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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr.

4pol3

Good Governance at the Grassroots: Assessing the Disaster Risk Reduction Program of Barangay Jesus De la Pena in Promoting Social Welfare Introduction In order to arrive to a more productive discussion of this study, we need to first start on how the Local Government Unit of Barangay Jesus Dela Pena of Marikina City deal with disasters or what are their measures for their Disaster Risk Reduction Program. But before doing that we must first disaster. It can be a very complex task if we discuss the term with its varying meaning proposed by different scholars and researchers. The concept of disaster has a very broad and covers different kinds of phenomena from ethnic clashes and disputes in small ethnic groups, up to the terrorist attacks such as bombings and assaults, and including also the different social crisis that countries are facing up to those phenomena formed by nature such as natural calamities, floods, earthquakes etc.; even those phenomena created by technology can be considered as a disaster such as chemical explosions (Quarantelli, 2005). In this study, given that the concept of disaster is a very broad term, we are focusing on the disaster that was caused by the natural phenomena such as typhoons, floods, earthquakes and other natural disasters that devastate the environment affecting the population in a given territory that was affected by calamities. Filipinos usually think of natural calamities when the term disaster is brought up. This is because of the natural phenomena that happened in our country these past few years. But some of the most serious disasters that happened in our country are not caused by nature alone or by chance, the actions of humans

Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

are also accountable for these disasters (Challen, 2004). Humans should also be responsible for their actions in order to prevent further disasters. Since people have the capability to contribute to natural disasters, we also have the power to prevent such phenomena. This is where the Local Government Units need to take action. The LGUs are needed to help the national government in resolving different issues of the citizens especially regarding development and for the safety of the people. The Local Government Units can help the people before or during calamities by creating their own disaster risk reduction programs that will aid or assist those who are possible victims or victims already of natural disasters. Natural Calamity History Due to its location, the only place in metro manila which lies in a valley, Marikina has a very high risk of having the problem with floods. The source of flooding is from the overflowing of the water in the Marikina River which then fills up the low-lying areas of the city. Since Barangay Dela Pena is one of the Barangays beside the Marikina River, they are the one who will be the first to experience or to be affected by floods every time the water of the Marikina River overflows (Marikina, 2011). A huge and devastating tropical Thunderstorm, much known as the tropical thunderstorm ONDOY, happened in September 26, 2009 that brought affect the not only the whole metro manila but also to the other parts of the country. One of the major victims of the said thunderstorm is the City of Marikina. Since the city is located in a valley where the land is very low, most of the area in the city is covered with flood including Barangay Dela Pena which was located near the Marikina River (Marikina, 2011). The huge amount of water

Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

that overflowed from the river easily entered the streets of Marikina destroying different properties such as buildings, houses, cars, etc. and it even took hundreds of lives during the tragedy (Proffsg, 2011). Because of this incident, the government needs to take extra effort in preventing what happened during the Thunderstorm Ondoy. June of 2011, another challenge emerged as the tropical depression named Falcon hits Philippines. The local government of Marikina City, already anticipated the flood and other damages that the storm might inflict causing them to come up with a decision of forced evacuation, especially to the people residing in the area near the river including those who are in Barangay Jesus Dela Pena. Soon enough, the areas which were thought to have a flood start to swell up with water as the rain continues to pour cause by Falcon (Lantin, 2011). The difference with this incident is that there is a huge improvement with the participation of the people. Fire and military tracks, and rubber boats have been put to standby in case of emergencies. The Government became more ready this time. Governments role and Responsibility Due to the different activities of the people, the urban flooding of Marikina is worsened since some of these activities caused the obstruction and pollution of the Marikina River. Because of the pollution and the obstruction of the water ways, the problem regarding flood of Marikina continues to escalate resulting to a more disaster-prone area. Because of this, the problem with the Marikina River can result to other problems affecting the health and the livelihood of the people. It is the responsibility of the Government, with the help of the concerned Local Government Units, to restore the cleanliness and the safety of Marikina River for the general welfare of the citizens.

Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

Disaster Risk Reduction Program One of the actions of the Local Government for their Disaster Risk Reduction program was the Flood Structural Mitigation, where in canals, drainage systems, creeks and other waterways were improved with the construction and rehabilitation of the major outfalls or water outlets from the river. The project also includes the paving of roads in order to reduce mud, stones, sands which enter the drainage system and other waterways obstructing the water. Removal of informal settlers, commercial buildings and other businesses beside the Marikina River is also part of this act since they are the possible pollutants and they can cause obstruction in the water of Marikina River. The problem with this project is that the structural mitigation is expensive and limited which is the reason why not all of the areas in Marikina were worked on this project (Iglesias & Yu, 2008). Another action that was taken by the Local Government Units of Marikina is the Non-structural Mitigation. The Local Government Units of Marikina passed many ordinances that regarding this area. One of these ordinances is the creation of the Disaster management office of Marikina or also known as the Rescue 161. The rescue 161 is the office responsible for emergencies or for the issue of emergency preparedness. They also help on coordinating emergency responses and monitors activities during emergencies especially during calamities, emergencies and other disasters such as earthquakes and floods. The ordinance number 264 of 1998 also specifies the staff of the office of emergency 161, their salaries and the budget allotted by the local government to this office (Iglesias & Yu, 2008). This ordinance makes sure that the office will do their job by ensuring their budgets and the salaries of the people working the office of emergency 161.

Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

In 1993, the city of Marikina passed the ordinance 59 which keeps the sidewalks, alleys and public places clear in order to maximize the free movement of vehicles and human especially in case of emergencies (Iglesias & Yu, 2008). This ordinance is very essential especially during emergencies where emergency vehicles such as fire trucks, ambulance, etc. can easily access small roads. Because of this ordinance the sidewalks became cleaner since street vendors are lessened and there are fewer obstructions thus, making disaster-prone areas more accessible for assistance to enter. The city also bought heavy equipments which will be needed in case of disasters especially for the earthquake. Marikina is aware of the possibility of earthquakes since the area has its own fault line. This is also one of the problems that Marikina is trying to resolve with their disaster risk reduction management. Marikina passed ordinance 54 of 2005 which uses the 20% of the calamity fund for disaster preparedness including the purchase of disaster related tools and gadgets. Such gadgets and tools can be used in emergencies during earthquakes. Also in order to improve the public awareness for disasters, the local government established the Disaster Preparedness Education Center (Iglesias & Yu, 2008). This includes the audio/visual room which can be used to effectively show to the people how to prepare in case of disasters through visual aids. The center also features a small disaster management museum and a disaster management library. The City also published a book regarding disaster management which is entitled as the Disaster Management Handbook. The book was distributed to different leaders of homeowners associations and also to other mayors and cities which can be used to also help them in improving the awareness of the people regarding

Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

disasters. The book contains instructions on how can the people be prepared in case of disasters (Iglesias & Yu, 2008). And lastly, the Local Government Units of Marikina came up to the Save the Marikina River Program. Since the removal of informal settlers was already been done by the LGUs as a means to save the Marikina, some other informal settlers do not participate with the project so the Local Government Unit of Marikina decided that instead of removing those informal settlers, they relocate them instead. The ordinance 10 of 1994 was created to restore the Marikina River to its original and good condition; some of the provisions consist of clearing the banks of Marikina River from its informal settlers and other illegal structures which are established near or beside the Marikina River. The ordinance also has the goal to enhance the aesthetics or the scenery of the Marikina River by planting different plants that will also help in the recovery of the river. Demanding industries to set up their water treatment facilities also helped in improving the quality of the water in the Marikina River. (Iglesias & Yu, 2008) After more than a decade of rehabilitating and improving the Marikina river, the programs of the Local Government Unit of Marikina does not only improved the quality of the Marikina river water by rehabilitation and restoration but the programs also facilitate sustainable development of Marikina through different activities which are safe to the river The Local Government of Marikina established their Solid Waste Management System. The government could not possibly pursue and effectively implement this system to promote public safety and public health without the participation of the people e.g. responsibly throwing their garbage in proper place that will be collected in an announced
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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

