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# Problem 7.

## We are interested in the stresses that act on the internal surface

shown. What describes this surface?

358

SOLUTION
The that describes the surface is given by the orientation of the outward normal.

= 90 35 = 55 J

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Problem 7.2
We are interested in the stresses that act on the internal surface
shown. What describes this surface?

y
708
x

SOLUTION
The that describes the surface is given by the orientation of the outward normal. Rotate the +x-axis
counterclockwise through to align with outward normal.

= 180 + 20 = 200 J

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Problem 7.3
Draw the right triangular element that includes the internal surface described by angle = 170 .

SOLUTION
From the +x-axis, = 170 puts one in second quadrant, i.e.,

In other words

## Thus, the element is:

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Problem 7.4
Draw the right triangular element that includes the internal surface described by angle = 30 .

SOLUTION
A = 30 means we are below the x-axis in fourth quadrant. So

In other words

## Thus, the element is:

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Problem 7.5
658

758

## Given a polygon, with surfaces a, b, c, and d, that make angles

with the horizontal or vertical as shown, determine the angle for
each of the surfaces.

a
y
d

708
x

508

SOLUTION
For surface a

= 65 J
For surface b

= 180 15 = 165 J
For surface c

= 180 + 50 = 230 J

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## PROBLEM 7.5 CONTINUED

For surface d

= 70 90 = 20 J

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Problem 7.6
Four surfaces a, b, c, and d, are described by angles a = 55 , b = 120 , c = 210 , and d = 325 ,
respectively. Draw a closed polygonal figure having these surfaces, and label the angle (between 0 and
90) that each surface makes with the horizontal.

SOLUTION
For surface a with a = 55

outward
normal
55
35
For surface b with b = 120

outward
normal
120
30
For surface c with c = 210
60

210

outward
normal

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## PROBLEM 7.6 CONTINUED

For surface d with d = 325

325

55

outward
normal
Therefore
30

b
a

60

35

c
d
55

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Problem 7.7
Shear and normal stresses are drawn in particular senses on the
internal surface shown. Identify whether each of the normal ()
and shear () stresses is > 0 or < 0.

y
x

SOLUTION
Recall the sign convention
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
For this case:
Because normal stress is inward,
<0J
Because shear stress is CW from outward normal,
<0J

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Problem 7.8
y
x

## Shear and normal stresses are drawn in particular senses on the

internal surface shown. Identify whether each of the normal ()
and shear () stresses is > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION
Recall the sign convention
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
For this case:
Because normal stress is outward,
>0J
Because shear stress is CCW from the outward normal,
>0J

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Problem 7.9
y

## On the internal surface shown, = 150 MPa and = 90 MPa.

Draw the shear and normal stresses in the correct senses.

SOLUTION
= 150 MPa and = 90 MPa.
Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

s
t

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Problem 7.10
y

## On the internal surface shown, = 8000 psi and = 5000 psi.

Draw the shear and normal stresses in the correct senses.

SOLUTION
= 8000 psi (positive) and = 5000 psi (negative).
Because > 0, it points outward; because < 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.

s J

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Problem 7.11
y
b

a
c

x
d

## Four internal surfaces, a, b, c, and d, are shown on the polygon

taken from a small region of the material. The shear and normal
stresses are drawn in particular senses on each surface. For each
surface, identify whether each of the normal () and shear ()
stresses is > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION
Recall the sign convention
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
a)
Because points outward,
Because is CW from the outward normal,
b)
Because points inward,
Because is CW from the outward normal,
c)
Because points outward,
Because is CCW from the outward normal,
d)
Because points inward,
Because is CCW from the outward normal,

>0J
<0J
<0J
<0J
>0J
>0J
<0J
>0J

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Problem 7.12
a

b
c

y
x

## Four internal surfaces, a, b, c, and d, are shown on the polygon

taken from a small region of the material. The shear and normal
stresses are drawn in particular senses on each surface. For each
surface, identify whether each of the normal () and shear ()
stresses is > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION
Recall the sign convention
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
a)
Because points outward,
Because is CCW from the outward normal,
b)
Because points outward,
Because is CW from the outward normal,
c)
Because points inward,
Because is CCW from the outward normal,
d)
Because points outward,
Because is CW from the outward normal,

