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KNITTING CALCULATIONS

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KNITTING CALCULATIONS Knitted fabric is made with the help of yarn loops. arn of different co!nts is !sed to prod!ce fabric of different "ramma"e. There is also a need to calc!late optim!m prod!ction of #nittin" machines. It is the $ob of #nittin" mana"er to do certain calc!lation for proper !se of machines and prod!ction of fabric accordin" to the demands of the c!stomer. This chapter is aimed at e%planation of different calc!lations. &ost s!itable co!nt for #nittin" machines As it has been disc!ssed in Chapter Two that needle hoo# has to ta#e yarn to con'ert it into a loop and finally latch has to close the needle hoo# so that loop is properly held by the needle hoo# and !ltimately this helps in passin" new loop thro!"h the pre'io!sly held loop. It is clear from this e%planation that there sho!ld be a proper balance between needle hoo# si(e and the thic#ness of the yarn or filament. If the yarn is thic#er than needle hoo# then there will a chance that needle hoo# will not able to hold this loop and conse)!ently there will be a small hole in the fabric. If the sit!ation is re'erse* means yarn is thinner than the si(e of the needle hoo# then the fabric prod!ced will loo# li#e a net. +oth sit!ations are not wanted. This sit!ation demands a balance between needle hoo# si(e and co!nt of yarn. It is worth to note that needle hoo# si(e depends !pon the machine "!a"e. ,!rthermore for different "arments* fabric of different "ramma"e is re)!ired. -'ery time #nitter has to decide abo!t the yarn co!nt. There are many ways for the selection of proper co!nt. In the followin" lines we will disc!ss most common methods to select co!nt for different machines of different "!a"e. It is also important to note that selection of yarn co!nts also depends !pon the machine man!fact!res and type of machines* li#e* sin"le and do!ble #nit machine. .owe'er a "eneral "!ideline will be "i'en here!nder. As a th!mb r!le #nittin" e%perts prefer to !se s!ch #nittin" machine whose "a!"es is near to co!nt of yarn /-n"lish co!nt0 i.e. for 123"a!"emachines most s!itable yarn co!nt is 12s. This r!le is has certain limitations* li#e* for 143"a!"e yarn of 15s to 62s is most s!itable. +!t for 'ery fine co!nts this r!le is not applicable and also machines ha'e ma%im!m "a!"e 61. Normally fine co!nts are not !sed as s!ch rather they are ma#e do!ble* li#e co!nt 52s do!ble* which means that net co!nt is near to 62s. And this 52 do!ble co!nt is s!itable for 623"a!"e machine. To sol'e this problem some a!thors ha'e s!""ested followin" form!las. ,or sin"le Knittin" &achine S!itable co!nt 7 G8G9:4 ,or ;o!ble #nittin" machine S!itable co!nt7 G8G94.< =here G is "a!"e of #nittin" machine Some #nittin" machine man!fact!rers s!""est a ran"e of yarn co!nt for their machine. There is another way to sol'e this problem and that is to ta#e help from old record. -'ery firm is prod!cin" many types of fabrics and on the basis of e%perience they de'elop a database for ready reference. In the followin" line we "i'e a table for "!idance /table is !nder constr!ction0. One can "et a ready reference from the table to prod!ce fabric of certain "ramma"e. =e are also "i'in" e%pected width of fabric after wet processin". This table can pro'ide $!st a reference. Knitters ha'e to decide by themsel'es after doin" a trial prod!ction* since there are many more factors* which can affect yarn and "a!"e selection process. Knittin" &achine >arameters

