in many consumer items such as camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, alarms, and outdoor clocks. They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent lamp or light emitting diode to control gain reduction. Lead sulfide (PbS) and indium antimonide (InSb) LDRs (light dependent resistor) are used for the mid infrared spectral region. Ge:Cu photoconductors are among the best far-infrared detectors available, and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopy.

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

6. TRANSISTOR

6.1 Pin diagram

BC548: 6.2. FEATURES

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm Low current (max. 100 mA) Low voltage (max. 65 V). 6.3. APPLICATIONS General purpose switching and amplification. 6.4. DESCRIPTION NPN transistor in a TO-92; SOT54 plastic package. PNP complements: BC548.

6.5. PIN DESCRIPTION 1 emitter 2 base 3 collector

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

7. IC7806

7.1. THREE-TERMINAL POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATORS These voltage regulators are monolithic integrated circuits designed fixed-voltage regulators for a wide variety of applications including local, on card regulation. These regulators employ internal current limiting, thermal shutdown, and safe-area compensation. With adequate heat sinking they can deliver output currents in excess of 1.0 ampere. Although designed primarily as a fixed voltage regulator, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. 7.2. ADVANTAGES Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 20

Automatic lamp with morning alarm

• Output Current in Excess of 1.0 Ampere • No External Components Required • Internal Thermal Overload Protection • Internal Short - Circuit Current Limiting • Output Transistor Safe-Area Compensation • Output Voltage Offered in 2% and 4% Tolerance

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

8. DIODES

8.1. INTRODUCTION
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Automatic lamp with morning alarm There are a number of different electronic devices which tend to be called diodes. Although they're made differently they all have three things in common. • • • They have two leads like a resistor. The current they pass depends upon the voltage between the leads. They do not obey Ohm's law!

The function of a diode is to allow current in one direction and to block current in the opposite direction. The terminals of a diode are called the anode and cathode.

Figure 1 The schematic symbol for a diode. When current flows in the direction of the triangle (anode to cathode) then it is in forward bias

8.2. Characteristics and Equations
Forward Voltage Drop Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode, rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring. This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode. It is called the 'forward voltage drop' and is about 0.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode.

Reverse Voltage When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct, but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few µA or less. This can be ignored in most circuits because it will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. However, all diodes have a

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction; this is called 'breakdown'.

8.3. Types of Diodes
Zener Diodes Zener diodes are used to maintain a fixed voltage. They are designed to 'breakdown' in a reliable and non-destructive way so that they can be used in reverse to maintain a fixed voltage across their terminals.

Figure 2 Schematic symbol of a zener diode. Light Emitting Diodes Very similar to the basic diodes already talked about but with the added bonus that they light up when in forward bias (and the voltage is high enough).

Figure 3 Schematic symbol of an LED.

Packages Most diode packages have at least one indicator as to which leg is the anode and which is the cathode. The cathode is usually marked by a band at one end and has the shorter of the two legs. LED's will also have a flattened edge on the cathode side so you can still tell the difference easily once you've chopped the legs off to solder them in!

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

Figure 4 Various diode packages.

8.4. Zener diode

A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". The device was named after Clarence Zener, who discovered this electrical property.

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

Current-voltage characteristic of a Zener diode with a breakdown voltage of 17 volt. Notice the change of voltage scale between the forward biased (positive) direction and the reverse biased (negative) direction. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded, a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. Unless this current is limited by circuitry, the diode will be permanently damaged. In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow), the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction builtin voltage and internal resistance. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties, except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage, the so-called Zener voltage. By contrast with the conventional device, a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage. For example, a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3.2 V will exhibit a voltage drop of 3.2 V if reverse bias voltage applied across it is more than its Zener voltage. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e.g. for an amplifier stage), or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications. The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping of its p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. In the atomic scale, this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states; as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of dopings on both Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 26

