José Ortega y Gasset


José Ortega y Gasset
José Ortega y Gasset


9 May 1883 Madrid, Spain October 18, 1955 (aged 72) Madrid, Spain 20th century philosophy Western Philosophy Perspectivism, Pragmatism, Vitalism, Historism, Existentialism


Era Region School

Main interests History, Reason, Politics

José Ortega y Gasset (Spanish: [xo'se oɾ'teɣa i ɣa'set]; 9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish liberal philosopher and essayist working during the first half of the 20th century while Spain oscillated between monarchy, republicanism and dictatorship. He was, along with Friedrich Nietzsche, a proponent of the idea of perspectivism, which was pioneered in European thought by Immanuel Kant.[citation needed]

José Ortega y Gasset was born 9 May 1883 in Madrid. His father was director of the newspaper El Imparcial, which belonged to the family of his mother, Dolores Gasset. The family was definitively of Spain's end-of-the-century liberal and educated bourgeoisie. The liberal tradition and journalistic engagement of his family had a profound influence in Ortega y Gasset's activism in politics. Ortega was first schooled by the Jesuit priests of San Estanislao in Miraflores del Palo, Málaga (1891–1897). He attended the University of Deusto, Bilbao (1897–98) and the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid, (now Complutense University of Madrid) (1898–1904), receiving a doctorate in Philosophy. From 1905 to 1907, he continued his studies in Germany at Leipzig, Nuremberg, Cologne, Berlin and, above all Marburg. At Marburg, he was influenced by the neo-Kantianism of Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, among others. On his return to Spain in 1908, he was appointed professor of Psychology, Logic and Ethics at the Escuela Superior del Magisterio de Madrid[1] and in October 1910 he was named full professor of Metaphysics at Complutense University of Madrid, a vacant seat previously held by of Nicolás Salmerón.

The latter made him internationally famous. In 1948 he returned to Madrid. Fate gives us an inexorable repertory of determinate possibilities. Georg Simmel. Franz Brentano. Hans Driesch. Elected deputy for the province of León in the constituent assembly of the second Spanish Republic. He suggests that there is no me without things and things are nothing without me: "I" (human being) can not be detached from "my circumstance" (world). Leaving Spain at the outbreak of the Civil War. Ortega y Gasset proposes that philosophy must overcome the limitations of both idealism (in which reality is centered around the ego) and ancient-medieval realism (in which reality is located outside the subject) in order to focus on the only truthful reality (i. This publication promoted translation of (and commentary upon) the most important figures and tendencies in philosophy. For Ortega y Gasset. but he soon abandoned politics. Jakob von Uexküll. This circunstancia is oppressive. there is a continual dialectical interaction between the person and his or her circumstances and. where he published as a series of essays his two principal works: España invertebrada (Invertebrate Spain) and La rebelión de las masas (The Revolt of the Masses).José Ortega y Gasset In 1917 he became a contributor to the newspaper El Sol.[1] He settled in Portugal by mid 1945 and slowly began to make short visits to Spain. that is. where he founded the Institute of Humanities. philosophy has a critical duty to lay siege to beliefs in order to promote new ideas and to explain reality. Ernst Müller. This led Ortega y Gasset to pronounce his famous maxim "Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia" ("I am I and my circumstance") (Meditaciones del Quijote. he was the leader of a parliamentary group of intellectuals known as La Agrupación al servicio de la república[2] ("At the service of the Republic"). and Bertrand Russell. "my life" — the life of each individual). therefore. it gives us different . he spent years of exile in Buenos Aires. leave behind prejudices and previously existing beliefs and investigate the essential reality of the universe. at which he lectured. Edmund Husserl. He founded the Revista de Occidente in 1923. Argentina until moving back to Europe in 1942. Heinz Heimsoeth. as a result. Alexander Pfänder. life is a drama that exists between necessity and freedom.[3] 2 Philosophy Part of a series on Liberalism • • Liberalism portal Politics portal "Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia" For Ortega y Gasset. including Oswald Spengler. the Cartesian 'cogito ergo sum' is insufficient to explain reality. as for Husserl. Johan Huizinga. In this sense Ortega y Gasset wrote that life is at the same time fate and freedom. Therefore the Spanish philosopher proposes a system wherein the basic or "radical" reality is "my life" (the first yo) which consists of "I" (the second yo) and "my circumstance" (mi circunstancia). remaining its director until 1936. 1914)[4] which he always situated at the core of his philosophy. and that freedom “is being free inside of a given fate.e. disappointed. In order to accomplish such tasks the philosopher must.. as Husserl proposed.