>0J
>0J
>0J
<0J
<0J
>0J
>0J
<0J

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Problem 7.13

y
b

a
x
d

## Four internal surfaces, a, b, c, and d, are shown on the polygon

taken from a small region of the material. The shear and normal
stresses have been determined for each surface. Draw the stresses
on each surface in the correct senses.
a:
b:
c:
d:

= 44.6 MPa
= 185 MPa
= 101 MPa
= 176 MPa

and
and
and
and

= 162 MPa
= 118 MPa
= 46.9 MPa
= 126 MPa

SOLUTION
Recall the sign convention
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
Note: Currently the magnitudes (numbers) are not relevant, only the sign matters.
a) Because < 0, it points inward; because > 0, it points CCW from outward normal.
b) Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from outward normal.
c) Because > 0, it points outward; because < 0, it points CW from outward normal.
d) Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from outward normal.
So, on the polygon we have

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Problem 7.14
y
258
x

## The shear and normal stresses are drawn in particular senses on

the internal surface as shown. Identify the angle , and whether
the stresses and are each > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION
The angle must be measured from the +x-axis to the outward normal.

25
25

= 270 25
= 245 J
Recall the sign conventions
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
For this element, because points outward and points CW from the outward normal,

>0J
<0J

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Problem 7.15
The shear and normal stresses are drawn in particular senses on
the internal surface as shown. Identify the angle , and whether
the stresses and are each > 0 or < 0.

y
358
x

SOLUTION
The angle must be measured from the +x-axis to the outward normal.

55o
q = 35 o

35o
55o
Note: Since is below the x-axis
Recall the sign conventions
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
For this element, because points inward and points CCW from the outward normal,

= 35 J

<0J
>0J

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Problem 7.16
Draw the right triangular element containing the surface with angle = 120 . Assuming the stresses on
the surface are = 9000 psi and = 7500 psi, draw the stresses in the correct senses on the surface.

SOLUTION
For = 120 , = 9000 psi, and = 7500 psi, is measured from the x-axis to the outward normal.
Stress element

Thus, element at 30
Recall the sign conventions
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
For this element, because > 0 it points outward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal,

30o

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Problem 7.17
Draw the right triangular element containing the surface with angle = 210 . Assuming the stresses on
the surface are = 200 MPa and = 150 MPa, draw the stresses in the correct senses on the surface.

SOLUTION
For = 210 , = 200 MPa, and = 150 MPa, is measured from the x-axis to the outward normal.
Stress element

210o
30o
30o

Thus, element at 30
Recall the sign conventions
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
For this element, because < 0 it points inward; because > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal,

t
30o
J

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Problem 7.18
b
358
758
c

408
258

y
a

## Given a polygon, with surfaces a, b, c, and d, and the shear and

normal stresses drawn in particular senses on each surface, identify the angle of each face and whether stresses and on each
are > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION
Recall the sign convention
(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).
(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.
For surface a

15o
75o
75o
= 15 J
Now consider the signs of the stresses.
Because points outward,
Because is CCW from the outward normal,

>0J
>0J

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## PROBLEM 7.18 CONTINUED

For surface b

55o
35o
35o
= 180 55 = 125 J
Now consider the signs of the stresses.
Because points inward,

<0J

## Because is CCW from the outward normal,

>0J

For surface c

40o

40o
50o

= 180 + 50 = 230 J
Now consider the signs of the stresses.
Because points outward,

>0J

## Because is CW from the outward normal,

<0J

For surface d

25o

q
25

= 25 90 = 65 J
Now consider the signs of the stresses.
Because points inward,
Because is CCW from the outward normal,

<0J
>0J

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Problem 7.19
Consider a polygon with four surfaces a, b, c, and d, with the following angles and stresses:
a:
b:
c:
d:

= 50 ,
= 110 ,
= 210 ,
= 305 ,

= 12.9 ksi,
= 11.2 ksi,
= 14.8 ksi,
= 12.9 ksi,

= 7.18 ksi
= 6.74 ksi
= 2.17 ksi
= 0.25 ksi

Draw a closed polygonal figure having these surfaces, label the angle (between 0 and 90 ) that each
surface makes with the horizontal, and draw the stresses in the correct senses on the faces.