Automatic lamp with morning alarm sides.[1] The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. While tolerances within 0.05% are available, the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%. Breakdown voltage for commonly available zener diodes can vary widely from 1.2 volts to 200 volts. Another mechanism that produces a similar effect is the avalanche effect as in the avalanche diode. The two types of diode are in fact constructed the same way and both effects are present in diodes of this type. In silicon diodes up to about 5.6 volts, the Zener effect is the predominant effect and shows a marked negative temperature coefficient. Above 5.6 volts, the avalanche effect becomes predominant and exhibits a positive temperature coefficient[1]. In a 5.6 V diode, the two effects occur together and their temperature coefficients neatly cancel each other out, thus the 5.6 V diode is the component of choice in temperature-critical applications. Modern manufacturing techniques have produced devices with voltages lower than 5.6 V with negligible temperature coefficients, but as higher voltage devices are encountered, the temperature coefficient rises dramatically. A 75 V diode has 10 times the coefficient of a 12 V diode. All such diodes, regardless of breakdown voltage, are usually marketed under the umbrella term of "Zener diode".

Zener diode shown with typical packages. Reverse current − iZ is shown. Zener diodes are widely used as voltage references and as shunt regulators to regulate the voltage across small circuits. When connected in parallel with a variable voltage source so that it is reverse biased, a Zener diode conducts when the voltage reaches the diode's reverse breakdown voltage. From that point on, the relatively low impedance of the diode keeps the voltage across the diode at that value.

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm

In this circuit, a typical voltage reference or regulator, an input voltage, UIN, is regulated down to a stable output voltage UOUT. The intrinsic voltage drop of diode D is stable over a wide current range and holds UOUT relatively constant even though the input voltage may fluctuate over a fairly wide range. Because of the low impedance of the diode when operated like this, Resistor R is used to limit current through the circuit. In the case of this simple reference, the current flowing in the diode is determined using Ohms law and the known voltage drop across the resistor R. IDiode = (UIN - UOUT) / RΩ The value of R must satisfy two conditions:

1. R must be small enough that the current through D keeps D in reverse breakdown. The value of this current is given in the data sheet for D. For example, the common BZX79C5V6[2] device, a 5.6 V 0.5 W Zener diode, has a recommended reverse current of 5 mA. If insufficient current exists through D, then UOUT will be unregulated, and less than the nominal breakdown voltage (this differs to voltage regulator tubes where the output voltage will be higher than nominal and could rise as high as UIN). When calculating R, allowance must be made for any current through the external load, not shown in this diagram, connected across UOUT.

2. R must be large enough that the current through D does not destroy the device. If the current through D is ID, its breakdown voltage VB and its maximum power dissipation PMAX, then IDVB < PMAX. A load may be placed across the diode in this reference circuit, and as long as the zener stays in reverse breakdown, the diode will provide a stable voltage source to the load. Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 28

Automatic lamp with morning alarm A Zener diode used in this way is known as a shunt voltage regulator (shunt, in this context, meaning connected in parallel, and voltage regulator being a class of circuit that produces a stable voltage across any load). In a sense, a portion of the current through the resistor is shunted through the Zener diode, and the rest is through the load. Thus the voltage that the load sees is controlled by causing some fraction of the current from the power source to bypass it—hence the name, by analogy with locomotive switching points. Shunt regulators are simple, but the requirements that the ballast resistor be small enough to avoid excessive voltage drop during worst-case operation (low input voltage concurrent with high load current) tends to leave a lot of current flowing in the diode much of the time, making for a fairly wasteful regulator with high quiescent power dissipation, only suitable for smaller loads. Zener diodes in this configuration are often used as stable references for more advanced voltage regulator circuits. These devices are also encountered, typically in series with a base-emitter junction, in transistor stages where selective choice of a device centered around the avalanche/Zener point can be used to introduce compensating temperature co-efficient balancing of the transistor PN junction. An example of this kind of use would be a DC error amplifier used in a stabilized power supply circuit feedback loop system. Zener diodes are also used in surge protectors to limit transient voltage spikes. A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". The device was named after Clarence Zener, who discovered this electrical property. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded, a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. Unless this current is limited by circuitry, the diode will be permanently damaged. In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow), the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction builtin voltage and internal resistance. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 29

