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Short-Circuit ANSI

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc.

**Short-Circuit Analysis
**

Types of SC Faults

•Three-Phase Ungrounded Fault •Three-Phase Grounded Fault •Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault •Phase to Phase Grounded Fault •Phase to Ground Fault

Fault Current

•IL-G can range in utility systems from a few percent to possibly 115 % ( if Xo < X1 ) of I3-phase (85% of all faults). •In industrial systems the situation IL-G > I3-phase is rare. Typically IL-G ≅ .87 * I3-phase •In an industrial system, the three-phase fault condition is frequently the only one considered, since this type of fault generally results in Maximum current.

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 2

**Purpose of Short-Circuit Studies
**

• A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine any or all of the following:

– Verify protective device close and latch capability – Verify protective device Interrupting capability – Protect equipment from large mechanical forces (maximum fault kA) – I2t protection for equipment (thermal stress) – Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 3

**System Components Involved in SC Calculations
**

• Power Company Supply • In-Plant Generators • Transformers (using negative tolerance) • Reactors (using negative tolerance) • Feeder Cables and Bus Duct Systems (at lower temperature limits)

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 4

**System Components Involved in SC Calculations
**

• Overhead Lines (at lower temperature limit) • Synchronous Motors • Induction Motors • Protective Devices • Y0 from Static Load and Line Cable

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 5

**Elements That Contribute Current to a Short-Circuit
**

• Generator • Power Grid • Synchronous Motors • Induction Machines • Lumped Loads (with some % motor load) • Inverters • I0 from Yg-Delta Connected Transformer

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 6

**Elements Do Not Contribute Current in PowerStation
**

• Static Loads • Motor Operated Valves • All Shunt Y Connected Branches

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 7

Short-Circuit Phenomenon

v(t)

i(t)

v(t) = Vm ∗ Sin(ωt + θ )

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 8

v(t)

i(t)

**di v(t) = Ri + L = Vm × Sin(ωt + θ ) (1) dt Solving equation 1 yields the following expression
**

R - t Vm Vm i(t) = × sin(ωt + θ - φ ) + × sin(θ - φ ) × e L Z Z 1444 444 2 3 1444 24444 4 3

Steady State Transient (DC Offset)

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 9

AC Current (Symmetrical) with No AC Decay

DC Current

AC Fault Current Including the DC Offset (No AC Decay)

Machine Reactance ( λ = L I )

AC Decay Current

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 12

Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 13

**ANSI Calculation Methods
**

1) The ANSI standards handle the AC Decay by varying machine impedance during a fault.

ANSI

2) The ANSI standards handle the the dc offset by applying multiplying factors. The ANSI Terms for this current are: •Momentary Current •Close and Latch Current •First Cycle Asymmetrical Current

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 14

**Sources and Models of Fault Currents in ANSI Standards
**

Sources

•Synchronous Generators •Synchronous Motors & Condensers •Induction Machines •Electric Utility Systems (Power Grids)

Models

All sources are modeled by an internal voltage behind its impedance. E = Prefault Voltage R = Machine Armature Resistance X = Machine Reactance (X”d, X’d, Xd)

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 15

Synchronous Generators

Synchronous Generators are modeled in three stages.

**Synchronous Motors & Condensers
**

Act as a generator to supply fault current. This current diminishes as the magnetic field in the machine decays.

Induction Machines

Synchronous Reactance Transient Reactance Subtransient Reactance Treated the same as synchronous motors except they do not contribute to the fault after 2 sec.

**Electric Utility Systems
**

The fault current contribution tends to remain constant.

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 16

½

Cycle Network

This is the network used to calculate momentary short-circuit current and protective device duties at the ½ cycle after the fault.

1 ½ to 4 Cycle Network

This network is used to calculate the interrupting short-circuit current and protective device duties 1.5-4 cycles after the fault.

**30-Cycle Network
**

This is the network used to calculate the steady-state short-circuit current and settings for over current relays after 30 cycles.