=e will e%plain these parameters and will also "i'e the con'ersion factors to con'ert parameters from one system to other. Knittin" &achine >rod!ction calc!lation +efore e%plainin" the method to calc!late the nominal prod!ction capacity of the #nittin" machine it is imperati'e to be well aware of co!nt and denier system and one sho!ld also be familiar with the con'ersion factors.!rthermore machine specifications are "i'en in different !nit.an# means a certain len"th. . . It is !sed to meas!re le'el of any thin" or for an instr!ment to meas!re width* len"th or hei"ht of any thin". =hen these cones are !sed in warpin" then there is a need to #now the len"th of certain wei"ht of yarn. . There are n!mber of characteristics of machine which are intimated by the machine man!fact!rers while deli'erin" the machine to c!stomers9!sers.7 N!mber of needles : inch /1C. .< mm0 &achine >itch As per German .? is !sed to denote #nittin" machine "a!"e. This needle bed may flat or circ!lar. In do!ble #nit circ!lar machine it is !sed for cylinder and as well as dial. And some time len"th is a'ailable and some one wants to #now the wei"ht of the yarn and in some cases co!nt of the yarn is re)!ired. In #nittin" it is !sed to e%press the n!mber of needle in a !nit len"th of the needle bed. &achine Ga!"e As per O%ford . It is helpf!l for the !ser to be well aware abo!t these parameters.or cotton len"th of han# is 4<2 yards. &achine >itch means the distance between the centres of two nei"hbo!rin" needles.or details see tables "i'en in the end of boo#. It is different for different fibers. Accordin" to German standard . It is "i'en in mm.54 po!nds . +efore "oin" ahead st!dents are as#ed to cons!lt tables and e%planation for better !nderstandin" of this chapter. Generally "a!"e is defined as n!mber of needles per inch.-'ery #nittin" machine is made to f!lfil certain demands of the c!stomer.IN 51:1C /Iyer et al:AAC0 the notation ?"a!"e@ is to be a'oided in the f!t!re. In the followin" lines we will "i'e methods to calc!late abo'e3mentioned fi"!res. >re'io!sly there were <2 cones in a ba" b!t now there are ba"s a'ailable of 1C cones.C po!nds and fo!r po!nds. Cones and ba"s ha'e certain wei"hts.ictionary the word ?"a!"e@ is a no!n and as well as 'erb. .or other fibers !se rele'ant len"th of han# -%amplesE -%ampleE2: Calc!late co!nt of cotton yarn from the "i'en dataE =ei"ht of yarn 7 1. . +i" si(e cones are most s!itable for #nittin".65AB #"s. It is imperati'e to be well aware of co!nt system. In other words cones are of 1. In the end of the boo# we ha'e "i'en different tables and e%planation of different terms.or e%planation p!rpose we will !se -n"lish co!nt of cotton. Dather they prefer to !se notation ?pitch@ for comparison p!rpose.IN 52A:B /Iyer et al:AAC0 alphabet ?. Still in the international mar#et yarn is sold in po!nds not in #ilo"rams. -n"lish co!nt is defined as n!mber of han#s in one po!nd. It is denoted with small ?t@. . arn is sold and p!rchased in the form of cones and ba"s. +a"s are of :22 po!nds* which is e)!al to <C. Delationship between co!nt* len"th and wei"ht of yarn Len"th /in yards0 7 Co!nt 84<2 8wei"ht of yarn in po!nd Co!nt 7 Len"th 9 wei"ht of yarn in po!nds84<2 =ei"ht of yarn 7 len"th9co!nt 84<2 NoteE as per definition co!nt is a relationship between len"th and wei"ht of yarn.

enier 7 A2228 =ei"ht of filament in "rams Len"th of filament in meters -%ample < Calc!late len"th of polyester filament from the "i'en dataE =ei"ht 5A2 "rams .orm!laE Len"th /in yards0 7 Co!nt 84<2 8wei"ht of yarn in po!nd 7 <284<286.orm!laE =ei"ht in po!nds 7 Len"th of yarn in yards9 Co!nt 84<2 7 <252296284<2 Answer 7 :. .C Answer 7::B522 ards -%ample E26 Calc!late wei"ht of cotton yarn from the "i'en dataE Len"th of yarn 7 <2522 yards Co!nt 7 62s .enier =ei"ht of filament in "rams 7 Len"th in meters 8 denier A222 .C po!nds Co!nt 7 <2s .enier BC -)!ationE Len"th of filament in meters 7 =ei"ht of filament in "rams8 A222 .enier 7 5A2 8 A222 BC Answer 741422 meters -%ample C Calc!late wei"h of polyester filament from the "i'en dataE Len"th in meters 7 C2A22 .orm!laE Co!nt 7 Len"th 9 wei"ht of yarn in po!nds84<2 76652291. .Len"th of yarn 7 66522 yard .5: po!nds Ne%t e%amples are related to filament.5484<2 Answer 7:<.enier 7 C2 . In which most pop!lar is denier. . Note that for filament we !se direct system.A6s -%ample E21 Calc!late len"th of cotton yarn from the "i'en dataE =ei"ht of yarn 7 6.enier is n!mber of "rams per A222 meters of filament. There are other !nits too.or detail cons!lt the tables at the end of the boo#.or calc!lation related to denier we !se followin" e)!ationsE Len"th of filament in meters 7 =ei"ht of filament in "rams8 A222 .