Automatic lamp with morning alarm A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties, except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage, the so-called Zener voltage. By contrast with the conventional device, a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage. For example, a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3.2 V will exhibit a voltage drop of 3.2 V if reverse bias voltage applied across it is more than its Zener voltage. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e.g. for an amplifier stage), or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications. The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping of its p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. In the atomic scale, this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states; as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of dopings on both sides.[1] The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. While tolerances within 0.05% are available, the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%. Breakdown voltage for commonly available zener diodes can vary widely from 1.2 volts to 200 volts. Another mechanism that produces a similar effect is the avalanche effect as in the avalanche diode. The two types of diode are in fact constructed the same way and both effects are present in diodes of this type. In silicon diodes up to about 5.6 volts, the Zener effect is the predominant effect and shows a marked negative temperature coefficient. Above 5.6 volts, the avalanche effect becomes predominant and exhibits a positive temperature coefficient[1]. In a 5.6 V diode, the two effects occur together and their temperature coefficients neatly cancel each other out, thus the 5.6 V diode is the component of choice in temperature-critical applications. Modern manufacturing techniques have produced devices with voltages lower than 5.6 V with negligible temperature coefficients, but as higher voltage devices are encountered, the temperature coefficient rises dramatically. A 75 V diode has 10 times the coefficient of a 12 V diode. All such diodes, regardless of breakdown voltage, are usually marketed under the umbrella term of "Zener diode". Zener diode shown with typical packages. Reverse current − iZ is shown. Zener diodes are widely used as voltage references and as shunt regulators to regulate the voltage across small circuits. Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 30

Automatic lamp with morning alarm When connected in parallel with a variable voltage source so that it is reverse biased, a Zener diode conducts when the voltage reaches the diode's reverse breakdown voltage. From that point on, the relatively low impedance of the diode keeps the voltage across the diode at that value. In this circuit, a typical voltage reference or regulator, an input voltage, UIN, is regulated down to a stable output voltage UOUT. The intrinsic voltage drop of diode D is stable over a wide current range and holds UOUT relatively constant even though the input voltage may fluctuate over a fairly wide range. Because of the low impedance of the diode when operated like this, Resistor R is used to limit current through the circuit. In the case of this simple reference, the current flowing in the diode is determined using Ohms law and the known voltage drop across the resistor R. IDiode = (UIN - UOUT) / RΩ The value of R must satisfy two conditions: 1. R must be small enough that the current through D keeps D in reverse breakdown. The value of this current is given in the data sheet for D. For example, the common BZX79C5V6[2] device, a 5.6 V 0.5 W Zener diode, has a recommended reverse current of 5 mA. If insufficient current exists through D, then UOUT will be unregulated, and less than the nominal breakdown voltage (this differs to voltage regulator tubes where the output voltage will be higher than nominal and could rise as high as UIN). When calculating R, allowance must be made for any current through the external load, not shown in this diagram, connected across UOUT. 2. R must be large enough that the current through D does not destroy the device. If the current through D is ID, its breakdown voltage VB and its maximum power dissipation PMAX, then IDVB < PMAX. A load may be placed across the diode in this reference circuit, and as long as the zener stays in reverse breakdown, the diode will provide a stable voltage source to the load. A Zener diode used in this way is known as a shunt voltage regulator (shunt, in this context, meaning connected in parallel, and voltage regulator being a class of circuit that produces a stable voltage across any load). In a sense, a portion of the current through the resistor is shunted through the Zener diode, and the rest is through the load. Thus the voltage that the load sees is controlled by causing some fraction of the current from the power source to bypass it—hence the name, by analogy with locomotive switching points. Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 31