SOLUTION
Angles are

J
Thus, polygon angles are

Face (a): Because < 0, it points inward; because > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.
Face (b): Because > 0, it points outward; because > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.
Face (c): Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.
Face (d): Because > 0, it points outward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.
Thus, the stresses are

b
a
c
d
J
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Problem 7.20

358

## The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 3 ksi, y = 5 ksi, and

xy = 6 ksi. Calculate the normal and shear stresses acting on the
inclined surface shown, and then draw them in the correct senses,
labeling their magnitudes.

SOLUTION
Find angle for the surface of interest

35o
q

= (90 35 ) = 55
Given x = 3 ksi, y = 5 ksi, and xy = 6 ksi
The stress transformation equations are:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)
2
2

and
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

## Thus, for the information given:

(55 ) =

1
1
(3 ksi + 5 ksi) + (3 ksi 5 ksi) cos(2(55)) + (6 ksi) sin 2(55 )
2
2
(55 ) = 3.27 ksi J

## (55 ) = 6 ksi cos(2(55 )) +

1
(5 ksi (3 ksi)) sin(2(55 ))
2
(55 ) = 5.81 ksi J

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## PROBLEM 7.20 CONTINUED

Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

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Problem 7.21

y
558
x

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 100 MPa, y = 200 MPa,
and xy = 150 MPa. Calculate the normal and shear stresses
acting on the inclined surface shown, and then draw them in the
correct senses, labeling their magnitudes.

SOLUTION
Given: x = 100 MPa, y = 200 MPa, and xy = 150 MPa
The surface of interest is:

q
o

55o

35

= 90 + 35 = 125
The stress transformation equations are:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2

and
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

## Thus, for the information given and = 125

(125 ) =

1
1
(100 MPa + (200 MPa)) + (100 MPa (200 MPa)) cos(2(125 ))
2
2
+(150 MPa) sin(2(125 ))
(125 ) = 39.6 MPa J

## (125 ) = 150 MPa cos(2(125 )) +

1
(200 MPa (100 MPa)) sin(2(125 ))
2
(125 ) = 192.3 MPa J

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## PROBLEM 7.21 CONTINUED

Because > 0, it points outward; because > 0, it points CCW to the outward normal.

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Problem 7.22
The stresses are depicted on the square element aligned with the x-y axes. Calculate and then draw and
label the normal and shear stresses acting on the inclined surface shown.
3000 psi
8000 psi

4000 psi

408

SOLUTION
From the stresses shown on x-y element, we deduce the x-y components to be x = 4000 psi,
y = 3000 psi, and xy = 8000 psi.
The surface of interest is:

= 90 40 = 50
The stress transformation equations for = 50 are:
() =
(50 ) =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)
2
2

) 1(
)
1(
4000 psi 3000 psi + 4000 psi (3000 psi) cos 2(50 ) + (8000 psi) sin 2(50 )
2
2
(50 ) = 4465 psi J
() = xy cos 2 +
(50 ) = 8000 psi cos 2(50 ) +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

)
1(
3000 psi (4000 psi) sin 2(50 )
2
(50 ) = 897 psi J

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## PROBLEM 7.22 CONTINUED

Because > 0, it points outward. Because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

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Problem 7.23
The stresses are depicted on the square element aligned with the x-y axes. Calculate and then draw and
label the normal and shear stresses acting on the inclined surface shown.
100 MPa
200 MPa
308
150 MPa

y
x

SOLUTION
From the stresses shown on x-y element, we deduce the x-y components to be x = 150 MPa,
y = 100 MPa, and xy = 200 MPa.
The surface of interest is:

30o
30

60o

= 180 + 60 = 240
The stress transformation equations are:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)
2
2

and
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

## Thus, for = 240 and the information given

(240 ) =

1
1
(150 MPa + 100 MPa) + (150 MPa 100 MPa) cos 2(240 ) + 200 MPa sin 2(240 )
2
2
(240 ) = 60.7 MPa J
(240 ) = 200 MPa cos(2(240 )) +