55 . .or this we need followin" fi"!resE &achine speed D>& &achine "!a"e &achine .-)!ationE =ei"ht of filament in "rams 7 Len"th in meters 8 denier A222 7 C2A228C2 A222 Answer 7141.rom these fi"!res we can calc!late the len"th of yarn bein" !sed by the machine in one ho!r and then by con'ertin" this len"th into wei"ht with the help of co!nt "i'en we can calc!late the )!antity of yarn bein" cons!med by machine in one ho!r. There is a scientific way to calc!late optim!m prod!ction fi"!re of any machine.ia Co!nt9 denier of yarn bein" !sed Stitch len"th . .owe'er* by creatin" most s!itable en'ironment one can increase machine efficiency.rom the abo'e3mentioned fi"!res we can calc!late the len"th of yarn bein" !sed in one re'ol!tion and if we #now the len"th and co!nt of yarn then it is )!ite easy to calc!late wei"ht .or more acc!rate answers !se calc!lation !p to A di"its.C #"s /<C22 "rams0 -)!ationE .4 "rams -%ample 5 Calc!late denier of polyester filament from the "i'en dataE Len"th in meters 7 CC2*222 =ei"ht 7 <. .ia D>& Knittin" &achine arn Co!nt Stitch Len"th . It is commonly belie'ed that we can r!n #nittin" machine !p to 4CG efficiency. In the followin" pa"es we will e%plain this with few e%amples.enier NoteE this calc!lation is !p to two di"its. This wo!ld be the optim!m prod!ction of the machine. In the end we will "i'e an e)!ation to calc!late the #nittin" capacity of the machine. In the followin" lines we will e%plain this method in detail and will "i'e some e%ample so that one can be familiar to this process. This will be most realistic prod!ction 'al!e b!t we cannot "et #nittin" machine capacity in this way. In this method followin" information for prod!ction calc!lation are re)!iredE F F F F &achine G!a"e and . This optim!m prod!ction can be con'erted into nominal prod!ction by m!ltiplyin" it with efficiency. In the followin" pa"es we will e%plain the method to calc!late nominal prod!ction capacity of #nittin" machine. This needs certain information and some calc!lation.enier 7 A2228 =ei"ht of filament in "rams Len"th of filament in meters 7 A2228<C22 CC2*222 Answer7 B6. Nominal >rod!ction of #nittin" machines One 'ery simple way to calc!late #nittin" machine prod!ction by wei"hin" the total prod!ction of one ho!r or one shift or one day.

=ei"ht of cotton yarn 7 len"th of yarn Co!nt 8 4<2 7 :6442:C 4<2 8 1< 7 54.eeders A2 &achine D>& 15 arn Co!nt 1< Stitch len"th < mm -fficiency 4CG Sol!tionE Step one .of yarn /see -%ampleE 26 for more details0 -%ample 2B Calc!late nominal prod!ction of a sin"le $ersey3#nittin" machine per ho!r from the data "i'enE &achine Ga!"e 1< &achine .rom this fi"!re we can calc!late yarn cons!mption in yards in one ho!r arn Cons!mption /in yards0 in one ho!r 7 n!mber of stitches 8 len"th of /mm0 8 D>& 852 /min!tes0 :222/to con'ert mm into meters0 7126<22 8 < 8 15 8 52 :222 7 :15A1:5 meters or 7 :6442:C yards Step Three In pre'io!s step we calc!lated )!antity of yarn cons!med in yards.16 Kilo "rams -fficiency 4CG 7 15.CC Kilo "rams AnswerE this machine can prod!ce 15. =e can easily calc!late wei"ht of this yarn while its co!nt is #nown /see e%ample 260.:<0 7 628 1<86.ilament yarn Calc!late nominal prod!ction of a sin"le $ersey3#nittin" machine per ho!r from the data "i'enE .CC K"s fabric in one ho!r at 4C G efficiency -%ample 24 .or .ia 62 inches N!mber of . This wo!ld help !s in calc!latin" the total len"th of yarn cons!med in one re'ol!tion. Step Two Len"th of stitch is 2< mm /stitch len"th is always calc!lated in metric system0 . N!mber of stitches prod!ced in one re'ol!tion 7 N!mber of needles 8 n!mber of feeders 7 11528A2 7 126<22 This fi"!re shows that machine is ma#in" 126<22 stitches in one re'ol!tion. πN!mber of needles 7 machine dia 8 "a!"e 8 /6.:< 71152 /e%act 1152.4C po!nds or 7 6:.irst we will calc!late n!mber of needles and n!mber of stitches prod!ced in one re'ol!tion.4 b!t needles are always in e'en n!mber so we will ta#e nearest e'en fi"!re0 N!mber of stitches prod!ced in re'ol!tion -'ery needle is ma#in" one stitch on e'ery feeders beca!se machine is prod!cin" sin"le $ersey fabric /f!ll #nit fabric0.