schedule. With public health and public safety in mind, there is an existing penalty for noncompliance of the said project. In line with this project, the City of Marikina created the EcoSavers Program which consists or waste segregation and recycling practices at the household level. (Iglesias & Yu, 2008) Implications to society The Disaster Risk Reduction program (DRRP) of Marikina City is something to be considered as a very important tool in ensuring the public safety and good quality of life of the citys residents. Specifically, within the context of Barangay Jesus de la Pena, which happens to be situated beside the Marikina river, the need for a strict and meticulous implementation of the aforementioned DDRP is evidently necessary. The geographical to setting of Barangay Jesus Dela Pena always plays it in a disaster-prone and disaster-risk area. The frequent overflowing of the Markina River, if no preventive measures are taken to minimize damages, would continue to ravage the respective Barangay, as well as, the nearby Barangays that will lead to the destruction of lives and properties. Considering that Barangay Jesus de la Pena is situated beside of the Marikina river, it is just logical that such barangay and its residents should be protected from the adverse effects of calamities or disasters that could possibly take place (ADPC, 2007). The said barangay, being directly prone to the overflowing of the Marikina river especially during the occurrence of hard rains, needs to be guided accordingly within the contents of Marikina s Disaster Risk Reduction Program (DRRP) in order to ensure the safety of its residents. Furthermore, the aforementioned barangay has been the center of Marikina citys shoe-making industry for a long period of time, and also, it has been the site of a number of
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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

commercial establishments, businesses, and real estates, thus, making the need for a prompt and religious implementation of the citys DRRP a must. Basically, the public safety and good living conditions of the whole society that exists within the said barangay is the main concern that should be considered in using the citys DRRP and its provisions. Another point to consider is that Barangay Jesus de la Pena does not have institutionalized ordinances and policies that are specifically made for its residents and territorial boundaries. For that matter, it basically adapts the DRRP of the city. In the general sense, the implications of the DRRP to society in the context of Barangay Jesus de la Pena, is that such society may be assessed regarding its healthy existence based on how it adopts the contents of the said DRRP. The possible non-compliance of the said barangay may harm its residents in the sense that the basic services and precautions needed in times of calamities may not be provided. Obviously, the general welfare of the society in times of disasters such as floodings, earthquakes, and the like, should be considered first in assessing the need for the DRRP. Considering Ordinance 264 of 1998 (one of the ordinances in Marikina citys DRRP) as an example, a lot of implications to society by the implementation of the DRRP can be established. Such aforementioned ordinance is all about the creation of a Disaster Management Office of Marikina city or better known as Rescue 161. The main goal of such ordinance is to enable disaster preparedness and responsiveness by means of training the city police, health officials, and firemen in responding to disasters in a fast and efficient way.

Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

Although the provisions of Marikina DRRP can be considered to contain specific and varying contents, means, and purposes, it is undeniable that its proper implementation, generally ensures a healthy society within the context of Barangay Jesus de la Pena.

Implications to Politics Another area of analysis wherein Marikinas DRRP can be related to is that of politics. Basically, the purpose of the DRRP is to ensure the public safety and good quality of life of the constituents of Marikina city and in aiming to do so, the city government itself employs its power through the creation of useful ordinances in the pursuance of their disaster risk reduction goals. In the creation of DRRP ordinances, the city government of Marikina basically employs its legislative power in order to safeguard its residents. In doing so, numerous offices or agencies of local authority have been given specific tasks in carrying out duties in ensuring public safety during times of disaster. This specific provision can be found in the DRRPs Ordinance 109 of 2005 (ADPC, 2007). In looking at the scope of the aforementioned ordinance, the local government, which happens to be Marikina city, has asserted its political role in subjecting national agencies in order to help fulfill the citys goals. Through this, politics can be seen and how it can be influenced by the carrying out of policies. In the context of Barangay Jesus de la Pena, wherein numerous commercial establishments are located, adding up to the barangays role in Marikinas shoe-making industry, safeguarding the barangays residents and moreover, its industries, can be seen as a possible priority of the citys legislation. In this scenario, politics is also evident.
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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

Considering another ordinance within Marikina s DRRP in assessing its implications on politics, Ordinance 10 of 1994 can be cited as an example. The said ordinance is all about the declaration of easement of 96 meters from either side of the Marikina river centerline, and authorizing the relocation of all residents found within the easement to a safer ground (ADPC, 2007). Within the context of the situation of informal settlers situated in the immediate areas of the Marikina river, the implementation of the aforementioned ordinance may possibly not be taken as a good prerogative by residents due to the fact that their residence is being compromised by the local government, even though their safety is also an issue during times of disaster. In this case, the politics within governmental authority and residents are evident. Furthermore, within the context of Barangay Jesus de la Pena, the response of its barangay council in implementing the DRRP of the city can be crucial in determining the politics regarding the delegation of power of a higher LGU to a lower LGU, which happens to be the city and the barangay in this scenario. The effective adaptation and usse of the provisions of the DRRP by the barangay can determine politics to a certain extent. Implications to Economics The DRRP of Marikina city can be further evaluated in its implications in the area of economics. The provisions as provided by the ordinances that are contained in the DRRP provides mainly for the public safety and good quality of life of the constituents of Marikina . Along with these concerns regarding social welfare, is the economic concern of the residents. Inevitably, economics is an important part in the progress of a local government unit, or a