1
(100 MPa 150 MPa) sin(2(240 ))
2
(240 ) = 78.3 MPa J

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recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

## PROBLEM 7.23 CONTINUED

Stress drawn on the element is:

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Problem 7.24
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 80 MPa, y = 40 MPa,
and xy = 50 MPa. Calculate the normal and shear stresses acting
on the four faces of the inclined element shown, and then draw
them in the correct senses, labeling their magnitudes.

y
258

SOLUTION
Given: x = 80 MPa, y = 40 MPa, and xy = 50 MPa.
For the upper-right surface, the angle is given by:

25o

= 25
The stress transformation equations are:
() =
(25 ) =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2

1
1
(80 MPa + (40 MPa)) + (80 MPa (40 MPa)) cos 2(25 ) + 50 MPa sin 2(25 )
2
2
(25 ) = 34.5 MPa J
() = xy cos 2 +
(25 ) = 50 MPa cos 2(25 ) +

## For the upper-left surface, = 115

(115 ) =

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

1
(40 MPa (80 MPa)) sin(2(25 ))
2
(25 ) = 47.5 MPa J

1
1
(80 MPa + (40 MPa)) + (80 MPa (40 MPa)) cos 2(115 ) + 50 MPa sin 2(115 )
2
2
(115 ) = 85.4 MPa J

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## PROBLEM 7.24 CONTINUED

(115 ) = 50 MPa cos 2(115 ) +

1
(40 MPa (80 MPa)) sin(2(115 ))
2
(115 ) = 47.5 MPa J

Because (25 ) < 0, it points inward; because (25 ) > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.
Because (115 ) < 0, it points inward; because (115 ) < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.
Stress drawn is:
85.4 MPa

34.5 MPa
47.5 MPa
25o
J

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Problem 7.25
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 5 ksi, y = 4 ksi, and
xy = 3 ksi. Calculate the normal and shear stresses acting on the
four faces of the inclined element shown, and then draw them in
the correct senses, labeling their magnitudes.

y
158

SOLUTION
Given: x = 5 ksi, y = 4 ksi, and xy = 3 ksi.
The two surfaces of interest are = 15 and = 75 .

75o

15o

## The stress transformation equations are:

() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)
2
2

and
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

## Thus, for the information given

For = 15
(15 ) =

1
1
(5 ksi + 4 ksi) + (5 ksi 4 ksi) cos 2(15 ) + 3 ksi sin 2(15 )
2
2
(15 ) = 5.90 ksi J

## (15 ) = 3 ksi cos(2(15 )) +

For = 75
(75 ) =

1
(4 ksi (5 ksi)) sin(2(15 ))
2
(15 ) = 0.3481 ksi J

1
1
(5 ksi + 4 ksi) + (5 ksi 4 ksi) cos 2(75 ) + 3 ksi sin 2(75 )
2
2
(75 ) = 4.90 ksi J

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## PROBLEM 7.25 CONTINUED

(75 ) = 3 ksi cos 2(75 ) +

1
(4 ksi (5 ksi)) sin 2(75 )
2
(75 ) = 0.348 ksi J

Because (15 ) < 0, it points inward; because (15 ) > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.
Because (75 ) > 0, it points outward; because (75 ) < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.
The stress drawn is:

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Problem 7.26
The stresses are drawn on an element oriented with respect to the x-y axes. Calculate the normal and
shear stresses acting on the four faces of the inclined element shown, and then draw them in the correct
senses, labeling their magnitudes.
150 MPa
50 MPa

508

y
100 MPa
x

SOLUTION
From stresses on x-y element, deduce x-y components to be x = 100 MPa, y = 150 MPa,
and xy = 50 MPa.
The two surfaces of interest are at = 40 and = 130 .