Automatic lamp with morning alarm Shunt regulators are simple, but the requirements that the ballast resistor be small enough to avoid excessive voltage drop during worst-case operation (low input voltage concurrent with high load current) tends to leave a lot of current flowing in the diode much of the time, making for a fairly wasteful regulator with high quiescent power dissipation, only suitable for smaller loads. Zener diodes in this configuration are often used as stable references for more advanced voltage regulator circuits. These devices are also encountered, typically in series with a base-emitter junction, in transistor stages where selective choice of a device centered around the avalanche/Zener point can be used to introduce compensating temperature co-efficient balancing of the transistor PN junction. An example of this kind of use would be a DC error amplifier used in a stabilized power supply circuit feedback loop system. Zener diodes are also used in surge protectors to limit transient voltage spikes.

8.4.1. GENERAL FORM OF ZENER DIODE

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9. LIGHT EMITTIG DIODE (LED)

9.1. INTODUCTION.
A light-emitting-diode lamp is a solid-state lamp that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the source of light. Since the light output of individual light-emitting diodes is small compared to incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps, multiple diodes are used together. LED lamps can be made interchangeable with other types. Most LED lamps must also include internal circuits to operate from standard AC voltage. LED lamps offer long life and high efficiency, but initial costs are higher than those of fluorescent lamps.

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm Technology overview General purpose lighting requires white light. LEDs by nature emit light in a very small band of wavelengths, producing strongly colored light. The color is characteristic of the energy bandgap of the semiconductor material used to make the LED. To create white light from LEDs requires either mixing light from red, green, and blue LEDs, or using a phosphor to convert some of the light to other colors. The first method (RGB-LEDs) uses multiple LED chips each emitting a different wavelength in close proximity to create the broad white light spectrum. The advantage of this method is the fact that one can adjust the intensities of each LED to "tune" the character of the light emitted. The major disadvantage is the high manufacturing cost, which is important in commercial success. The second method, phosphor converted LEDs (pcLEDs) uses a single short wavelength LED (usually blue or ultraviolet) in combination with a phosphor, which absorbs a portion of the blue light and emits a broader spectrum of white light. (The mechanism is similar to the way a fluorescent lamp produces white light from a UV-illuminated phosphor.) The major advantage here is the low cost, while the disadvantage is the inability to fine tune the character of the light without completely changing the phosphor layer. So while this will not yield high CRI (color rendering index) values without sacrificing some other performance property, the low cost and adequate performance makes it the most suitable technology for general lighting today. To be useful as a light source for a room, a number of LEDs must be placed close together in a lamp to add their illuminating effects. This is because an individual LED produces only a small amount of light, thereby limiting its effectiveness as a replacement light source. If white LEDs are used, their arrangement is not critical for color balance. When using the color-mixing method, it is more difficult to generate equivalent brightness when compared to using white LEDs in a similar lamp size. Furthermore, degradation of different LEDs at various times in a color-mixed lamp can lead to an uneven color output. LED lamps usually consist of clusters of LEDs in a housing with both driver electronics, a heat sink and optics.

9.2. Application
LED lamps are used for both general lighting and special purpose lighting. Where colored light is required, LEDs come in multiple colors, which are produced without the need for filters. This

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Automatic lamp with morning alarm improves the energy efficiency over a white light source that generates all colors of light then discards some of the visible energy in a filter. White-light light-emitting diode lamps have the characteristics of long life expectancy and relatively low energy consumption. The LED sources are compact, which gives flexibility in designing lighting fixtures and good control over the distribution of light with small reflectors or lenses. Due to the small size of LEDs, control of the spatial distribution of illumination is extremely flexible,[1] and the light output and spatial distribution of a LED array can be controlled without efficiency loss. LED lamps have no glass tubes to break, and their internal parts are rigidly supported, making them resistant to vibration and impact. With proper driver electronics design, an LED lamp can be made dimmable over a wide range; there is no minimum current needed to sustain lamp operation. LEDs using the color-mixing principle can produce a wide range of colors by changing the proportions of light generated in each primary color. This allows full color mixing in lamps with LEDs of different colors.[2] LED lamps contain no mercury. However, some current models are not compatible with standard dimmers. It is not currently economical to produce high levels of lighting. As a result, current LED screw-in light bulbs offer either low levels of light at a moderate cost, or moderate levels of light at a high cost. In contrast to other lighting technologies, LED light tends to be directional. This is a disadvantage for most general lighting applications, but can be an advantage for spot or flood lighting.

