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Moderated June 2011
Module Leader K. Burn
University of Sunderland
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Department of Computing, Engineering and Technology
MEX306 – THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID MECHANICS
REFERRED/DEFERRED EXAMINATION
Date: Time:
Instructions to Candidates:
Time allowed  3 hours
There are 6 questions set. You must attempt 4 questions.
This is a closed book examination – this means you are not
permitted to use any text books or study aids in the
examination.
You are forbidden to use programmable or calculators.
You must answer the required number of questions only.
Any additional answers will not be marked.
You should put a cross through any work you do not wish to
be marked.
Page 2 of 4
Moderated June 2011
Module Leader K. Burn
Question 1
Octane gas (C
8
H
18
) at 25°C is burnt in a steady flow process with 84% of the air
theoretically required for complete combustion. The air enters the combustion
chamber at 400K and the exhaust products leave the combustion chamber at 1300K.
The fuel flow rate is 0.015 kg/s. Determine:
a) The air/fuel ratio by mass. (4 marks)
b) The dry volumetric exhaust analysis. (4 marks)
c) The rate of heat loss from the combustion chamber. (12 marks)
Question 2
Propylene gas (C
3
H
6
) is burnt in a steady flow combustion process with 79%
theoretical air. Both the air and fuel enter the combustion chamber at 25°C.
a) Determine the air/fuel ratio. (6 marks)
b) Calculate the adiabatic flame temperature. (14 marks)
Question 3
A custom designed single tube pass, single shell side pass, shell and tube heat
exchanger comprises a number of 2cm outside diameter tubes. They are arranged in a
2.5cm square pitch layout and are contained in a shell of inside diameter 0.8 m.
Furthermore, they are supported by segmental baffles spaced at 15 cm intervals. Oil,
with a specific heat capacity 2000 J/kg K, thermal conductivity 0.14 W/m K, and
dynamic viscosity 0.001 Ns/m
2
flows at 20 kg/s through the shell side. The tube side
heat transfer coefficient is 750 W/m
2
K.
a) Calculate the shell side equivalent diameter D
e
and the mass velocity G
s
. Hence
calculate the shell side Reynolds number R
e
. (10 marks)
b) Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchanger.
(10 marks)
The following equations may be used without proof (the SiederTate correction
factor has been neglected):
p s p
p
shell h
.
shell h
.
shell h
c G
h
Vc
h
St
k
c
St ) (j
. ) (j
. ) (j
= = =
× =
= s <
= s <
÷
÷
µ
µ
; Pr
Pr where
Re 351 0 10 Re 5000
Re 491 0 5000 Re 200
3
2
45 0 6
49 0
For a square pitch tube layout:
πd
1
] d
4
π
[P 4 De
2 2
÷ × =
Page 3 of 4
Moderated June 2011
Module Leader K. Burn
Question 4
An air conditioning unit is to deliver 25 m
3
/min of air at a pressure of 1 bar, a
temperature of 18°C, and a relative humidity of 50%. A fan draws atmospheric air
only into the unit, which is at a temperature of 32°C and has a relative humidity of
88%. The air is firstly cooled to dehumidify it, before being reheated to the required
temperature prior to delivery. Assuming that the pressure is constant throughout the
process, and that the fan has no influence on the system other than to circulate the
air:
a) Sketch the Ts diagram showing the condition of the water vapour in the air at
the different stages in the unit. (3 marks)
b) Calculate the specific humidity of the air at the outlet. (3 marks)
c) Calculate the mass flow rate of air through the unit. (3 marks)
d) Calculate the temperature to which air must be chilled in the cooler.
(3 marks)
e) Calculate the heat transfer rates (in kW) required in the cooler and heater.
(8 marks)
The characteristic gas constants for air and water vapour (R
a
and R
s
respectively) are
as follows: R
a
= 287 J/kg K; R
s
= 462 J/kg K.
Question 5
Air enters a natural draught cooling tower at 100 kPa and 15°C with a relative
humidity of 60%. Water at 65°C from the turbine condensers is sprayed into the
tower at the rate of 30 kg/s and leaves at 22°C. The air leaves the tower at 35°C,
100 kPa bar and is saturated. Calculate:
a) The enthalpy of the air at entry and exit to the tower. (6 marks)
b) The specific volume of air at entry to the tower. (3 marks)
c) The mass and volumetric air flow rates required. (8 marks)
d) The mass flow rate of the makeup water required to replenish the water lost
to evaporation. (3 marks)
The characteristic gas constants for air and water vapour (R
a
and R
s
respectively) are
as follows: R
a
= 287 J/kg K; R
s
= 462 J/kg K. The specific heat capacity of water is:
c
pw
= 4.19 kJ/kg K.
Page 4 of 4
Moderated June 2011
Module Leader K. Burn
Question 6
A glass plate, 6 cm thick and with a uniform temperature of 20°C, is suddenly
immersed in a vat of oil at a temperature of 80°C. The heat transfer coefficient
between the oil and the glass is 40 W/m
2
K, and the thermal properties of the glass
are as follows: density = 2220 kg/m
3
; specific heat capacity = 825 J/kg K; thermal
conductivity = 1.8 W/m K.
a) Calculate the Biot number and explain why this indicates that it is necessary to
use a transient solution to estimate the internal temperature of the glass.
(4 marks)
b) Carry out a transient analysis of the glass plate, using either the Schmidt
Binder or Saulyev finite difference method, in order to estimate the time it
takes for the centre line to reach a temperature of 30°C. (16 marks)
The following equations may be used without proof, where the symbols have their
usual meanings:
Saulyev:
)
1 1
1
1 1
t
n
Δt t
n
o
o t
n
o
o Δt t
n
θ (θ
F
F
θ
F
F
θ
÷
+
+
+
+


.

\

+
+


.

\

+
÷
=
)
1 1
1
1 1
Δt t
n
t
n
o
o t
n
o
o Δt t
n
θ (θ
F
F
θ
F
F
θ
+
÷ +
+
+


.

\

+
+


.

\

+
÷
=
where
2
0
Δx
αΔt
F = and
p
c
k
µ
o =
SchmidtBinder:
( )
t
n
t
n
Δt t
n
θ θ . θ
1 1
5 0
÷ +
+
+ × =
Convective boundary conditions:
1
1
1
1
θ
B
θ
B
B
θ
i
f
i
i
w


.

\

+
+


.

\

+
=
End of Exam Paper