40o

40o

## The stress transformation equations are:

() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)
2
2

and
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

For = 40
(40 ) =

1
1
(100 MPa + 150 MPa) + (100 MPa 150 MPa) cos 2(40 ) + 50 MPa sin 2(40 )
2
2
(40 ) = 170 MPa J
(40 ) = 50 MPa cos 2(40 ) +

For = 130
(130 ) =

1
(150 MPa 100 MPa) sin 2(40 )
2
(40 ) = 33.3 MPa J

1
1
(100 MPa + 150 MPa) + (100 MPa 150 MPa) cos 2(130 ) + 50 MPa sin 2(130 )
2
2
(130 ) = 80.1 MPa J

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## PROBLEM 7.26 CONTINUED

(130 ) = 50 MPa cos 2(130 ) +

1
(150 MPa 100 MPa) sin 2(130 )
2
(130 ) = 33.3 MPa J

Because (40 ) > 0, it points outward; because (40 ) > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.
Because (130 ) > 0, it points outward; because (130 ) < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.
The stress drawn is:

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Problem 7.27
The stresses are drawn on an element oriented with respect to the x-y axes. Calculate the normal and
shear stresses acting on the four faces of the inclined element shown, and then draw them in the correct
senses, labeling their magnitudes.
5000 psi
6000 psi
y
3000 psi

358

SOLUTION
From stresses on x-y element, deduce x-y components to be x = 3000 psi, y = 5000 psi,
and xy = 6000 ksi.
The two surfaces of interest are = 55 and = 145 .

55o
55o

## The stress transformation equations are:

() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)
2
2

and
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

For = 55
) 1(
)
1(
3000 psi + 5000 psi + 3000 psi (5000 psi) cos 2(55 ) + 6000 psi sin 2(55 )
2
2

(55 ) =

## (55 ) = 8010 psi J

(55 ) = 6000 psi cos 2(55 ) +
For = 145
(145 ) =

)
1(
5000 psi 3000 psi) sin 2(55 )
2
(55 ) = 1707 psi J

) 1(
)
1(
3000 psi + 5000 psi + 3000 psi (5000 psi) cos 2(145 ) + 6000 psi sin 2(145 )
2
2
(145 ) = 6010 psi J

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## PROBLEM 7.27 CONTINUED

(145 ) = 6000 psi cos 2(145 ) +

)
1(
5000 psi 3000 psi) sin 2(145 )
2
(145 ) = 1707 psi J

Because (55 ) < 0, it points inward; because (55 ) < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.
Because (145 ) > 0, it points outward; because (145 ) > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.
The stress drawn is:
6010 psi 1707 psi 8010 psi

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Problem 7.28
60 MPa

40 MPa

75 MPa

## The stresses are drawn on the inclined element oriented as shown.

Determine the normal and shear stresses x , y and xy .

y
x

608

SOLUTION
Treat the stress as x = 75 MPa, y = 40 MPa, and x y = 60 MPa.
Consider the slice a through the element. The outward normal is parallel to the +x-axis. The normal
stress on it will correspond to the x and the shear stress will correspond to xy .

40 MPa

14 MPa
75 MPa

60 MPa
t(q)

30o

75 MPa
60 MPa

30o
a

s(q)

60 MPa
Stress transformation equations are:
() =
(30 ) =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + x y sin(2)
2
2

1
1
(75 MPa + 40 MPa) + (75 MPa 40 MPa) cos 2(30 ) + 60 MPa sin 2(30 )
2
2
() = 5.71 MPa
() = x y cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

1
(40 MPa (75 MPa)) sin 2(30 )
2
() = 79.8 MPa

## (30 ) = 60 MPa cos 2(30 ) +

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## PROBLEM 7.28 CONTINUED

Consider the slice b through the element. The outward normal is parallel to the +y-axis. The normal
stress on it will correspond to y .
14 MPa

75 MPa

s(q)
t(q)

30o

b
60 MPa

60 MPa

(60 ) =

60o

75 MPa

60 MPa
40 MPa

1
1
(75 MPa + 40 MPa) + (75 MPa 40 MPa) cos 2(60 ) + 60 MPa sin 2(60 )
2
2
() = 40.7 MPa
1
(40 MPa (75 MPa)) sin 2(60 )
2
() = 79.8 MPa

## (60 ) = 60 MPa cos 2(60 ) +

So
x = 5.71 MPa J
y = 40.7 MPa J
xy = 79.8 MPa J

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Problem 7.29

6500 psi

## The stresses are drawn on the inclined element oriented as shown.

Determine the normal and shear stresses x , y , and xy .

