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It is obtained by mixing cement, water and aggregates (and sometimes admixtures) in required proportions. The mixture when placed in forms and. allowed to cure becomes hard like stone. The hardening is caused by chemical action between water and the cement and it continues for a long time, and consequently the concrete grows stronger with age. The hardened concrete may also be considered as an artificial stone in which the voids of larger particles (coarse aggregate) are filled by the smaller particles (fine aggregate) and the voids of fine aggregates are filled with cement. In a concrete mix the cement and water form a paste called cement water paste which in addition to filling the voids of fine aggregate acts as binder on hardening, thereby cementing the particles of the aggregates together in a compact mass. The strength, durability and other characteristics of concrete depend upon the properties of its ingredients, on the proportions of mix, the method of compaction and other controls during placing, compaction and curing. The popularity of the concrete is due to the fact that from the common ingredients, it is possible to tailor the properties of concrete to meet the demands of any particular situation. The advances in concrete technology have paved the way to make the best use of locally available materials by judicious mix proportioning and proper workmanship, so as to produce concrete satisfying performance requirements. CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE As mentioned earlier the main ingredients of concrete are cement, fine aggregate (sand) and coarse aggregate (gravel or crushed rock). It is usual to specify a particular concrete by the proportions (by weight) of these constituents and their characteristics, e.g. a 1 : 2 : 4 concrete refers to a particular concrete manufactured by” mixing cement, sand and broken stone in a 1 : 2 : 4 ratio (with a specified type of cement, water-cement ratio, maximum size of aggregate, etc.). This classification specifying the proportions of constituents and their characteristics is termed prescripitive specifications and is based on the hope that adherence to such prescripitive specifications will result in satisfactory performance. Alternatively, the specifications specifying the requirements of the desirable properties of concrete such as strength, workability, etc. are stipulated, and these are termed performance oriented specifications Based on these considerations, the
coupled with necessary checks and tests for quality acceptance. These properties will be discussed in detail later in the book.concrete can be classified either as nominal mix concrete or designed mix concrete. placing. In its hardened state concrete should be strong. compaction and curing. but good concrete has to satisfy performance requirements in the plastic or green state and also the hardened state. durable. The various grades of concrete as stipulated in IS: 456-1978 and IS: 1343-1980 are . transportation. mixing. its compressive strength is considered to be the most important and is taken as an index of its overall quality. Among the various properties of concrete. and impermeable. Many other properties of concrete appear to be generally related to its compressive strength. a concrete with ingredient proportions fixed by designing the concrete mixes with -preliminary tests are called controlled concrete. Segregation is the separation of coarse aggregate and bleeding is the separation of cement paste from the main mass. whereas ordinary concrete is one where nominal mixes are adopted. PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE Concrete making is not just a matter of mixing ingredients to produce a plastic mass. depending upon the levels of control exercised in the works and the method of proportioning concrete mixes. In the plastic state the concrete should be workable and free from segregation and bleeding. In IS: 456-1978 there is nothing like uncontrolled concrete: only the degree of control varies from very good to poor or no control. and it should have minimum dimensional changes. GRADES OF CONCRETE The concrete is generally graded according to its compressive strength. the quality control includes selection of appropriate concrete materials after proper tests. The segregation and bleeding results in a poor quality concrete. Sometimes the concrete is classified into controlled concrete and ordinary concrete. Accordingly. In addition to mix proportioning. proper workmanship in batching.
The concrete of grades M5 and M7. The concrete and steel have approximately equal coefficients of thermal expansion. These need not be designed. 7. airfields. expressed in MPa (N/mm²). the letter M refers to the mix and the number to the specified characteristic strength of 150 mm work cubes at 28 days.given in Table 2. When properly prepared its strength is equal to that of a hard natural stone. The form work can be reused a number of times of similar jobs resulting in economy. it can be made from locally available coarse and fine aggregates. Concrete can even be sprayed on and filled into fine cracks for repairs by the guniting process. 6. The concrete can be pumped and hence it can be laid in the difficult positions also. DISADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE . bridges. docks and harbours. water retaining structures. roads. and the corrosive and weathering effects are minimal. 2. Concrete is economical in the long run as compared to other engineering materials. buildings. 5. The concrete is extensively used in the construction of foundations. bunkers and silos. Except cement. ADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE 1. It is durable and fire resistant and requires very little maintenance. The green concrete can be easily handled and moulded into any shape or size according to specifications. The concrete of grades lower than MIS is not suitable for reinforced concrete works and grades of concrete lower than M30 are not to be used in the prestressed concrete works. 4. 3.1. It is strong in compression and has unlimited structural applications in combination with steel reinforcement. etc. dams. In the designation of concrete mix. walls.5 is suitable for lean concrete bases and simple foundations of masonry walls. Concrete possesses a high compressive strength.
