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in the continuous void spaces (i.e. pore water pressure, u) and (2) the stress carried by the soil solids at their points of contact (i.e. the soil skeleton). ppro!i"ately the effective stress (σ')
σ = Hγ w + ( H A − H ) γ sat Ws + Ww where γ sat = γ = Vtotal
σ=σ #+u (1 −a )
where a is the fractional surface area of solids (usually a$$1 for all practical conditions) so σ ≈ σ#+u
rearran%in% and subtractin% the pore pressure ( u = H A γw , i.e. hydrostatic pressure) σ ′ = [ Hγ w + ( H A − H ) γ sat ] − H A γ w = ( H A − H ) γ ′ , where γ′ = γ − γ w &o"pression of soil layers due to stress increase by construction of foundations or other loads. &o"pression is caused by' 1. (efor"ation of soil particles 2. )elocation of soil particles *. E!pulsion of water or air fro" void spaces &onsolidation + ,rocess the reduction of bulk soil volu"e under loadin% due to flow of pore water. -or saturated soils, any incre"ent of loadin% (∆σ, called surchar%e) will be initially taken up by the pore pressure and result in consolidation until a new equilibriu" is reached where the soil solids (or skeleton) takes up the added load. surchar%e' ∆σ = ∆σ#+∆u -or cohesive soils' at t . /, ∆σ = ∆u 0 t.∞, ∆σ = ∆σ# -or non+cohesive soils' water drains faster and the load is transferred i""ediately &ate%ories' 1. 1""ediate settle"ent + elastic defor"ation of dry soil and "oist and saturated soils without chan%e to "oisture content a. due to hi%h per"eability, pore pressure in clays support the entire added load and no i""ediate settle"ent occurs b. %enerally, due to the construction process, i""ediate settle"ent is not i"portant 2. ,ri"ary consolidation settle"ent + volu"e chan%e in saturated cohesive soils because of the e!pulsion of water fro" void spaces a. hi%h per"eability of sandy, cohesionless soils result in near i""ediate draina%e due to the increase in pore water pressure and no pri"ary consolidation settle"ent occurs *. Secondary co"pression settle"ent + plastic ad2ust"ent of soil fabric in cohesive soils
(raw line ad to bisect an%le bac :.ri"ary &onsolidation Settle"ent Saturated clay soil layer of thickness H. Establish point a at which e+lo% p has "ini"u" radius of curvature 2.. "a!i"u" pressure the soil has been sub2ected to in the past (pc) 2. overconsolidated + present effective overburden pressure $ "a!i"u" pressure the soil has been sub2ected to in the past (pc) 3or"ally consolidated 4verconsolidated 5a!i"u" past load e lo% p 3on+linear rebound when load is re"oved e lo% p pc . increase in pressure ∆p. chan%e in volu"e is equal to the chan%e in volu"e of the voids (definition of settle"ent) and by the definition of the void ratio' ∆V = SA = ∆Vv = ∆eVS .ro2ect the strai%ht+line portion of gh back to intersect ad at f 7.reconsolidation &ondition 1. 16*7) 1. e a f b d g c pc lo% p h &alculation of .sin% the initial void ratio and total volu"e (eo and Vo) %ives VS = &o"binin% and rearran%in% %ives ∆V = SA = ∆eVS = AH ∆e 1 + eo S =H ∆e 1 + eo Vo AH = 1 + eo 1 + eo . and resultin% ulti"ate pri"ary consolidation settle"ent S &han%e in volu"e is ∆V = SA . . (raw hori8ontal line fro" a (line ab) *. e!istin% overburden pressure po. bscissa of point f is the preconsolidation pressure.lti"ate . pc <oid ratio. (raw tan%ent to curve at a (line ac) 9.reconsolidation pressure deter"ination (&asa%rande. nor"ally consolidated + present effective overburden pressure . cross+sectional area A.
"ore accurate to divide "ultiple layers &onsider depth to 2= for square foundation (=!=) or 9= for strip foundations (=!>). Swell 1nde! nor"ally consolidated clays (pc . can si"ply find ∆e over the appropriate ran%e of pressures and use S = H 1 + e (works for all conditions) o ∆e . slope of the e+lo% p curve' p o + ∆p Cc H lo% p 1 + eo o Cc = e1 − e2 ∆e = p p + ∆p lo% 2 p lo% o po 1 S= • • -or thick clay. po ? ∆p) S =∑ @ood conditionA overconsolidated clay (pc ≥ po ? ∆p) use the Swell 1nde! (Cs) po + ∆p CH S = s lo% 34TE' use of Cc vice Cs is conservative p 1 + eo o "ost "arine soils are overconsolidated + sedi"entation increases the surchar%e on the soil. = is the width po ( i ) + ∆p ( i ) Cc H i lo% 1 + eo po ( i ) &o"pression vs.&o"pression inde! Cc . but subsequent erosion re"oves "uch of the load underconsolidated clay (pc ≤ po ? ∆p) () )E &43(1T143) pc C c H po + ∆p C H S = S lo% + lo% (partially on both curves) p 1+ e p 1 + eo o c o • 1f the e+lo% p plot is known.