You are on page 1of 23

5

(Hayashi, 1996)


(Duda, 1992; Weiss & Chaumeton, 1992)

(Goal orientation)
(2551)



2 (Ego
orientation; performance goal; ability focused goal; or competitive goal) (Nicholls,1989;

2
Dweck & Leggett, 1988)



(Task orientation; mastery goal; or learning goal) (Nicholls,1989;
Dweck & Leggett, 1988)



(Papaioannou, 1995)
(Roberts, 1992, pp. 7-8 )
(Chi see in Morris &
Summers, 2004)

44

20
Social-cognitive theory
(Dweck, 1986;
Maehr & Nicholls, 1980; Nicholls, 1984)

(Maehr & Nicholls,


1980)



2


(Nicholls, Cheung, Lauer, & Patashnick, 1989; Nicholls,
Patashnick, & Nolen, 1985)
(Motivational Orientation Scale; MOS) (Nicholls et al, 1985)



12



(Dudo, 1989; Nichollos, 1989;


Treasure & Roberts, 1994)

4


(Cox, 2002)
(Achievement Goal Theory)
...

...
( Harwood et al, 2000)


(Task involved)

(Ego involved)


(Nicholls & Miller, 1983)
2
(Effort)

(Nicholls, 1989)


(Ames, 1992; Duda, 1993; Dweck & Leggett,


1988; Roberts, 1992; Harwood, Hardy & Swin, 2000)


(Ames, 1988, 1990,
Roberts, 1992)

(Siva II,
Singer et al, 2001)
(Nicholls, 1984)

44

()
2 (Task orientation) (Nichollos, 1989)

6
(Learning) (Dweck & Leggett, 1988)



(Papaioannou, 1995)
(Ego orientation) (Nicholls, 1989) (Dweck & Leggett,
1988)






(Duda, Chi, Newton, Walling, & Catley,


1995; Goudas, Biddle, & Fox, 1994)
(Ntoumanis &
Biddle, 1999)

(Whitehead,
1995)

45
(Wang & Biddle, 2001)

(Cury, Biddle, Sarrazin, & Famose, 1997)

3 (Cox, 2002)

7
1. (Goal Orientation)



(Goal orientation)

2
(Task orientation)

3
(Ego orientation)

(Ewing, 1981 23 Duda &


whitehead, 2001) Achievement Orientation Questionnair (AOQ)
5 (5-point Likert scale)
15

The Motivation Orientation Scales (MOS; Nichools, 1989; Nichools, Patashnick, &
Nolen, 1985)

(the Task and Ego Orientation in
Sport Questionnaire [TEOSQ; Duda, 1989; Duda & Nicholls, 1992]) 13
5 (5-point Likert scale)
(Task orientation) 6 (Ego orientation) 7

MOS TEOSQ 16
13

8
TEOSQ (Balague, Castill, & Tomas,
1996:) (Kim, 1995) (Dorobantu & Biddle, 1997) (Papaioannou &
Diggelidis, 1996) (Li, Hammer, Acock, Vongjaturapat, & Boonverabut, 1996)
(Hayashi & Weiss, 1994)
(Newton & Duda, 1994) (Gano-Overway & Duda, 1996) (Solomaon &
Boone, 1993) (Ebbeck & Becker, 1994) (Boyd & Callaghan, 1994)
1990s
TEOSQ (Task orientation)
4.08 (Ego orientation) 2.87
(cited in Duda & Whitehead,) ()
(the Perception of Success
Questionnaire [POSQ; Roberts, Treasure, & Balague, 1998])
(1989) 2
48 5
(5-point Likert scale)
12
(Roberts, Treasure, & Balague, 1998) Task orientation Mastery
orientation Ego orientation Comptitive orientation POSQ
(Mastery orientation) 6
(Comptitive orientation) 6
POSQ (Task orientation)
4.27 (Ego orientation)
3.03 POSQ (UK)
(Gernigon & Le Bars, 1995) (Roberts & Ommundsen, 1996) (cited in Duda
& Whitehead, 2001)

2. (Goal involvement)


(1989 R.H. Cox, 2002)

9

(Ego involvement)

(Task involvement)

(Williams, 1998)


(Goal Involvement in Sport Questionnaire; GISQ)
(Williams, 1998) (the
Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire; TEOSQ)
(Right now)

3. (Motivation Climate)



(Robert, 1992)






(Ames, 1987)

10

(Self-Evaluation) (Performance Assessment)