gravel or rock deposits. The lack of ductility inherent in concrete as a material is disadvantageous with respect to earthquake resistant design. MATERIAL OF CONCRETE CEMENT Cement is a well-known building material and has occupied an indispensable place in construction works. Concrete under sustained loading undergoes creep resulting in the reduction of prestress in the prestressed concrete construction. 2. from nearby sand. In order to obtain a strong. concrete is to be reinforced with steel bars or meshes.1. Concrete is liable to disintegrate by alkali and sulphate attack. Provision for contraction joints has to be made to avoid the development of cracks due to drying shrinkage and moisture movement. Therefore. to bind the sand and coarse aggregates together. it is necessary to understand the characteristics and behaviour of the ingredients. Although cement constitutes only about 10 per . to fill the voids in between sand and coarse aggregate particles to form a compact mass. Concrete has low tensile strength and hence cracks easily. Fresh concrete shrinks on drying and hardened concrete expands on wetting. Hence expansion joints have to be provided to avoid the formation of cracks due to thermal movement. cement is by far the most important constituent because it is usually the delicate link in the chain. 3. durable and economical concrete mix. 7. The function of cement is first. and the fine and coarse aggregates used are those that are usually obtainable. There is a variety of cements available in the market and each type is used under certain conditions due to its special properties. 6. and second. Concrete is not entirely impervious to moisture and contains soluble salts which may cause efflorescence. The cement commonly used is portland cement. Concrete expands and contracts with the changes in temperature. 5. Although all materials that go into a concrete mixture are essential. 4.
Super Sulphate Cement vii. Its inventor. Hydrophobic Cement AGGREGATES Aggregates are generally cheaper than cement and impart greater volume stability and durability to concrete. To increase the density of the resulting mix. Waterproof Cement ix. the aggregate is frequently used in two or more sizes. Low-heat Portland Cement iv. Coloured Portland Cement xi. The aggregates . a mixture of naturally occurring argillacious (containing alumina) and calcareous (containing calcium carbonate or lime) materials to a partial fusion at high temperature (about 1450°C). in a definite proportion. The product obtained on burning. Joseph Aspdin. The aggregate is used primarily for the purpose of providing bulk to the concrete. Types of Cements i. it is the active portion of the binding medium and the only scientifically controlled ingredient of concrete. White Portland Cement x. High-alumina Cement viii. which provide a binding medium for the discrete ingredients. Rapid-hardening Portland Cement ii. Portland-slag Cement iii. It is obtained by burning together. Portland-pozzolana Cement v. called clinker. Cement is an extremely ground material having adhesive and cohesive properties. is cooled and ground to the required fineness to produce a material known as cement. called it portland cement because when it hardened it produced a material resembling stone from the quarries near Portland in England. High-strength Portland Cement vi.cent of the volume of the concrete mix.
sometimes. Irregular aggregate . Classification according to the Geological Origin:i. All-in-aggregate iv. In fact. Classification of Aggregate 1. by improving its volume stability and durability over that of the cement paste. thermal and. Fine aggregate ii. Natural aggregate ii. Classification according to size:i. Aggregate was originally viewed as an inert. chemical properties influence the performance of concrete.provide about 75% of the body of the concrete and hence its influence is extremely important. it is advantageous to use a mix with as much aggregate and as little cement as possible. Classification according to shape:i. From the economic viewpoint. aggregate is not truly inert because it’s physical. Single-size-aggregate 3. Artificial aggregate 2. inexpensive material dispersed throughout the cement paste so as to produce a large volume of concrete. but the cost benefit has to be balanced against the desired properties of concrete in its fresh and hardened state. Coarse aggregate iii. for example. Rounded aggregate ii.
If too much water is added to concrete. The excess water may also leak through the joints of the formwork and make the concrete honeycombed. This laitance prevents bond formation between the successive layers of concrete and forms a plane of weakness. Lightweight aggregate iv. But the concrete containing water in this proportion will be very harsh and difficult to place. Bloated clay aggregate WATER Generally. Heavyweight aggregate iii. cement requires about 3/10 of its weight of water for hydration. This additional water must be kept to the minimum. As a rule. Classification based on unit weight:i. The water-cement ratio is influenced by the grade of concrete. nature and type of aggregates. Normal-weight aggregate ii. Additional water is required to lubricate the mix. Angular aggregate iv.iii. the smaller the percentage of water. which makes the concrete workable.35. Flaky and elongated aggregate 4. the stronger is the concrete subject to the condition that the required workability is allowed for. Hence the minimum water-cement ratio required is 0. since too much water reduces the strength of concrete. the workability and durability. Effect of impurities in water on properties of concrete:- . the excess water along with cement comes to the surface by capillary action and this cement-water mixture forms a scum or thin layer of chalky material known as laitance.