4000 psi

3000 psi
y
258

SOLUTION
Treat the stress as x = 6500 psi, y = 3000 psi, and x y = 4000 psi.
Consider the slice a through the element. The outward normal is parallel to the +x-axis. The normal
stress on it will correspond to x and the shear stress will correspond to xy .

4000 psi

6500 psi
3000 psi
4000 psi

65o

3000 psi
a

6500 psi

t(q)
a

65o

s(q)

## Stress transformation equations are:

() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + x y sin(2)
2
2

] 1[
]
1[
6500 psi + (3000 psi) + 6500 psi (3000 psi) cos 2(65 )
2
2
+ (4000 psi) sin 2(65 )

(65 ) =

() = 6690 psi
)
1(
y x sin 2
2
]
1[
(65 ) = (4000 psi) cos 2(65 ) + 3000 psi (6500 psi) sin 2(65 )
2
() = 3910 psi
() = x y cos 2 +

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## PROBLEM 7.29 CONTINUED

Consider the slice b through the element. The outward normal is parallel to the +y-axis. The normal
stress on it will correspond to y .

4000 psi

6500 psi
65o

3000 psi
b

t(q)

s(q)

6500 psi
25o
b
4000 psi
3000 psi

] 1[
]
1[
6500 psi + (3000 psi) + 6500 psi (3000 psi) cos 2(25 )
2
2
+ (4000 psi) sin 2(25 )

(25 ) =

() = 2810 psi
]
1[
3000 psi (6500 psi) sin 2(25 )
2
() = 3910 psi

## (25 ) = (4000 psi) cos 2(25 ) +

So
x = 6690 psi J
y = 2810 psi J
xy = 3910 psi J

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Problem 7.30

40 MPa
308

100 MPa

y
70 MPa

The normal and shear stresses are drawn on one surface, while
only the normal stress is known on the second surface. Assuming
these are consistent with a uniform state of stress, determine the
stresses x , y , and xy and then calculate and draw the shear
stress on the second surface.

SOLUTION
From stresses drawn on the right surface, we can conclude that x = 100 MPa and xy = 70 MPa. From
the other surface, corresponding to the angle = 120 , we can conclude that (120 ) = 40 MPa.
The stress transformation equation can be used to solve for y
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)
2
2

1
1
1
1
() = x + y + x cos 2 y cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2
2
2
Regroup and solve for y
1
1
() = x (1 + cos 2) + y (1 cos 2) + xy sin 2
2
2
y =

() 12 x (1 + cos 2) xy sin 2
1
2

(1 cos 2)

y =

## 40 MPa 12 (100 MPa)(1 + cos 2 (120 )) (70 MPa) sin 2 (120 )

1
2

(1 cos 2 (120 ))
y = 167 MPa J

Therefore
() = xy cos 2 +
(120 ) = 70 MPa cos 2 (120 ) +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

1
(167 MPa 100 MPa) sin 2 (120 )
2
(120 ) = 150.8 MPa J

150.8 MPa

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Problem 7.31

7500 psi
4500 psi
3000 psi

y
x

The normal and shear stresses are drawn on one surface, while
only the shear stress is known on the second surface. Assuming
these are consistent with a uniform state of stress, determine the
stresses x , y , and xy and then calculate and draw the normal
stress on the second surface.

558

SOLUTION
From stresses drawn on the right surface, we conclude that y = 7500 psi and xy = 4500 psi. On the
other surface, where = 35 , () = 3000 psi.
The shear stress transformation equation is:
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

## Rearranging and solving for x yields:

x =

() + xy cos 2 + 12 y sin 2
1
2

sin 2

x =

## (3000 psi) + (4500 psi) cos[2(35 )] +

1
2

1
2

(
)
7500 psi sin[2(35 )]

sin[2(35 )]
x = 10610 psi J

## So, using the normal stress transformation equation,

() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos(2) + xy sin(2)
2
2

] 1[
]
1[
10610 psi + (7500 psi) + 10610 psi (7500 psi) cos[2(35 )]
2
2
+ (4500 psi) sin[2(35 )]

() =

() = 5360 psi J

5360 psi

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Problem 7.32
From the general stress transformation formulas, prove that has the same value at and at + 180 .
Prove that has the same magnitude, but opposite signs, at and at + 90 .