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 17

**Reactance Representation for Utility and Synchronous Machine
**

½ Cycle 1 ½ to 4 Cycle 30 Cycle

Utility

X”d

X”d

X”d

Turbo Generator Hydro-Gen with Amortisseur winding Hydro-Gen without Amortisseur winding Condenser Synchronous Motor

X”d

X”d

X’d

X”d

X”d

X’d

0.75*X”d

0.75*X”d

X’d

X”d

X”d

α

X”d

1.5*X”d

α

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 18

**Reactance Representation for Induction Machine
**

½ Cycle 1 ½ to 4 Cycle 1.5*X”d 1.5*X”d 3.0*X”d

>1000 hp , <= 1800 rpm >250, at 3600 rpm All others, >= 50 hp < 50 hp

X”d X”d 1.2*X”d 1.67*X”d

α

Note: X”d = 1 / LRCpu

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 19

**Device Duty and Usage of Fault Currents from Different Networks
**

½ Cycle Currents (Subtransient Network) 1 ½ to 4 Cycle Currents (Transient Network)

HV Circuit Breaker

Closing and Latching Capability

Interrupting Capability -----

LV Circuit Breaker

Interrupting Capability

Fuse

Interrupting Capability Bus Bracing Instantaneous Settings

SWGR / MCC Relay

-----

30 Cycle currents are used for determining overcurrent settings.

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 20

Momentary Multiplying Factor

MFm is calculated based on:

**• Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks) • Location of fault (Remote / Local generation)
**

Comparisons of Momentary capability (1/2 Cycle)

SC Current Duty HV CB Asymmetrical RMS Crest Asymmetrical RMS Crest Symmetrical RMS Asymmetrical RMS Device Rating C&L RMS C&L RMS Asymmetrical RMS

HV Bus LV Bus

Crest

Symmetrical RMS Asymmetrical RMS

Slide 21

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

**Interrupting Multiplying Factor
**

MFi is calculated based on:

• Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks) • Location of Fault (Remote / Local generation) • Type and Rating of CB

**Comparisons of Interrupting Capability (1 ½ to 4 Cycle)
**

SC Current Duty Adj. Symmetrical RMS* HV CB LV CB & Fuse Adj. Symmetrical RMS*** Device Rating Adj. Symmetrical RMS*

Symmetrical RMS

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 22

**HV CB Closing and Latching Duty
**

Calculate ½ Cycle Current (Imom, rms, sym) using ½ Cycle Network. • Calculate X/R ratio and Multiplying factor MFm

• Imom, rms, Asym = MFm * Imom, rms, sym

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 23

**HV CB Interrupting Duty
**

Calculate 1½ to 4 Cycle Current (Imom, rms, sym) using ½ Cycle Network. • Determine Local and Remote contributions (A “local” contribution is fed predominantly from generators through no more than one transformation or with external reactances in series that is less than 1.5 times generator subtransient reactance. Otherwise the contribution is defined as “remote”). • Calculate no AC Decay ratio (NACD) and multiplying factor MFi NACD = IRemote / ITotal ITotal = ILocal + IRemote (NACD = 0 if all local & NACD = 1 if all remote) • Calculate Iint, rms, adj = MFi * Iint, rms, Symm

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 24

**HV CB Interrupting Capability
**

• CB Interrupting kA varies between Max kA and Rated kA as applied kV changes – MVAsc capability. • ETAP’s comparison between CB Duty of Adj. Symmetrical kA and CB capability of Adjusted Int. kA verifies both symmetrical and asymmetrical rating. • The Option of C37.010-1999 standard allows user to specify CPT. • Generator CB has higher DC rating and is always compared against maximum through SC kA.

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 25

**LV CB Interrupting Duty
**

• • • • LV CB take instantaneous action. Calculate ½ Cycle current Irms, Symm (I’f) from the ½ cycle network. Calculate X/R ratio and MFi (based on CB type). Calculate adjusted interrupting current Iadj, rms, symm = MFi * Irms, Symm

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 26

**Fuse Interrupting Duty
**

Calculate ½ Cycle current Iint, rms, symm from ½ Cycle Network. • Same procedure to calculate Iint, rms, asymm as for CB.