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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

barangay for that matter, because bad financial situations will not enable a good performance for the LGU involved and will not make its constituents benefit. Considering how economics is a key determinant in the growth of the city of Marikina and specifically, in the progress of Barangay Jesus de la Pena, one will have to importance of the commercial businesses that drive the local economy of the city. Its shoe-making industry which is essentially based in Barangay Jesus de la Pena, would definitely be affected by calamities such as floods, should they occur. It is to be considered that the aforementioned barangay is situated beside the Marikina river and the possible overflowing of the said river implies a lot with the barangays economics. If the DRRP would not be implemented properly as adapted by Barangay Jesus de la Pena, the commerce of the city and not just of the barangay would definitely be compromised. The success in the operations of the commercial establishments and local industries in Barangay Jesus de la Pena give a boost to the local economy of Marikina , and the possible disruption of such industrys business due to disasters would damage the city not just in terms of social welfare but also in its economic situation. Furthermore, the effects of disasters such as floods, earthquakes, fire, and the like would be damaging investments and properties of the city. As a response to this possibility, the city of Marikina as part of its DRRP, has invested in pontoon briges and several Collapsed Building Retrieval boxes. This is because of the high risk of earthquake occurrence in the city due to the Marikina fault line. The aforementioned investments are also to be considered determinants in the economics of the city. This is the case since the adverse effects of calamities (destruction of
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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

bridges, buildings, houses, etc.) can affect business, transportation, and commerce of the city. Without the proper functioning of the commercial establishments, the city would basically have less income and with the destruction of homes, the local government is to provide financially for the affected residents (ADPC, 2007). Evidently, the proper implementation of the DRRP of Marikina city by its barangays would definitely help the latters economic situation. Considering that Barangay Jesus de la Pena is a commercial barangay and a very important force in the citys main industry, its economic stability should be logically determined by the citys economic performance. Economic stability can be strengthened in times of disaster when the DRRP is implemented well. Outcomes Barangay Jesus De La Pena has struggled against typhoons and thunderstorms throughout the decade. Every rainy season has been a challenge to the local government unit due to its geographic location making it prone towards floods and other disasters that may be credited to the disasters that involve the heavy downpour of rain and strong gusts of wind. Also, being a local government unit under the city of Marikina, the barangay is situated in the Marikina fault line which also makes the barangay prone to earthquakes in the case that there is one. Flood is the primary concern of the Disaster Risk Reduction Program of Marikina City, principally for those barangays positioned near the Marikina River. The flooding pattern, according to studies made by the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), may

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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

be based upon the flooding that occurred in 1992, where in 27.52% of Marikina City was submerged in water, including the Marikina River. The typhoon Ondoy which hit the city of Marikina last September 2009 was an event to be remembered for the residents of the city. The traumatic ordeal that the residents suffered caused them a high volume of damages. The tropical storm Ondoy affected families/persons nearing 1million, and has casualties of about 1,030 (PDNA, 2009) Marikina City is one of the cities which was most affected by the storm. This was soon to be followed by another tropical storm which is typhoon Pepeng which also resulted in many casualties and damages. Typhoon Falcon, 2 years later, also had considerable damages towards the City of Marikina, and areas that are identified to have the most damages in Marikina City have already been evacuated and the residents of the area were also notified of the flooding that may occur when the storm reaches the country. In this scenario the government had learned from the previous events that have transpired and have become more prepared in terms of the general welfare, specifically the publics safety, of the residents of Marikina City. The damages and impacts of the two consecutive storms of 2009, Ondoy and Pepeng were learning points for the government, specifically the damages and impacts that Ondoy has brought. The government declared a National State of Calamity on October 2nd of the same year. The outcomes of the Disaster Risk Reduction Program of Marikina may be attributed to its preparedness towards the impacts and effects of such disasters mentioned above such as the tropical typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng. Also, due to the geographic location of
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Barangay Jesus De la Pena, the DRRP of Marikina City should be able to adequately prepare for such cases since the events mentioned above provided for an opportunity for the national and local government units to address the impacts of tropical storms and other related disasters. Following such events, the formation of the Marikina City Watershed Integrated Resource Development Alliance was formed and it is led by the local chief executives of Marikina City, Pasig City, Cainta City, Antipolo City, Quezon City and Rodriguez and San Mateo formed the Alliance of Seven. The group looks to rehabilitate and sustainably develop the Marikina Watershed under disaster risk reduction program framework. It looks to reforest the area and review policies existing in the seven local government units, and also the subject of relocation and resettlement is also brought about in relation to the residents across the seven local government units including livelihood assistance as a proposed action to help the residents that are to be included in the proposed relocation and resettlement project. Furthermore, the alliance looks into building partnerships with important stakeholders within the seven local government units which include the private sector and the civil society sectors, as well as NGOs, that would be of assistance in their proposed objectives. (PEDDR, 2011) Such is the case during the event that typhoon Falcon hit Metro Manila in 2011. The local government unit forced the residents of the city to evacuate before the worst had happened towards the city. Unlike the incident during Ondoy where in the residents failed to and resisted to leave their homes and property, this time around the residents cooperated and followed the advice and instructions of the local government unit to evacuate. (Charlie Mendoza, 2011)