We accept fate and within it we choose one destiny. not only because many sympathized with his philosophical writings. but also because those writings did not require that the reader be well-versed in technical philosophy. Julián Marías. its history. Emilio Komar. This system of thought. reason is crucial to create and develop the above-mentioned project of life. which he developed by adding a non-relativistic character in which absolute truth does exist and would be obtained by the sum of all perspectives of all lives. Xavier Zubiri. Francisco Ayala. Razón Histórica For Ortega y Gasset. and Paulino Garagorri. for Ortega. John Lukacs. but history” and reason should not focus on what is (static) but what becomes (dynamic). Joaquín Xirau. In Ortega’s words. 3 Raciovitalismo With a philosophical system that centered around life. The Idea of Principle in Leibniz and the Evolution of Deductive Theory. including Invertebrate Spain. Ignacio Ellacuría.[6] The American philosopher Graham Harman has recognized Ortega y Gasset as a source of inspiration for his own Object Oriented Ontology. Manuel Granell. Ortega coined the terms "razón vital" ("vital reason" or "reason with life as its foundation") to refer to a new type of reason that constantly defends the life from which it has surged and "raciovitalismo".José Ortega y Gasset destinies. Ortega y Gasset influenced existentialism and the work of Martin Heidegger.” In this tied down fate we must therefore be active. José Luis López-Aranguren. What is Philosophy.R. José Gaos. generally accepted to be J. which he introduces in History as System. Pierre Bourdieu. Some Lessons in Metaphysics. Agustín Basave. The first.[5] German grape breeder Hans Breider named the grape variety Ortega in his honor. for individuals and societies are not detached from their past. decide and create a “project of life” — thus not be like those who live a conventional life of customs and given structures who prefer an unconcerned and imperturbable life because they are afraid of the duty of choosing a project. . is by a translator who did not provide his/her name. Norton & Co. one of whose essential components is reason itself. Luis Recaséns Siches. and An Interpretation of Universal History. escaped from Nietzsche's vitalism in which life responded to impulses. Máximo Etchecopar. Among those strongly influenced by Ortega y Gasset were Luis Buñuel. Ortega y Gasset also stepped out of Descartes' cogito ergo sum and asserted "I live therefore I think". since for each human being life takes a concrete form and life itself is a true radical reality from which any philosophical system must derive. Manuel García Morente. There have been two translations of La rebelión de las masas (The Revolt of the Masses) into English.[7] The second translation was published by the University of Notre Dame Press in 1985 in association with W. In this sense. in 1932. This translation was carried out by Anthony Kerrigan (translator) and Kenneth Moore (editor). María Zambrano. Mildred Adams is the translator of the main body of Ortega's work. vital reason is also “historical reason”. humans have “no nature. This stood at the root of his Kantian-inspired perspectivism. Influence Ortega y Gasset's influence was considerable. In order to understand a reality we must understand. as Dilthey pointed out. Carey. with an introduction by Saul Bellow. Man and Crisis. Pedro Laín Entralgo. a theory that based knowledge in the radical reality of life.W.

and 1931. articles and essays written 1904-1912: "Renan". 1914) Investigaciones psicológicas (Psychological Investigations. in Spanish. course published posthumously in 1957) • Kant (1929–31) • ¿Qué es conocimiento? (What is knowledge? Published in 1984. This list attempts to list works in chronological order by when they were written. Mildred Adams's translation was published in 1958 as Man and Crisis. adds an essay "El Imperio romano" – "The Roman Empire"). Ortega himself prevented its publication "because of the events of Munich in 1934". 1939) • Ideas y Creencias (Ideas and Beliefs: on historical reason. 1914) Vieja y nueva política (Old and new politics. in 1958. course given 1915-16 and published in 1982) Personas. Obras. • • • • Meditaciones del Quijote (Meditations on Quixote. a course taught in 1940 Buenos Aires. 1925) • Espíritu de la letra (The spirit of the letter 1927) • Mirabeau o el político (Mirabeau or politics. Historia como sistema. 1923) • Las Atlántidas (The Atlantides. "Sobre la realidad radical" – "On radical reality" and "¿Qué es la vida?" – "What is life?") • La rebelión de las masas (The Revolt of the Masses. 1930) • Rectificación de la República.José Ortega y Gasset 4 Influence on the Generation of '27 Ortega y Gasset had considerable influence on writers of the Generation of '27. 1924) • La deshumanización del Arte e Ideas sobre la novela (The Dehumanization of art and Ideas about the Novel. course given 1933-34. often posthumously. "Problemas culturales" – "Cultural problems". the Spanish version. Meditación de la técnica. a group of poets that arose in Spanish literature in 1920s. respectively: "Vida como ejecución (El ser ejecutivo)" – "Life as execution (The Executive Being)". portions were published in 1942 under the title "Esquema de las crisis" – "Scheme of the Crisis". course given 1932-33. published 1966) • En torno a Galileo (About Galileo. "Adán en el Paraíso" – "Adam in Paradise".) • History as a system (First published in English in 1935. It was finally published. 1928–1929) • ¿Qué es filosofía? (What is philosophy? 1928-1929. covering three courses taught in 1929. 1941. published 1979 along with Sobre la razón histórica) • Teoría de Andalucía y otros ensayos • Guillermo Dilthey y la Idea de vida (The theory of Andalucia and other essays: Wilhelm Dilthey and the idea of life. (Self-absorption and alteration. 1942) . prologue to the third German edition of El tema de nuestro tiempo. entitled. 1930. 1931) • Goethe desde dentro (Goethe from within. 1932) • Unas lecciones de metafísica (Some lessons in metaphysics. Meditation on the technique.) • Prólogo para alemanes (Prologue for Germans. 1921) • El tema de nuestro tiempo (The theme of our time. 8 volumes published 1916-1934) • España Invertebrada (Invertebrate Spain. rather than when they were published. Things. etc. • Ensimismamiento y alteración. published 1916) • El Espectador (The Spectator. Cosas (People.. "La pedagogía social como programa político" – "Pedagogy as a political program". Works Much of Ortega y Gasset's work consists of course lectures published years after the fact. Works. La redención de las provincias y la decencia nacional (Rectification of the Republic: Redemption of the provinces and national decency.

