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# PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS

Introduction to Trigonometry

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Trigonometry of acute angle / right angled triangle R 2√2 P √2 O θ 1 The ratio of PQ to OP is 2 1 Q 1 S 1 2 The ratio of RS to OR is Which is the same 2 2 2 = 1 2 .

2 1 Q 1 2 3 1 S 1 U If we extend the triangle further and calculate the ratio of TU to OT We get Which is the same as before .Trigonometry of acute angle T 3√2 R 2√2 P √2 O θ 1 3 3 2 = ...

s in θ = O p p o s ite H y p o te u s e We can also calculate some other ratios from this triangle Adjacent cos θ = Hypoteuse tan θ = Opposite Adjacent Note that sin θ tan θ = cos θ . we call it So.Trigonometry of acute angle P e s u n e t o p Hy Opposite O θ Adjacent Q the sine of the angle θ We have a name for this ratio.

Trigonometric ratios between 00 and 3600 Positive angle Negative angle .

cosine and tangent are positive The signs are: Sine + Cosine and tangent - .The signs of the three main trigonometric ratios + O + - + In the 1st quadrant : Opposite Hypotenuse Are all positive adjacent In the 2nd quadrant : Opposite is + Hypotenuse is + adjacent - The sign of sine.

The signs of the three main trigonometric ratios - - O O + - In the 3rd quadrant : Opposite Hypotenuse + Adjacent - In the 4th quadrant : Opposite is Hypotenuse is + adjacent + The sign of sine and cosine are . but tangent is + The signs are: Sine and tangent But Cosine + ..

The reciprocal trigonometric ratios In addition to the three main trigonometric ratios there are three other ratios that may be obtained from a right-angled triangle: Cosecant (called cosec for short) Secant (called sec for short) Cotangent (called cot for short) .

The reciprocal trigonometric ratios The three reciprocal trigonometric ratios are defined as follows: 1 cos ec θ = sin θ 1 s ec θ = cos θ 1 cot θ = tan θ .

The positive signs of the trigonometric ratios Sine cosec O All tan cot Cos Sec .

The positive signs of the trigonometric ratios sine cosec O All tan cot cos sec An easy way to remember these is to remember which of the three Main trigonometric ratios are positive in each quadrant: All Silver Tea Cups .

cos 30= 3 2 . tan 30 = 1 3 . Each of its angle is 600 QS is the perpendicular bisector from Q to mid-point Of PR SQR=300 1 2 3 2 Q 300 2 2 √3 P 600 1 S 1 R and PS=SR=1 Then angle By Pythagoras theorem QS= √3 Then : sin 30 = sin 60 = . cos 60= 1 3 2 . tan 60 = .45.Trigonometry of standard angles (30. 60) Consider an equilateral triangle PQR of side 2.

45. tan 45 = 1 . 60) Consider an isosceles. cos 45= 1 2 . Angle Q=Angle R=450 By Pythagoras theorem QR= √2 Then : Q 450 1 P 1 2 √2 450 1 R sin 45 = .Trigonometry of standard angles (30. right-angled triangle PQR In which PQ=QR=1.

and 60 occur frequently in trigonometry 300 sin cos tan 1/2 √3 /2 1/√3 450 1/√2 1/√2 1 600 √3 /2 1/2 √3 .45. 45.Trigonometry of standard angles (30. 60) Angles 30.

From any angle to an acute angle The trigonometric ratios of any angle can be expressed as a trigonometric ratio of an acute angle using the previous results For example: Cos 1250 can be calculated /expressed as follows. So. Cos 1250=.Cos 550 φ 125 . 125 lies in the second quadrant So. φ=180-125=550 But in the second quadrant cosine is negative.

Sin 4050= Sin 450 φ 4050 . φ=405-360=450 But in the first quadrant sine is positive. So. 4050 lies in the first quadrant So.From any angle to an acute angle Another example: Sin 4050 can be calculated /expressed as follows.