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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

Also, the Disaster Risk Reduction Program of Marikina prepares its constituents of the possible earthquakes that may occur within the area because of the fault line located within its boundaries. The Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council of the city along with its Bureau of Fire protection conduct regular earthquake and fire drills in public and private schools, and government and non-governmental establishments to promote awareness to the people in case there may be an earthquake. (Broo, 2012) Public Participation As mentioned above, there is public participation in effectively implementing the results of the Disaster Risk Reduction Program in Marikina. The preparation that the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council take needs the public cooperation and compliance to mentally and physically prepare the people in case such emergencies occur when disasters such as earthquakes or tropical typhoons happen. The DRRMC is advising the people of the city to prepare safety plans and emergency supplies of food just in case the abovementioned disasters happen. The public preparedness is the result of the effective dissemination of information of the Disaster Risk Reduction Program of Marikina. As in the case mentioned above, the lack of distribution of information by the local government unit led to the thousands of families/persons affected by the tropical typhoon. In addition, due to the lack of effort and preparedness of the local government in the earlier stages of the typhoon Ondoy to evacuate the residents of their locality, many families have become victims of the flashfloods that happened during the typhoon. The residents were not leaving their property and homes and were being forced to evacuate, although some followed the advice of the government to vacate their residences and move to the evacuation centers where they are safe

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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

from the typhoon. Last year, during the non-stop rain brought by tropical storm Falcon, the outcome was different. The public followed the government advice and 90% of the residents left their homes and property and willfully came along with the governments aid to the evacuation centers in neighboring barangays. 15 evacuation centers housed 25, 174 persons while the height of the Marikina and Tumana rivers slowly escalated. (Mendoza & Lantin, 2011) In the situation mentioned above, the residents and the government learned from the events that had transpired during the typhoon Ondoy, and in preparation to upcoming storms, such as that of Falcon, the local government took initiative and prepared for the worst that could happen in the midst of the typhoon. In addition, several residents, volunteered to evacuate their homes before the local government performs a forced evacuation. The local government initiative to act and perform a preventive evacuation resulted in zero-casualties along with the voluntary evacuation of the residents helped in preserving the lives of the residents of the community. Also, rescue units are prepared by local police to aid the local government in these types of situations. Furthermore, upon following the escalation of the Marikina River, the local government is prompted to take into consideration the height increase of the river to further protect its residents. The local government advised its residents to voluntarily leave their homes upon the water level reaching 17mm, which the residents followed including residents from barangay Jesus de la Pena and residents of provident village which was one of the villages badly damaged during typhoon Ondoy. A forced evacuation is to be done by the local government in response to the height increase of the

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river reaching 18mm. Also, the local government prepared 6x6 trucks for the public who are in need of help and rescue along with rubber boats that may be used in assistance of the people. (MERUEAS, 2011) The public behavior in terms of complying with the local government without hesitation and following the advice of the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council is having its positive effects in promoting the public safety of the residents in the Marikina City district. This may be an indicator of the effectiveness of the program as well as the effective dissemination of information which prompted the residents to voluntarily leave their households for their safety. (Meruenas, GMA News, 2011) Efficiency Following the disasters that have transpired during the typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng, the then President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo created the Special National Public Reconstruction Commission to raise resources for reconstruction efforts and oversee reconstruction programs as well as become the institution that may be used to interact with international banks and organizations for resources that is needed in reconstruction efforts. (PDRF, 2009) In addition with the abovementioned program and effort, the country received aids from different international organizations. One such organization is the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Reliefs were received by the affected communities through the UNDP flash appeal that included emergency goods such as food and non-food items like blankets, clothing and all other needs that may be required to address the effects of the flooding. (Ubac & Aning, 2009) Other organizations such as the UNICEF also provided health supplies and relief goods to childrens that were victims of the tropical storm. Also, the
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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