irst we will calc!late n!mber of needles and n!mber of stitches prod!ced in one re'ol!tion.rom this fi"!re we can calc!late yarn cons!mption in yards in one ho!r arn Cons!mption /in yards0 in one ho!r 7 n!mber of stitches 8 len"th of /mm0 8 D>& 852 /min!tes0 :222/to con'ert mm into meters0 71B<612 8 <.:<0πmachine dia 8 "a!"e 8 7 158 1486. In s!ch case we sho!ld calc!late separately cons!mption of different yarn at different feeders.ollowin" e%ample will help in calc!latin" prod!ction in case of !se of more than one #ind yarn.ia 15 inches N!mber of . Step Two Len"th of stitch is 2<. N!mber of needles 7 /6. This wo!ld help !s in calc!latin" the total len"th of yarn cons!med in one re'ol!tion.C:584CG 7:C.B< K"s fabric in one ho!r at 4C G efficiency NoteE if we are prod!cin" any te%t!red fabric* li#e fleece* then we !se two different yarns at different feeders and !ltimately stitch len"th is also different.B< K"s AnswerE this machine can prod!ce :C.C:5 K"s -fficiency 4CG 7 :4. .eeders :12 &achine D>& 62 arn .&achine Ga!"e 14 &achine .C mm -fficiency 4CG Sol!tionE Step one .enier BC Stitch len"th <.A1 b!t needles are always in e'en n!mber so we will ta#e nearest e'en fi"!re0 N!mber of stitches prod!ced in re'ol!tion -'ery needle is ma#in" one stitch on e'ery feeder beca!se machine is prod!cin" sin"le $ersey fabric /f!ll #nit fabric0.C 8 62 8 52 :222 7 111:AA1 meters Step Three In pre'io!s step we calc!lated )!antity of yarn cons!med in yards. -%ample A Calc!late nominal prod!ction of a fleece3#nittin" machine per ho!r from the data "i'enE . =e can easily calc!late wei"ht of this yarn while its co!nt9denier is #nown /see e%ample 2C0.C mm /stitch len"th is always calc!lated in metric system0 . =ei"ht of filament in "rams 7 Len"th in meters 8 denier A222 7 111:AA18BC A222 Answer 7:4C:5 "rams or 7:4. N!mber of stitches prod!ced in one re'ol!tion 7 N!mber of needles 8 n!mber of feeders 7 11458:12 7 1B<612 This fi"!re shows that machine is ma#in" 1B<612 stitches in one e'ol!tion.:< 71145 /e%act 114C.

