• The long and complicated process of social interaction through which the child learns the intellectual, physical, and social skills needed to function as a member of society • Begins at birth and continues throughout life

According to Fichter
• Socialization is a process of mutual influence between a person and his fellowmen, a process that results in an acceptance of, and adaptation to, the patterns of social behavior.

Function of socialization
• To develop the skills and discipline which are needed by the individual • To instill the values, aspirations, and design of living which the particular society posses and; • To teach the social roles which individuals must enact in society

Socialization can be described from two points of view
• Objective socialization – refers to the society acting upon the child • Subjective Socialization – process by which society transmits its culture from one generation to the next and adapts the individual to be accepted and approved ways of organized social life

Importance of socialization
• Socialization is vital to culture • Socialization is vital to personality • Socialization is vital to sex role differentiation

Components of socialization
• Goals (state of affairs) and motivation – Person’s intention) • Context (social Interaction take place) Physical setting or place, social environment, activities surrounding the interaction • Norms – Human behavior is not random. These are rules that regulate the process of social interaction

The Dynamics of Socialization
• Functional approaches (From the perspective of the group rather than on the individual) people are passive beings • Symbolic Interaction - people employs symbols to convey meanings to one another

Charles Horton Cooley
• Developed the idea of looking glass self • We mentally assume the stance other people and look at ourselves as we believe these others see us • We acquire our sense of self by seeing ourselves reflected in the behaviors of other and their attitudes toward us and by imagining what others think about us

Jean Piaget
• Focused on thinking or cognitive development stage • Through interaction with environment, children acquire new ways of thinking and new schemes • All children move though stages of cognitive development that involve increasingly greater complexity of thought and shift from egocentric perspective to perspective which take others into account

George H. Mead
• Founder of Symbolic Social Interactionism • His scheme is supported by the data collected by researchers like Jean Piaget • Children recognize that they are distinct from other people. Yet it is generally easy to recognize that they have difficulty distinguishing their own perspective • After human being recognize their own distinctiveness, they begin to recognize the characteristics of others

Symbolic Interactionism rests on three primary premises
• First, that human beings act towards things on the basis of the meanings those things have for them, second that such meanings arise out of the interaction of the individual with others, and third, that an interpretive process is used by the person in each instance in which he must deal with things in his environment.

Sigmund Freud
• Also took the conflict view of socialization • Social and biological conflict • He was concerned with conflict not between classes (Karl Marx) but between society and the primal biological drives of sex and aggression • He believes that every society has to repress and channel primitive drives of people; otherwise civilization would be destroyed • The Id, ego, and superego

• Cooley and Mead saw socialization as the gradual complementary merger of individual and society, whereas Freud argued that socialization was forced on children very much against their will (tendencies) • Freud believed that socialization is never complete. The id continues to press for gratification

Agencies of socialization
• • • • • • • Family Peer Group Media School Workplace Church Neighborhood


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