World Health Organization (WHO), also donated health supplies that will address the needs of the victims. In addition to the medical supplies, food has been provided for the victims by the World Food Program. (Ubac & Aning, 2009) In addition to these international organizations, the Philippines also received goods from other countries such as Japan, Singapore and countries from the Middle East. These countries have sent food supplies and relief goods in the forms of blankets, clothing, food and medical supplies to aid the victims of the typhoon. (Ubac & Aning, 2009) The damages caused by Ondoy and Pepeng cut across several sectors in the society, it included damages in the private sector, which include the agricultural, enterprises and the households, also, schools and hospitals were damaged during these occurrences. These damages were mainly caused by rainfall, flooding, and mud. To those households affected, the government provided shelters in the form of evacuation centers, others were advised to move in with relatives or seek shelter elsewhere, or otherwise return to their provinces. The Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) after the typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng identified that the large number of households located in dangerous locations needs to be relocated to reduce the life threatening conditions that their current households stand. (PDRF, Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng: Post Disaster Needs Assessment Sector Reports, 2009) Such is the case of the households in Barangay Jesus De La Pena, wherein villages are located near the Marikina River, including Provident Village as being the prone to flooding; even the city of Marikina itself is prone to flooding which may recur during the rainy season. (Walefield, 2010) The typhoons also damaged livelihood across the country and poverty problems have impeded economic progress. Livelihoods are affected and the income of the average household

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decreased due to the impacts of the typhoon. (PDRF, Typhoon Ondoy and Pepeng PostDisaster Needs Assessment, 2009) Political, Economical and Social Stability The government institution that is most responsible are the cities, municipalities and barangays in the disaster risk reduction and management plan. The Disaster Risk Reduction and Management program was currently oriented towards emergency responses during the time of Ondoy and Pepeng. The government has been trying to shift the emphasis from a reactive to proactive mode, wherein the prevention, mitigation and disaster preparedness is more of the focus of the program. Several legal bases are being lobbied for the approval of the Congress to lead to significant changes in the case that there will be a forthcoming calamity and the local governments are tasked to enforce such legal bases for the protection of their constituents. They local government units are expected to create disaster prevention plans, including flood mitigation measures, and they are tasked to set aside 5% of their total income as their calamity fund. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management should be integrated with the local government units charter and plan, and this should be focused upon the abovementioned objectives. (PDRF, Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng: Post Disaster Needs Assessment Sector Reports, 2009) Citizens also hold significant roles in the disaster risk reduction plan of their communities. The citizens have extensive knowledge about the calamity history in their area and the local government institutions along with other organizations and sectors should build the relationship to empower the communities so they may also act and initiate disaster risk

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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

reduction and management plans. (PDRF, Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng: Post Disaster Needs Assessment Sector Reports, 2009) Analysis The disaster risk reduction program of Barangay Jesus De la Pena is mandated to promote disaster risk measures in order to protect the people from floods and disease brought about by the typhoons. This based on the premise that government policies are all geared towards public safety and development in order to serve the public at large. The disaster that happened in Marikina is not confined only one Barangay. The problem on natural disasters is not particular to the borders of any government entity. Therefore, it is right and proper that LGUs cooperate with their respective disaster risk reduction and management board and also with neighboring LGUs who might like wise be affected by the disaster whether directly through the floods or indirectly through the floods of nearby towns that simply got transferred to their town. With these in mind, this paper presents a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis regarding Barangay Jesus De la Pena in line with its disaster risk reduction program. The strengths of the disaster risk reduction program are as follows: it covers all natural disasters that can possibly hit Marikina. The disasters that will affect the area are storms because of flooding due to its geographical structure and man-made solid waste management failure, and; earthquakes, due to the presence of the Marikina fault line. Another strength of the disaster risk reduction program of Barangay Jesus De la Pena is that the policy it employs in its program, has been tested in cities e.g. Marikina City the larger and more populated LGU. Third strength is that the disaster risk reduction program of
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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