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 27

L-G Faults

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 28

L-G Faults

Symmetrical Components

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 29

Sequence Networks

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 30

**L-G Fault Sequence Network Connections
**

If = 3 × Ia 0 3 × VPr efault If = Z1 + Z 2 + Z0 if Zg = 0

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 31

L-L Fault Sequence Network Connections

I a 2 = − I a1 3 × VPr efault If = Z1 + Z 2

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 32

**L-L-G Fault Sequence Network Connections
**

I a 2 + I a1 + I a 0 = 0 = I a VPr efault If = Z0 Z2 Z1 + Z +Z 2 0 if Zg = 0

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 33

Transformer Zero Sequence Connections

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 34

**Solid Grounded Devices and L-G Faults
**

Generally a 3 - phase fault is the most severe case. L - G faults can be greater if : Z1 = Z 2 & Z 0 < Z1 If this conditions are true then : I f3φ < I f 1φ This may be the case if Generators or Y/∆ Connected transformer are solidly grounded.

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 35

**Unbalanced Faults Display & Reports
**

Complete reports that include individual branch contributions for: •L-G Faults •L-L-G Faults •L-L Faults

One-line diagram displayed results that include: •L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current contributions •Sequence voltage and currents •Phase Voltages

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 36

SC Study Case Info Page

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 39

SC Study Case Standard Page

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 40

Tolerance Adjustments

**SC Study Case Adjustments Page
**

Length Adjustments •Cable Length •Transmission Line Length

•Transformer Impedance •Reactor Resistance •Overload Heater Resistance Adjust Fault Impedance •L-G fault Impedance

Temperature Corrections •Transmission Line Resistance •Cable Resistance

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 41

Tolerance Adjustments

Z 'Transforme r = Z Transforme r * (1 ± Tolerance ) Length 'Cable = LengthCable * (1 ± Tolerance ) Length 'Transmissi onLine = LengthTransmissi onLine * (1 ± Tolerance )

Positive tolerance value is used for IEC Minimum If calculation. Negative tolerance value is used for all other calculations.

Adjustments can be applied Individually or Globally

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 42

Temperature Correction

( 234.5 + Tc ) R 'Copper ' = R BASE * ( 234.5 + Tb ) ( 228.1 + Tc ) R ' Alumi = R BASE * ( 228.1 + Tb ) R BASE = Resistance at base tempereatu re R' = Resistance at operating temperatur e Tb = Conductor base temperatur e in C Tc = Conductor temperatur e limit in C

**Temperature Correction can be applied Individually or Globally
**

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 43

System for SC Study

Power Grid U1 X/R = 55

Transformers T1 X/R PS =12 PT =12 ST =12 T2 X/R = 12

Gen1 Voltage Control Design Setting: %Pf = 85 MW = 4 Max Q = 9 Min Q = -3

Lump1

Y open grounded

**Short-Circuit Alerts
**

• Bus Alert • Protective Device Alert • Marginal Device Limit

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 45

Bus SC Rating

Type of Device MV Bus (> 1000 Volts) Monitored Parameter Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Momentary Asymmetrical. crest kA Momentary Symmetrical. rms kA Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Condition Reported Bracing Asymmetrical Bracing Crest Bracing Symmetrical Bracing Asymmetrical

LV Bus (<1000Volts)

**Protective Device Rating
**

Device Type LVCB ANSI Monitored Parameters Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Momentary C&L HV CB Momentary C&L Crest kA Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Fuse SPDT SPST Switches Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA IEC Monitored Parameters Breaking Making N/A Breaking Breaking Making Making

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 46

**3-Phase Duty SC Results
**

Run a 3-phase Duty SC calculation for a fault on Bus4. The display shows the Initial Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current.

Unbalance Fault Calculation

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