=e can easily calc!late wei"ht of this yarn while its co!nt is #nown /see e%ample 260.C 8 14 8 52 :222 7 B5A62C meters or 7 4<:6:1 yards Step Three In pre'io!s step we calc!lated )!antity of yarn cons!med in yards.or loop yarn &achine D>& 14 arn Co!nt 15s for front arn co!nt for loop :5s Stitch len"th of <. =ei"ht of cotton yarn 7 len"th of yarn Co!nt 8 4<2 7 4<:6:1 4<2 8 62 7 64. This wo!ld help !s in calc!latin" the total len"th of yarn cons!med in one re'ol!tion.ia 62 inches N!mber of .C mm front yarn Stitch len"th of 1. N!mber of needles 7 /6.:<0πmachine dia 8 "a!"e 8 7 628 :486.&achine Ga!"e :4 &achine .eeders for 52 .irst we will calc!late n!mber of needles and n!mber of stitches prod!ced in one re'ol!tion.ront yarn N!mber of feeders 62 .rom this fi"!re we can calc!late yarn cons!mption in yards in one ho!r arn Cons!mption /in yards0 in one ho!r 7 n!mber of stitches 8 len"th of /mm0 8 D>& 852 /min!tes0 :222/to con'ert mm into meters0 7:2:B52 8 <.C mm Loop yarn -fficiency 4CG Sol!tionE Step one . Step Two Len"th of stitch is 2<.C1 po!nds or .C mm /stitch len"th is always calc!lated in metric system0 . N!mber of stitches prod!ced in one re'ol!tion 7 N!mber of needles 8 n!mber of feeders 7 :5A5852 7 :2:B52 This fi"!re shows that machine is ma#in" :2:B52 stitches in one re'ol!tion.:< 7:5A5 /e%act :5AC b!t needles are always in e'en n!mber so we will ta#e nearest e'en fi"!re0 In this e%ample we will calc!late cons!mption of yarn in K"s of both yarns and then we will add them to "et final prod!ction per ho!r Cons!mption of yarn for front #nittin" -'ery needle is ma#in" one stitch on e'ery feeder beca!se machine is prod!cin" sin"le $ersey fabric /front of fleece0.

4C Kilo "rams AnswerE this machine will cons!me :<.7 :B.rom this fi"!re we can calc!late yarn cons!mption in yards in one ho!r arn Cons!mption /in yards0 in one ho!r 7 n!mber of stitches 8 len"th of /mm0 8 D>& 852 /min!tes0 :222/to con'ert mm into meters0 7C2442 8 1. .4A Kilo "rams -fficiency 4CG 7 5.CC This machine can prod!ce 1:.B2 Total 1:.i'e Len"th of stitch is 1.4C K"s of yarn to #nit front of the fleece fabric in one ho!r at 4C G efficiency Step . =e can easily calc!late wei"ht of this yarn while its co!nt is #nown /see e%ample 260. N!mber of stitches prod!ced in one re'ol!tion 7 N!mber of needles 8 n!mber of feeders 7 :5A5862 7 C2442 This fi"!re shows that machine is ma#in" C2442 stitches in one re'ol!tion.<6 Kilo "rams -fficiency 4CG 7 :<. NoteE that we ha'e p!t 62 cones of co!rse co!nt for loops after e'ery two feeders. =ei"ht of cotton yarn 7 len"th of yarn Co!nt 8 4<2 7 1665A5 4<2 8 :5 7 :B.6A po!nds or 7 B.C 8 14 8 52 :222 7 1:65A5 meters or 7 1665A5 yards Step Si% In pre'io!s step we calc!lated )!antity of yarn cons!med in yards. =e ha'e de'elop a e)!ation which is !sef!l in e'ey sit!ation to calc!late the optim!m prod!ction capacity of a #nittin" machine at 4CG efficiency. Step .B2 Kilo "rams Step Se'en Now we can add both yarn cons!med arn for front :<.CC K"s fabric in one ho!r at 4CG efficiency All abo'e disc!ssion to elaborate the way to calc!late the optim!m prod!ction of a #nittin" machine.o!r arn cons!med for loop #nittin" /bac# of the fabric0 -'ery needle is ma#in" one stitch on e'ery feeder beca!se machine is prod!cin" sin"le $ersey fabric /front of fleece0.4C arn for bac# 5.or cotton co!nt >rod!ction in one ho!r7 .C mm /stitch len"th is always calc!lated in metric system0 .