(Nicholls, 1989)
(Horn & Horn, 2007)



(


(Holt, Tamminen, Black, Mandigo, & Fox , 2009)

(Smith, Smoll, & Cumming, 2007)



(
)

11











(The Perceived Motivational Climate on Sport
Questionnaire; PMCSQ) (Seifriz, Duda, & Chi,
1992) (The Perceived Motivational Climate on
46
Sport Questionnaire2; PMCSQ-2) (Newton, 1994)


(Mastery
climate)


(Competitive climate)


(Performance climate)
(Competitive climate)

12

(Goal orientation)

(Task or Mastery)

(Goal involvement)

(Task or Mastery)

(Ego or Competitive)

(Ego or Competitive)

(Motivation climate)

(Mastery
climate)

(Competitive climate)

1
(Cox, 2002)



(Duda et al., 1995)
(Williams & Gill, 1995; Vlachopoulos & Biddle, 1997)
(Kavussanu & Roberts, 2001; Lemyre et al, 2002)
(Paioannou, 1995)

13


()

(Duda, 1992; Lochbaum & Roberts, 1993)


(Berlant & Weiss, 1997)


2

(Harwood et al.,
2000) Journal of Sport and
Exercise Psychology


(Treasur,
46
Duda, Hall, Roverts, Ames and Maehr,
Task Ego
2001)




14

TEOSQ 72 (USA 44 UK
19 Other 9 ) 1992-1997 Duda & Whitehead, 2001
3.83 2.96
- (21 ) - (20 ) - (13 ) -
(13 ) 2.17 12-14
3.00


30

10

20

34.6

43.6

65.8
TEOSQ
( Duda & Whitehead, 2001)

15


...

... (
78) (U-Siri, 1999)
(Hayashi & Weiss, 1994)
(e.g. Stephens & Bredemeier et al., 1996)
(2553) 2
(High Task and Low
Ego) 6
(High Task and High Ego) 4
(1)
2) 3)

2 (1) (2)
(3)


USA

(NBA) (Major league) (NFL)
(Youth league) (UCLA)

16
USA

(Dispositional) 2

(Task/Mastery
orientation)


(Ego/Competitive orientation)


17
1.
2.
Task orientation .........
Ego orientation .........
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

. (2549).
.
( ). .
. (2547). .
, 7(1-2): 123-146.
. (2553). .

Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: goals, structure, and student motivation. Journal of


EducationalPsychology, 84, 261-271.
Balague,I., Castill, I., & Tomas, I. (1996). Analisis de las questionnaio de orientation al el
ego ya la tarea en el deporte (TEOSQ) en su traduccion al castellano. In A
LeUnes, & J.R. Nation. (Eds.). Sport Psychology. Pacific Grove, CA. Wadsworth.

18
Berlant, A.R., & Weiss, M.R. (1997). Goal orientation and the modeling process: An
individuals focus on form and outcome. Research Quarterly for Exercise and
Sport. 68(4), 317-330.
Boyd, m., & Callaghan, J. (1994). Task and Ego perspectives in organized youth sport.
International Journal of Sport Psychology, 22, 411-424.
Chi, L. (2004). Achievement goal theory. In T. Morris & J. Summers (Eds). Sport
Psychology: Theory, applications and issues. (pp. 152-174). Milton, Qld. Wiley &
Sons.
Cox, R.H. (2002). Sport psychology: Conceptions and applications. (5th). New York, NY.
Mc Graw Hill.
Cury, F., Biddle, S., Sarrazin, P., & Famose, J.P. (1997). Achievement goal and
perceived ability predict investment in learning a sport task. British Journal of
Educational Psychology. 67, 292-309.
Dweck, C.S. & Leggett, E.L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and
personality. Psychological Review, 95. 256-273.
Dweck, C.S. (1986). Motivation processes affecting learning. In C. Harwood, L. Hardy &
A. Swain. (Eds.). Achievement goal in sport: A critique of conceptual and
measurement issue. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 22, 235-255.
Duda, J.L., Chi, L., and Newton, M.L. (1995). Task and ego orientation and intrinsic
motivation in sport. Journal of Sport Psychologist. 26, 40-63.
Duda, J.L. (1992). Motivation in sport setting: A goal perspective approach. In Glyn C.
Roberts (ED), Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 57-91). Champaign. IL:
Human Kinetics.
Duda, J.L. & Whitehead, J. (2201). Measurement of goal perspectives in the physical
domain. In Singer, R.N., Hausenblas, H.A., & Janelle, C.M. (2001). Hand book of
sport psychology. NY: New York. John Wiley & Sons.
Duda, J.L., Chi, L., and Newton, M.L., Walling, M.D., & Catley, D. (1995). Task and ego
orientation and intrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Sport Psychologist. 16,
40-63.