) • La Idea de principio en Leibniz y la evolución de la teoría deductiva (The Idea of the Beginning in Leibniz and the evolution of deductive theory. 1960). Obras Completas. Vol. University of Missouri Press. Willard Trask's translation as Man and People published 1957. 2001. published 1957. html). 1714. accessed 6 March 2013 [7] as referenced by the Project Gutenberg eBook of U.José Ortega y Gasset • Sobre la razón histórica (On historical reason. En torno a Toynbee (An interpretation of Universal History. ortegaygasset. The Social Thought of Ortega Y. 62 contained the version given in Madrid. Una abreviatura (The idea of theater. Princeton University Press. Published 1960 together with other previously unpublished works. com/ philosophers/ jose-ortega-y-gasset. wein-plus. 1948. encarta. • El hombre y la gente (Man and the populace. lecture given in Berlin in 1949 with the Latin-language title De Europa meditatio the-social-thought-of-ortega-y-gasset-a-systematic). asp?id_i=27) [2] Encarta Encyclopedia Spanish Version: Agrupación_al_Servicio_de_la_República Microsoft Corporation Spanish Version (http:/ / es. Ed. 1972. Copyright Renewals. Westcott .S. org/ 5kws1xYP1) 2009-10-31. course given in Lisbon. La Revista Nacional de educación num. p. [6] Wein-Plus Glossar: Ortega (http:/ / www. published 1962. . a shortened version. edu/ contenidos. 1960) • Meditations on Hunting (1972) translated into English by Howard B. webcitation.the ethical logic and reasoning behind hunting 5 Notes [1] Datos biográficos (http:/ / www. • John T. University of Missouri Press.) • Goya (1958) • Velázquez (1959) • Origen y epílogo de la Filosofía (Origin and epilog to Philosophy. On Toynbee. José. 1960 January .gr/ books?id=b5Efy-Y6krYC&dq=). Gasset: A Systematic Synthesis in Postmodernism and Interdisciplinarity (http://www. philosophyprofessor. 1950) • Pasado y porvenir para el hombre actual (Past and future for the man of today. 2004. [3] Philosophy Professor: Jose Ortega Y Gasset (http:/ / www.questia. A Pragmatist Philosophy of Life in Ortega y Gasset (http://books. published 1979 along with Ideas y Crencias) • Prólogo a un Tratado de Montería (Preface to a Treatise on the Hunt [separately published as Meditations on the Hunt]. and England in the period 1951-1954. Graham. created as preface to a book on the hunt by Count Ybes published 1944) • Idea del Teatro. Taurus/Fundación José Ortega y Gasset. 757 [5] The Dehumanisation of Art. published together with a commentary on Plato's Symposium. Partisan Review published parts of this translation in 1952) • Papeles sobre Velázquez y Goya (Papers on Velázquez and Goya. page 146. References • John T. com/ encyclopedia_1121500589/ Agrupación_al_Servicio_de_la_República. published 1958) • Una interpretación de la Historia Universal. and in Madrid. 1947. php) [4] Ortega y Gasset. published in 1958. 1944. I. published in 1960) • Meditación de Europa (Meditation on Europe). brings together a series of lectures given in Germany. lecture given in Lisbon April 1946. Madrid. 0.June. Graham. msn. May 1946. course given 1949-1950 at the Institute of the Humanities. • La caza y los toros (Hunting and Bullfighting. Archived (http:/ / www. eu/ en/ Ortega_3. Switzerland. html).

"José Ortega y Gasset" (http://plato. Edward N.ortegaygasset.ortegaygasset. .José Ortega y Gasset 6 External links • Online English Edition of Revolt of the Masses (http://www. Zalta ( Spain • Fundación José Ortega y Gasset ( Revolt_of_the_Masses) • Works in English By and About José Ortega y Gasset (http://www.html) Wikipedia:Link rot • Fundación José Ortega y Gasset (http://www. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition).ar) Argentina • Holmes.).

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