the Barangay is adopting the program of Marikina City making it easier to address problems that may be encountered in the implementation of such programs. Lastly, the strength of probably every LGU in Marikina is the strict implementation of such programs to its constituents. Strong implementation and political will would ensure the success of the program leading towards development. With regard to weaknesses, the program is weak when it comes to long-run efficient implementation. The adoption of disaster risk reduction programs of Barangay Jesus De la Pena is relatively new. This is because such measures have only been undertaken after learning lessons from previous typhoons e.g. Ondoy. The effectivity of the program in the long-run has not been tested yet since, the implementation and use of such programs to address floods and/or earthquakes has only been seen in the short-run. The disaster risk reduction program of Barangay Jesus De la Pena provides opportunities for people to enhance and further their participation in governance. The creation of disaster risk reduction programs was intended to address the safety and health of the people that are being compromised by natural disasters. It is therefore proper for the people to participate actively and take part in the decision-making process of the LGU as regards disaster risk reduction in line with promoting their social welfare. Threats to the disaster risk reduction program would be the absence of cooperation of the people to comply with the existing laws or ordinances necessary for the effective implementation of the program. The different areas of the disaster risk reduction program of Barangay Jesus De la Pena are not made exclusively to fit the particular situation of the LGU. In this situation, absence of cooperation leading to poor implementation of the program
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Asuncion, Rolando Jr; Creer, Roreide John; Garvida, Ronald; Nicdao, Ernesto Jr. 4pol3

remains a threat and would hinder the effective implementation of the program that will, not only prevent disaster casualties, but also promote social welfare through preserving the lives of people hence, saving manpower that could be used for contributing to the development of the city. Recommendation The first general recommendation of this paper would be for Barangay Jesus De le Pena to develop their own disaster risk reduction program. This is to be able to fit a disaster risk reduction program that would be more exclusive to the system of their LGU. The Barangay needs a program that can easily adopt to the behaviour of the people in order to have full cooperation in its implementation and guarantee better results that is best fitting the situation of the LGU in the grassroots level. Second recommendation would be to allot more budget for evacuation in order to be prepared for longer periods in the evacuation center when another disaster similar to Ondoy or when earthquakes happen in the least expected circumstances. In doing so, the LGU would be prepared for any disaster that may come in an area where floods and earthquakes are very much inevitable. Lastly, nearby LGUs in the Marikina River including Barangay Jesus De la Pena would need to create a collective agreement in order to address the floods. This could be done by finding innovations by redirecting the flows of the Marikina river or having extraterritorial agreements for controlling the solid waste management in such disaster-prone areas.

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Mendoza, C., & Lantin, J. (2011, June 25). ABS-CBN News. Retrieved February 9, 2012, from ABS-CBN News: http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/nation/metro-manila/06/25/11/evacueesmarikina-reach-25000 MERUEAS, M. D. (2011, June 25). GMA News. Retrieved February 14, 2012, from GMA News Online: http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/224426/news/nation/preparedmarikina-prevents-deaths-from-falcon-floods MERUEAS, M. D. (2011, June 24). GMA News. Retrieved February 14, 2012, from GMA News online: http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/224374/news/nation/7-000-flee-asmarikina-river-breaches-critical-level PDRF. (2009). Typhoon Ondoy and Pepeng Post-Disaster Needs Assessment. Philippine Disaster Recovery Foundation. PDRF. (2009). Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng: Post Disaster Needs Assessment Sector Reports. Philippine Disaster Recovery Foundation. PEDDR. (2011). Managing Watersheds for Urban Resilience. Geneva, Switzerland : Partnership for Environment and Disaster Risk Redcution.

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Proffsg. (2011, June 25). Marikina River Floods Urge 25,000 Residents to Evacuate. Retrieved from Bazics Newsfeeds: http://www.bazics.net/2011/06/marikina-river-floodsurge-25000.html Quarantelli, E. L. (2005). What is a Disaster? Perspectives on the Question. New York: Routledge. Ubac, M. L., & Aning, J. (2009, October 6). Inquirer Global Nation. Retrieved February 13, 2012, from Inquirer Global Nation: http://globalnation.inquirer.net/news/breakingnews/view/20091006-228607/UN-agencygives-75M-for-disaster Walefield, F. T. (2010, September 24). Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. Retrieved February 10, 2012, from Manila Bulletin Online: http://www.mb.com.ph/node/278877/memorie

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