19
Duda, J.L. (1989). The relationship between task and ego orientation and perceived
purpose of sport among male and female high school athletes. Journal of Sport
and Exercise Psychology, 11, 318-335.
Duda, J.L. (1993). Goal: A social cognitive approach to the study of achievement
motivation in sport. In R.N. Singer, M. Murphey, & L.K. Tennant. (Eds.),
Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology (pp. 420-436). New York: NY.
Maxmillan.
Duda, J.L.& Nichools, J.G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in
schoolwoork and sport. In S. Vlachopolos, S. Biddle, & K. Fox. (Ed.) A socialcognitive investigation into the mechanism of affect generation in childrens
physical activity, Journal of Sport and Exercise, 18, 174-173.
Roberts, C., Treasure, D.C., & Balague, G. (1998). Achievement goals in sport: The
development and validation of the perception of success questionnaire. Journal
of Sport Science, 16, 337-347.
Dorobantu, M., & Biddle, S.H.J. (1997). The influence of an individual goals intrinsic
motivation of Romanian adolescents towards physical education. European
Yearbook of Sport Psychology. 1, 148-165.
Dweck, C.S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist.
41, 1040-1048.
Ebbeck, V., & Becker, S.L. (1994). Psychosocial predictors of goal orientations in youth
soccer. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65. 355-362.
Gano-Overway, L.A., & Duda, J.L. (1996). Goal perspectives and their relationship to
beliefs and affective responses among African and Anglo-American athletes.
Journal of applied Sport Psychology. 8, (Suppl.), S138.
Goudas, M., Biddle, S., & Fox, K. (1994). Achievement goal orientation and intrinsic
motivation in physical fitness testing with children. See in Wang, J., & Biddle, S.
(2001). Young peoples motivational profiles in physical activity: a cluster
analysil. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 23, 1-22.
Harwood, C., Hardy, L., & Swin, A. (2000), Achievement goals in sport: a critique of
conceptual and measurement issues. Journal of Sport and Exercise
Psychology. 22, 235-255.

20
Harwood, C. & Swin, L. (2001). Persistence and effort in perceiving achievement goal
research forward: A response to Treasure and colleagues. Journal of Sport and
Exercise Psychology. 23, 330-345.
Harwood, C., Hardy, L., & Swin, A. (2001). Achievement goal in sport: A critique of
conceptual and measurement issue. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.
22, 235-255.
Hayashi, C.T., & Weiss, M.R. (1994). A cross-cultural analysis of achievement
motivation in Anglo-American and Japanese marathon runners. International
Journal of Sport Psychology. 25, 187-202.
Hayashi, T.C. (1996). Achievement motivation among Anglo-American and Hawaiian
male physical activity participants: individual differences and social contextual
factors. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 18, 194-215.
Hodge, K. & Petlichkoff, L. (2000). Goal profiles in sport motivation : A cluster analysis.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 22, 256-272.
Horn, T.S.; & Horn, J.L. (2007). Family Influences on Childrens Sport and Physical
Activity Participation, Behavior, and Psychosocial Responses. In G. Tenenbaum &
R.C. Eklund (Eds.). Handbook of Sport Psychology (3rd ed. pp.685-711). NY:
New York: Wiley.
Holt, N.L., Tamminen, K. A., Black, D. E., Mandigo, J.L., & Fox, K.R. (2009). Youth Sport
Parenting Styles and Practices. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 31(1):
37-59.
Kavussanu, M. & Roberts, G.C. (2001). Moral functioning in sport: An achievement goal
perspective. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 23(1), 37-54
Kim, B.J., & Gill, D.L. (1995). Psychological correlates of achievement goal orientation
in Korean youth sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology (Suppl.), S22.
Lemyre, P.N., Roberts, G.C., & Ommundsen, Y. (2002). Achievement goal orientation,
perceived ability and sportspersonship in youth soccer. Journal of Applied Sport
Psychology. 14(2), 120-136.
Li, F., Harme, P. Vongjaturapat, N., & Boonverabut, S. (1996). Cross-culture validation of
the task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise
Psychology.18(4), 309-407.