The world's first mass-installation of LED lighting is in the Manapakkam, Chennai office of the Indian IT company iGate.[3] It spent Rs. 37 lakh (U$80,000) to light up 57,000 sq feet of office space. The company expects the LED lighting to completely pay for itself within 5 years. In 2008, SSL (Solid-State Lighting) technology advanced to the point that Sentry Equipment Corporation in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, USA, was able to light its new factory almost entirely with LEDs, both interior and exterior. Although the initial cost was three times more than a traditional mixture of incandescent and fluorescent bulbs, the extra cost will be repaid within two years from electricity savings, and the bulbs should not need replacement for 20 years.

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10. CAPACITORS

10.1. INTRODUCTION
Capacitors store electric charge and have many uses. In series with a resistor they take time to charge up and can be used in timing circuits. Since they take time to charge and discharge they can also be used to smooth (slow the rate of change) signals. once they are full they block DC currents so are used to filter signals and remove DC offsets. Capacitors are rated in Farads (F) and this is a measure of how much charge they can store. The higher the rating the bigger the charge resevoir. Usually larger capacitors (> 1&muF) are polarised and smaller ones (< 1&muF) are un polarised - read on to find out what this means.

10.2. Unpolarised
Unpolarised capacitors don't mind which direction they are charged up from, the potential difference across them can be in either direction.

Figure 1 - The schematic symbol of a capacitor, measured in Farads (F).

10.3. Polarised
Polarised capacitors have a positive and a negative connection, if connnected the wrong way wround they will leak and often go pop! While not a huge disaster, it does make a mess you will have to clear up and the fluids inside them can be quite nasty so be careful when using them. Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 37

Automatic lamp with morning alarm

Figure 2- Schematic symbol of a polarised capacitor

10.4. Variable
You can also get variable capacitors which do exactly what they say on the tin! However unlike resistors it is not always possible to reduce them to zero capacitance so they will usually specify a minimum as well as a maximum capacitance value.

Figure 3- Schematic symbol of a variable capacitor

10.5. Characteristics and Equations
The charge that a capacitor can store is given by the equation: Q=CV

Equation 1
Where Q is the charge in coloumbs, C is the capacitance in Farads and V is the voltage in Volts. The current in a capacitor (I) is equal to the capacitance multiplied by the voltage change with time (dV/dt) : I=CdV/dt

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Equation 2

As can be seen above, if there is no change in the voltage then there's no current flowing, because of this, in a DC circuit once a capacitor has reached its aiming voltage it will stop conducting current until it has been discharged or a larger voltage is applied across it. Because of the above characteristic a capacitor's impedance is related to the frequency of the signal flowing though it: ZC=-1/jωC
Equation 3

Where ω is the angular velociy and j is the complex conjugate showing phase shift, this shows that the current in a capacitor is 90 degrees ahead of the voltage. Capacitors in Parallel

Figure 4 - Capacitors in Parallel When capacitors are connected in parallel (figure 4) their combined capacitance is equal to the individual capacitance added together. For example if capacitors C1 and C2 are connected in series their combined resistance, C, is given by: C=C1+C2

Equation 4 This can be extended for more capacitors: C=C1+C2+C3+C4+... Equation 5 Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 39

Automatic lamp with morning alarm Note that the combined capacitance in parallel will always be greater than any of the individual capacitances. Capacitors in Series

Figure 5 - Capacitors in series When capacitors are connected in series (figure 5) their combined resistance is less than any of the individual capacitances. There is a special equation for the combined capacitance of two capacitors C1 and C2: C=(C1×C2)/(C1+C2)
Equation 6

For more than two Capacitors connected in series add up the reciprocal ("one over") of each capacitance to give the reciprocal of the combined capacitance, C:
1

/C=1/C1+1/C2+1/C3+1/C4...