The admixtures ranging from addition of chemicals to waste materials have been used to modify certain properties of concrete. cement of water added in small quantities during the mixing of concrete to produce some desired modification in one or more of its properties’. The admixture is generally added in a relatively small quantity. An admixture should be employed only after an appropriate evaluation of its effects on the particular concrete under the conditions in which the concrete is intended to be used. dispersion and airentrainment. Acids and alkalies 5. Admixtures are no substitute for good concreting practice. The use of admixture should offer an improvement not economically attainable by adjusting the proportions of cement and aggregates. Suspended particles 2. Algae 6. Admixtures are the materials other than the basic ingredients of concrete. . workability. Sugar 7. and aggregates. and should not adversely affect any property of the concrete. Oil contamination. ADMIXTURES BS 2787: 1956 ‘Glossary of term for concrete and reinforced concrete’ gives the following definition for the term ‘admixture’.1. water. Salts in sea water 4. with ‘additive’ given as an alternative term with the same definition: ‘A material other than coarse or fine aggregate. It is often necessary to conduct tests on the representative samples of the materials for a particular job under simulated job conditions in order to obtain reliable information on the properties of concrete containing admixtures. The properties commonly modified are that rate of hydration or setting time. cement. Miscellaneous inorganic salts 3.
and low durability. To increase the resistance to chemical attack. its resistance to special conditions of exposure. 2. To increase the bond between old and new concrete surfaces. 6. susceptibility to chemical attack. 17. wider and more economical use. To accelerate the initial set of concrete. . 16.e. 12.FUNCTIONS OF ADMIXTURES 1. 5.e. To control the alkali-aggregate expansion. SPECIAL CONCRETE AND CONCRETING TECHNIQUES Notwithstanding its versatility. To improve the workability. To produce concrete of fungicidal. permeability to liquids and consequent corrosion of reinforcement. To increase the bond of concrete to the steel reinforcement. Recent developments in the material and construction technology have led to significant changes resulting in improved performance. 10. To increase the durability of concrete. i. To reduce the segregation in grout mixtures. To increase the strength of concrete. and 18. i. 9. such as low tensile strength. 4. To reduce the heat of evolution. like repeated freezing and thawing cycles. 11. germicidal and insecticidal properties. to speed up the rate of development of strength at early ages. To retard the initial set. To produce coloured concrete or mortar for coloured surfaces. 13. To decrease the weight of concrete per cubic metre. To improve the penetration and pumpability of concrete. 7. To produce nonskid surfaces. Modifications have been made from time to time to overcome the deficiencies of cement concrete yet retaining the other desirable characteristics. cement concrete suffers from several drawbacks. To inhibit the corrosion of concrete. 3. to decrease the capillary flow of water through concrete and to increase its impermeability to liquids. 15. 8. To produce cellular concrete. 14.
Better mechanical properties than that of conventional concrete. The following methods give a measure of workability which is applicable only with reference to the particular method. Lightweight concrete 2. iii. tensile strength. etc. such as compressive strength. Ultralightweight concrete 3. Gap-graded concrete 13. No-fines concrete WORKABILITY TEST Unfortunately. Waste material based concrete 5. abrasion and skid resistance. Sulphur concrete and Sulphur-infiltrated concrete 11. SPECIAL CONCRETE 1. etc. lightness. these methods have found universal acceptance and their merit is chiefly that of simplicity of operation with an ability to detect variations in the uniformity of a mix of given nominal proportions. Fibre reinforced concrete 9. Vacuum Concrete 4. such as impermeability. Better durability attained by means of increased chemical and freezethaw resistances. Ferrocement 8. ii. impact toughness.The improvements in performance can be grouped as: i. SLUMP TEST . Mass concrete 6. adhesion. there is no acceptable test which will measure directly the workability as defined earlier. Polymer concrete composites (PCCs) 10. thermal insulation. Jet (Ultra-rapid hardening) cement concrete 12. However. Shotcrete or guniting 7. Improvements in selected properties of interest.
