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56 × 10-3 m3/s, (water) From Table We know: Density (ρ) = 998 kg/m3 Viscosity (μ) = 1.00 × 10-3 Pa Fittings: 3×900 bends and single control valve Length of the pipe (L) = 50m, Pressure drop in control valve (P) = 30Kp Answer: 1 Calculating head loss (including pipe friction) Lets have 1st Trial for 150mm steel pipe from the table 6 because we are not given the pipe size. Step : 1 Determine velocity, Velocity = volumetric flow rate divided by area of the pipe V= = 0.315 m/s

Step 2: Determine Reynolds No. = = 47155.5 (turbulent flow)

Step 3 : Determine the minor head loss Fittings : 3x900 bends K = 0.9x3 =2.7 hf1 = Control Valve: P = ρ.g.HL Control valve has a pressure drop of 30 Kpa therefore HL = = 3.06 m = 0.0137 m

520 Kpa 33.111m Step 5 : Pressure drop P = ρ.421 4.HL = 998 X 9.106 Reynolds No.4 88303.24 Major head loss (hf2) 0.g.520 KPa Now we will take different pipe sizes and check the losses at corresponding size so we will be able to select appropriate pipe size.492 Kpa 39.81 X 3.0137 + 3.03715458716 = 3.5 70658.02204 So hf2 = = = 0.04 Minor head loss (hf1) 3.08 3.271 0.Constraints : The head loss of control valve is 3.2 Kpa 141Kpa .315 0.117 3.06 = 3.03715458716 m Total head loss = hf1 + hf2 = 3.749 Kpa Inlet pressure (Pin) 131.15 3. (R) 47155.037 0. Trials for different pipe sizes Diameter (D) 150 mm 100 mm 80 mm Velocity (m/s) 0.75 Kpa 134.06 m remains constant throughout all the calculation Total hf1 = 0.0737 m Step 4: Determine major head loss hf2 = For F : We have Moody formula for turbulent flow f From Table 20 E = 45 exp -6m = 0.11 = 30.708 1.820 Total head loss (hfT) 3.0737 + 0.060 Pressure drop (Pd) 30.

present annual value and total present values are as follows: Givens values: Cost of power (c) = $ 0. Therefore the best option for pipe selection is 150 mm diameter pipe.2 Kw/h.56 × 10-3 × 998 × 9.45 × 0.45 m Step 6: Annual Piping cost (APC) APC = Q × ρ × g × Ep × C × T= 5.204 Kpa Step 5: For selected 150 NB Pipe: Total dynamic head (Ep) = P = 131750 ρ×g 998 × 9. Combined pump drive efficiency (ηpm) = 60 % = 0.ANSWER : 2 As from the above table we can see that if the diameter gets smaller the head loss increases and so the pressure drop across the pipe increases as well that is not the case.98 -3 3 Volumetric flow rate (Q) = 5.6 Pump duty (T) = 24 h/day = 24hr × 365days = 8760 hrs per annum Relevant interest rate (i) = 10% = 0.56 × 10 m /s Length (L) = 50 m = 13.2 × (24 x 365)=$2137. the calculation of the pipes annual cost. Pressure drop can’t b exceeded than 30 KPa.02 Pipe cost per meter (CP) = $150/meter Inlet pressure (P) = 199. capital cost.1 Pipe line design life (n) = 10 years Power cost escalation rate (M) = 2% = 0.6 × 1000 Step 7: The line capital cost (CC) CC = L × CP = 50 × 150 = $7500 . ANSWER :3 In order to select the most economical pipe.81 × 13.86 per annum ηpm × 1000 0.

078 )-10 = $14475.1 – 0.52 J 0.(1 + 0.02 PVA = APC × ( 1.02 = 0.(1 + j )-n = 2137.52 + $7500 = $21976 .078 Step 9 : The total present value TPV = PVA + CC = $14475.86 × ( 1.Step 8: The present value of annual pumping cost (PVA) J = I – M = 0.078 1 + M 1 + 0.

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