Equation 7 Note that the combined capacitance in series will always be less than any of the individual capacitances. Packages Capacitors come in a multitude of packages (figure 6), generally the larger the capacitance the larger the capacitor. With polarised capacitors such as the electrolytics shown in figure 7it is important to determine which leg is the positive and which the negative. In the case below the negative leg is marked in 2 ways, the first on the case ith a black stripe containing a minus sign and the second by the negative leg being shorter. The second test is not a reliable test unless you have removed the capacitor from the packaging yourself... who's to say that someone hasn't been tampering with the stocks and cut the legs to random lengths?

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Figure 6- Examples of capacitor packages

Figure 7 - Electrolytic capacitors Below in figure 8 are shown 2 types of variable capacitor, on the left is a large variable air capacitor which uses teeth to change the gap between the contacts and therefore change the capacitance. The second is a smaller variable capacitor more suited for mounting on PCBs etc, however it will also be of a smaller capacitance.

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11. DESCRIPTION
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This circuit automatically turns on a night lamp when bedroom light is switched off. The lamp remains ‘on’ until the light sensor senses daylight in the morning. A super-bright white LED is used as the night lamp. It gives bright and cool light in the room. When the sensor detects the daylight in the morning, a melodious morning alarm sounds. The circuit is powered from a 6V DC supply. The circuit utilises light-dependant resistors (LDRs) for sensing darkness and light in the room. The resistance of LDR is very high in darkness, which reduces to minimum when LDR is fully illuminated. LDR1 detects darkness, while LDR2 detects light in the morning. The circuit is designed around the opular timer IC NE555 (IC2), which is configured as a monostable. IC2 is activated by a low pulse applied to its trigger pin 2. Once triggered, output pin 3 of IC2 goes high and remains in that position until IC2 is triggered again at its pin 2. When LDR1 is illuminated with ambient light in the room, its resistance remains low, which keeps trigger pin 2 of IC2 at a positive potential. As a result, output pin 3 of IC2 goes low and the white LED remains off. As the illumination of LDR1’s sensitive window reduces, the resistance of the device increases. In total darkness, the specified LDR has a resistance in excess of 280 kiloohms. When the resistance of LDR1 increases, a short pulse is applied to trigger pin 2 of IC2 via resistor R2 (150 kiloohms). This activates the monostable and its output goes high, causing the white LED to glow. Lowvalue capacitor C2 maintains the monostable for continuous operation, eliminating the timer Dept.of E.C.E., S.V.P.C.E.T., Puttur. Page 43

Automatic lamp with morning alarm effect. By increasing the value of C2, the ‘on’ time of the white LED can be adjusted to a predetermined time. LDR2 and associated components generate the morning alarm at dawn. LDR2 detects the ambient light in the room at sunrise and its resistance gradually falls and transistor T1 starts conducting. When T1 conducts, melody-generator IC UM66 (IC3) gets supply voltage from the emitter of T1 and it starts producing the melody. The musical tone generated by IC3 is amplified by single-transistor amplifier T2. Resistor R7 limits the current to IC3 and zener diode ZD limits the voltage to a safer level of 3.3 volts. The circuit can be easily assembled on a general-purpose PCB. Enclose it in a good-quality plastic case with provisions for LDR and LED. Use a reflective holder for white LED to get a spotlight effect for reading. Place LDRs away from the white LED, preferably on the backside of the case, to avoid unnecessary illumination. The speaker should be small so as to make the gadget compact.

12. CONCLUSION
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13. REFERENCE
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REFERENCE Text Books
1. The SCRIBD electronic circuits----------------------------- Williamjlee 2. IETL Electronics labs------------------------------------------ Fairchild

Website
1. www.efy.com 2. www.electronics.com 3. www.google.com 4. www.scridb.com 5. www.ipdia.com 6. www.digikey.com

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