21
Maehr, M.L., & Nicholls, J.G. (1980). Culture and achievement motivation. In C.
Harwood, L. Hardy, & A. Swain, (Eds.). Achievement goal in sport: A critique of
conceptual and measurement issue. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.
22, 235-255.
Newton, M.L., & Duda, J.L, (1994). The perceived motivational climate in sport
questionnaire-2: construct and predictive validity. Journal of Sport and Exercise
Psychology. 15, (Suppl.), S59.
Nicholls, J.G. (1984). Achievement motivation: conceptions of ability, subjective
experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328-346.
Nicholls, J.G. & Miller, A.T. (1983). The differentiation of the concepts of difficulty and
ability. Child Development. 54, 951-959.
Nicholls, J.G., Cheung, P.C., Lauer, J. & Patashnick, M. (1989). Individual differences in
academic motivation: Perceived ability, goals beliefs, and values. In D. Treasure,
J.L. Duda, H. Hall, G.C. Roberts, C. Ames, and M. Maehr, (Eds.). Clarifying
misconceptions and misrepresentations in achievement goal research in sport: A
response to Harwood, Hardy, and Swain. Journal of Sport and Exercise
Psychology. 23, 317-329.
Nicholls, J.G., Patashnick, M., & Nolen, S.B. (1985). Adolescents theories of education.
In C. Harwood, L. Hardy, & A. Swin, (Eds.). Achievement goals in sport: a
critique of conceptual and measurement issues. Journal of Sport and Exercise
Psychology. 22, 235-255.
Nicholls, J. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. In G.C. Roberts. &
D.C. Treasure. (Ed.). Achievement goals, motivational climate and achievement
strategies and behavior in sport. Journal of Sport Psychologist, 26, 64-80.
Nicholls, J.S., Patashinck, M., & Nolen, S.B. (1985). Adolescent theories of education. In
Harwood Ntoumanis, N. & Nolen, S.B. (1998). The relationship between
competitive anxiety, achievement goals, and motivation climates. Research
Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69, 176-187.
Papaioannou, A. (1995). Differential perceptual and motivational patterns when different
goals are adopted. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 17, 18-34.

22
Papaioannou, A., & Diggelidis, N. (1996). Developmental differences in students
motivation, goal orientation, perceived motivational climate and perceptions of
self in Greek physical education. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 8,
(Suppl.), S15.
Roberts, G.C. (1992). Motivation in sport and exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Singer, R.N., Hausenblas, H.A., & Janelle, C.M. (2001). Hand book of sport
psychology. NY: New York. John Wiley & Sons.
Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.L., & Cumming. S.P. (2007). Effects of a Motivational Climate
Intervention for Coaches on Young Athletes Sport Performance Anxiety. Journal of
Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2007, 29(1), 39-59.
Solomon, M.A. & Boone, J. (1993). The impact of student goal orientation in physical
education classes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64. 418-424.
Treasur, D., Duda, J.L., Hall, H., Roberts, G.C., Ames, C., and Maehr, M. (2001).
Clarifying misconceptions and misrepresentations in achievement goal research
in sport : A response to Harwood, Hardy, and Swain. Journal of Sport and
Exercise Psychology. 23, 317-329.
Treasur, D.C. & Roberts, G.C. (1994). Cognitive and affective concomitants of task and
ego orientation during the middle-school years. Journal of Sport and Exercise
Psychology, 16, 15-28.
U-Siri, P. (1999). The relationships among trait anxiety and task and ego orientation in
sport between Srinakarinwirot athletes. Master of education degree in Physical
Education, Srinakarinwirot University.
Vlachopoulos, S. & Biddle, S.J.H. (1997). Modeling the relation of goal orientation to
achievement-related affect in physical education: does perceived ability matter.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 19, 169-187.
Wang, J., & Biddle, S. (2001). Young peoples motivational profiles in physical activity: a
cluster analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 23, 1-22.
Whitehead, J. (1995). Multiple achievement orientations and participation in youth sport:
a cultural and developmental perspective. International Journal of Sport
Psychology. 26, 431-452

23
Willaims, L. & Gill, D.L. (1995). The role of perceived competence in the motivation of
physical activity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 363-378.
Weiss, M.R. & Chaumeton, N. (1992). Motivational orientation in sport. In T.S. Horn.
(Ed.). Advances in Sport Psychology. (2nd). Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics.
Wang, C. K., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2001). Young peoples motivational profiles in physical
activity: A cluster analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 23, 1-22.