) diameter is placed on a smooth surface with the smaller opening of 102 mm (4 in.) high. at this stage. called the compacting factor. filled to overflowing and thus always contains approximately the same amount of concrete in a standard state. is measured by the density ratio. The decrease in the height of the centre! of the slumped concrete is called slump.e. this reduces the influence of the personal factor in filling the top hopper. The mould must be firmly held against its base during the entire operation. Bahrner of Sweden who developed the test. VEBE TEST The name Vebe is derived from the initials of V. and is measured to the nearest 5 mm. and the net mass of concrete in the known volume of the cylinder is determined. rounded at the end. therefore. The bottom door of the lower hopper is released and the concrete falls into the cylinder. i. and the unsupported concrete will now slump – hence the name of the test. Each layer is tamped 25 times with a standard 16 mm diameter steel rod. 305 mm (12 in. The base of 203 mm (8 in. the ratio of the density actually achieved in the test to the density of the same concrete fully compacted. This hopper is smaller than the upper one and is. the cone is slowly lifted. Immediately after filling. COMPACTING FACTOR TEST The degree of compaction. and the top surface is struck off by means of a screeding and rolling motion of the tamping rod. The test is covered by BS 1881: Part 104: 1983 and is referred to also in . this is facilitated by handles or foot-rests brazed to the mould. The bottom door of the hopper is then released and the concrete falls into the lower hopper. no work is done on the concrete to produce compaction. this being placed gently so that. and the container is filled with concrete in three layers. Excess concrete is cut by two floats slid across the top of the mould.) diameter at the top. The upper hopper is filled with concrete.The mould for the slump test is a frustum of a cone.
6 in.).). represents the flow. is placed using a mould 200 mm (8 in. but this is not a standard procedure. the surrounding table top is cleaned. Concrete should at this stage appear . excess concrete is removed. The upper board can be lifted up to a stop so that the free edge rises 40 mm (1. To overcome it an automatically operated device for recording the movement of the plate against time may be fitted. avoiding a significant force against the stop. Appropriate markings indicate the location of the concrete to be deposited on the table. Compaction is assumed to be complete when the transparent rider is totally covered with concrete and all cavities in the surface of the concrete have disappeared.) high with a bottom diameter of 200 mm (8 in. and after an interval of 30 sec.75 kg (6Ib)) is placed on top of the concrete. each board being a 700 mm (27. In consequence. The table top is lifted and allowed to drop.ACI Standard 211. A value of 400 indicates a medium workability and 500 a high workability.).) and a top diameter of 130 mm (about 5 in. the concrete spreads and the maximum spread parallel to the two edges of the table is measured. lightly tamped by a wooden tamper in a prescribed manner. This is judged visually. This board is hinged along one side to a base board. removed. and the difficulty of establishing the end point of the test may be a source of error. given to the nearest millimetre. the mould is slowly removed. FLOW TABLE TEST The apparatus consists essentially of a wooden board covered by a steel plate with a total mass of 16 kg (about 35 lb). The table top is moistened and a frustum of a cone of concrete.) square.3-75 (revised 1980). The average of these two values. 15 times. and a disc-shaped rider (weighing 2.35 mm (±0.6 in.014 in. The slump cone is filled in the standard manner. Compaction is achieved using a vibrating table with an eccentric weight rotating at 50 Hz so that the vertical amplitude of the table with the empty cylinder is approximately ±0. each cycle taking approximately 4 sec. Before lifting the mould.
vibrated reinforced concrete m30. The test is covered by ASTM Standard C 36082 and is rarely used in the UK. Thus the test offers an indication of the cohesiveness of the mix. how to transfer prestress when grade of concrete is low. vibrated reinforced concrete m30. Kelly and known as the Kelly ball. W. application in lightweight concrete. weighing 14 kg (30 lb). the depth of the concrete being tested should be not less than 200mm (8 in). advantages of compacting factor test over slump test. what is more important. . devised by J. however. and the least lateral dimension 460mm Related Tags: Advantages of compacting factor test. In particular. sulphur-infiltrated concrete used in rehabilitation of structures.) diameter metal hemisphere. that is for routine checking of consistence for control purposes. A sketch of the apparatus. application in lightweight concrete. over which it has some advantages. . In order to avoid boundary effect. advantages and disadvantages of compaction factor apparatus test?. Advantages and disadvantages of compacting factor test. BALL PENETRATION TEST This is a simple field test consisting of the determination of the depth to which a 152 mm (6 in.. source of error in light compaction soil. the ball test is simpler and quicker to perform and. worth considering the Kelly ball test as an alternative to the slump test. The use of this test is similar to that of the slump test.uniform and cohesive or else the test is considered inappropriate for the given mix. it can be applied to concrete in a wheelbarrow or actually in the form. will sink under its own weight into fresh concrete. this mixture then placed in forms and allowed to cure and becomes hard like stone. It is.
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