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5 Limits at Inﬁnity

Math 1a October 10, 2007

1. Sketch the graph of a function f that satisﬁes all of these: • lim f (x) = −∞

x→2

•

x→−∞ x→0

lim f (x) = 0

• lim− f (x) = −∞

x→0

• lim f (x) = ∞

x→∞

• lim+ f (x) = ∞

Solution. Here is one:

**Find the limits. 2. lim
**

x→1

2−x (x − 1)2

Solution. As x → 1, the numerator tends to 1, while the denominator tends to zero while remaining positive. So the quotient consists of increasingly large positive numbers, hence tends to ∞.

3. lim− cot x

x→π

cos x Solution. Remember that cot x is . As x → π but x < π, then cos x → −1 while sin x sin x → 0, but remains positive. So the quotients are large and negative, hence tend to −∞.

4. lim

x→∞ 2x3

x3 + 5x − x2 + 4

Solution. x3 + 5x x3 (1 + 5/x) = lim 3 x→∞ 2x3 − x2 + 4 x→∞ (2 − 1/x + 4/x3 ) x 1 = 2 lim

5.

**t2 + 2 t→−∞ t3 + t2 − 1 lim Solution.
**

t→−∞ t3

lim

t2 + 2 t2 (1 + 2/t2 ) = lim 3 2−1 t→∞ t (1 + 1/t − 1/t3 +t 1 1 + 2/t2 = lim · lim t→∞ t t→∞ 1 + 1/t − 1/t3 = 0 · 1 = 0.

6. lim

x→∞

9x2 + x − 3x

Solution. Multiply by the conjugate radical: √ 9x2 + x + 3x x 2 + x − 3x · √ 9x = lim √ lim 2 + x + 3x 2 + x + 3x x→∞ x→∞ 9x 9x 1 = lim x→∞ 9 + 1/x + 3 1 1 =√ = 6 9+3

7. lim x −

x→∞

√

x

Solution. Same manipulation: lim x − √ √ x+ x x2 − x √ = lim √ x · x + x x→∞ x + x x2 (1 − x−1 ) = lim x→∞ x(1 + x−1/2 ) 1 − x−1 = lim x · lim =∞·1=∞ x→∞ x→∞ 1 + x−1/2

x→∞

8. lim

sin2 x x→∞ x2 Solution. We can use a version of the squeeze theorem. Notice that 0≤ for all x. Since sin2 x 1 ≤ 2 x2 x

1 sin2 x → 0 as x → ∞, lim = 0. x→∞ x2 x2

9.

Consider the function f (x) =

√

2x2 + 1 3x − 5

Sketch the graph (without using your calculator) by ﬁnding all its asymptotes and ﬁlling it in. Solution. We can show:

x→5/3 x→5/3

lim + f (x) = +∞

x→∞ x→∞

lim f (x) =

√

2/3 √

lim − f (x) = −∞

lim f (x) = − 2/3

So we can sketch in at lest this much of the graph:

It turns out the graph is a little bit more complicated; it makes a “hump” on the negative branch √ and as x → ∞ it approaches − 2/3 from above. But we can see at least this much with the limits alone.

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