=e will e%plain this con'ersion method with e%amples before that it is imperati'e to #now the standard con'ersion factors of different meas!rin" !nits.2A65 8 : 8 4C :222 84<2 8 yarn co!nt 8 :22 Gramma"e -%pressions Generally "ramma"e is e%pressed in Grams per &eter S)!are /GS&0 b!t in certain cases it is also e%pressed O!nces per ard S)!are /OS 0.<B o!nces per yard s)!are Delation between len"th* width and "ramma"e It was obser'ed d!rin" interaction with the people wor#in" in "arment b!siness that they face diffic!lties in calc!lation related to "ramma"e* width and len"th of the fabric.465 meter s)!are0 is 142 "rams or =ei"ht of one meter s)!are 7 1428 : 2.Ga!"e 8 . >eople* partic!larly wor#in" in mar#etin" and merchandisin" departments face problems in con'ertin" GS& into OS .:A5 yard s)!are /one meter s)!are is e)!al to :.A6 or =ei"ht of one yard s)!are 7 4.A6 o!nces /14 "rams are e)!al to one o!nce0 or =ei"ht of :.:A5 yard s)!are0 is 4. -%ample :2 Con'ert :2 OS /o!nces per s)!are yard0 into GS& /"rams per s)!are meter0.:A5 Answer 7 B.:< 8 D>& 852 8 Stitch len"th /mm0 8:.465 Answer 7 6<<. Con'ersion of GS& /"rams per s)!are meter0 into OS /o!nces per s)!are yard0 1C2 GS& means that wei"ht of one meter s)!are fabric is 1C2 "rams and :2 OS means wei"ht on one yard s)!ares is :2 o!nces. A complete con'ersion chart is "i'en at the end of the boo#.A "rams per meter s)!are -%ample :: Con'ert 1C2 GS& /"rams per s)!are meter0 into OS /o!nces per s)!are yard0 It means wei"ht of one meter s)!are is 1C2"rams or =ei"ht of one s)!are meter is 4.ia 8 6. In the followin" lines we will e%plain the method of con'ersion from GS& to OS and 'ice 'ersa with the help of e%amples. One sho!ld be m!ch familiar with these con'ersion factors.465 meter s)!are /one yard s)!are is 2. It means wei"ht of one yard s)!are is :2 o!nces or =ei"ht of one s)!are yard is 142 "rams /one o!nce is e)!al to 14 "rams0 or =ei"ht of one 2. In the followin" .A68 : :.

S!pplier has to mention this ratio on label.5 meter s)!are =ei"ht of one meter s)!are is 7 622 /GS&0 And wei"ht of 6C.6A "rams per meter s)!are of GS& of the fabric Calc!lation of different fibre percenta"e in #nitted fabric Normally fabrics are #nitted with one #ind of yarn b!t in some cases more than one type of yarn of different co!nts and combination /mi%in" of two different fibres0 are !sed.lines we will e%plain relationship amon" these factors with e%amples.5 meter s)!are 7 62286C. One 'ery common e%ample is #nittin" of fleece fabric* which is #nitted by !sin" fine and co!rse yarns* and one yarn is made of polyester and cotton. In s!ch condition there is a re)!irement to mention e%act percenta"e of different fibres in the fabric. Another e%ample is #nittin" of fabric by !sin" spande% filament and cotton or p!re polyester.5C 7CB.BC &eter s)!are is :C.6B /one meter is e)!al to 6A. .abric len"th 7 6C meters .C K"s Len"th of fabric 7 6C meters =idth of fabric in open form 7 5C inches Sol!tionE .6B inches0 7 6C.irst we will calc!late area of the fabric Area of fabric 7 .C #"s or :CC22 "rams So wei"ht of one s)!are meter 7 :CC229CB2BC 7 154.BC meters s)!are =ei"ht of CB.irst we will calc!late area of the fabric . -%ample :2 Calc!late wei"ht of fabric from the "i'en data. Gramma"e 622 GS& =idth of fabric 6C inches /in t!b!lar form0 Len"th of fabric 12 meters .abric area 7 Len"th 8 width 76C 8 :.5 7 :2542 "rams or :2.abric len"th 8 fabric width 7 12 8 6C81 /since fabric is in t!b!lar0 6A.542 K"s -%ample :6 Calc!late GS& from the data "i'en Total =ei"ht of fabric 7 :C. In the followin" lines we disc!ss the methods to calc!late s!ch percenta"e with the help of e%amples.abric width 7 5C inches or :.5C meters .

C K"s >olyester 2.55 .rontE loop 1E: /by wei"ht0 S!ppose for front we need 1K" yarn and for loop we will be re)!irin" : K" yarn .ront yarn 1 KGS :22 G cotton Cotton 1222 "rams Loop yarn : K" C2EC2 >9C Cotton C22 "rams and >olyester C22 "rams -%act Datio Cotton total 1.66G >olyester E :5.C K"s DatioE CottonE 46.-%ample .ind e%act composition of different fibres in fleece fabric from the followin" dataE arn co!nt front 62s :22 cotton arn co!nt for loop 12s C2EC2 >9C Cons!mption ratio .