SOLUTION
The shear stress transformation equation is given by:
() = xy cos 2 +
For = + 90

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

)
1(
y x sin 2 ( + 90 )
2
)
1(
( + 90 ) = xy cos (2 + 180 ) + y x sin (2 + 180 )
2
( + 90 ) = xy cos 2 ( + 90 ) +

## Recall the identities

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin
and
cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin
Therefore

## sin (2 + 180 ) = sin 2 cos 180 + cos 2 sin 180 = sin 2

cos (2 + 180 ) = cos 2 cos 180 sin 2 sin 180 = cos 2

Thus,
( + 90 ) = xy cos 2

)
1(
y x sin 2
2
( + 90 ) = () J

For = + 180
( + 180 ) = xy cos 2 ( + 180 ) +

)
1(
y x sin 2 ( + 180 )
2

## ( + 180 ) = xy cos (2 + 360 ) +

)
1(
y x sin (2 + 360 )
2

## Recalling the identities

cos (2 + 360 ) = cos 2 cos 360 sin 2 sin 360 = cos 2
sin (2 + 360 ) = sin 2 cos 360 + cos 2 sin 360 = sin 2
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## PROBLEM 7.32 CONTINUED

Thus,
( + 180 ) = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2
( + 180 ) = () J

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Problem 7.33
From the general stress transformation formulas, prove that has the same value at and at + 180 .

SOLUTION
The stress transformation equation is given by:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

(1)

For = + 180
( + 180 ) =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 ( + 180 ) + xy sin 2 ( + 180 )
2
2

( + 180 ) =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos (2 + 360 ) + xy sin (2 + 360 )
2
2

## Recall the identities

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin
and
cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin
Therefore

## sin (2 + 360 ) = sin 2 cos 360 + cos 2 sin 360 = sin 2

cos (2 + 360 ) = cos 2 cos 360 sin 2 sin 360 = cos 2

Thus,
( + 180 ) =
Comparing equations (1) and (2)

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + y x cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2

(2)

() = ( + 180 ) J

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Problem 7.34
From the general stress transformation formulas, prove that () + ( + 90 ) has the same value, equal
to x + y , independent of the angle .

SOLUTION
The stress transformation equation is given by:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

(1)

For = + 90
( + 90 ) =
( + 90 ) =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 ( + 90 ) + xy sin 2 ( + 90 )
2
2
) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos (2 + 180 ) + xy sin (2 + 180 )
2
2

## Recall the identities

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin
and
cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin
Therefore

## cos (2 + 180 ) = cos 2 cos 180 sin 2 sin 180 = cos 2

sin (2 + 180 ) = sin 2 cos 180 + cos 2 sin 180 = sin 2

Thus,

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y ( cos 2) + xy ( sin 2)
2
2
Now add equation (1) to equation (2)
( + 90 ) =

() + ( + 90 ) =

(2)

) 1(
) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x + y + x y [cos 2 cos 2] + xy (sin 2 sin 2)
2
2
2
() + ( + 90 ) = x + y J

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Problem 7.35
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 80 MPa, y = 50 MPa, and
xy = 60 MPa. Determine the normal strain parallel to the line
segment shown. Include both the direct stress and the transverse
stress (Poisson eect). Take E = 70 GPa and = 0.33.

y
558
x

SOLUTION
Need to determine normal stresses at 55 (stress parallel to line segment) and 90 + 55 = 145 (stress
perpendicular to line segment). The stress transformation equation is:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

For = 55
1 = (55 ) =

1
1
(80 MPa + 50 MPa) + (80 MPa 50 MPa) cos 2 (55 ) + 60 MPa sin 2 (55 )
2
2
1 = (55 ) = 116.3 MPa

For = 145
2 = (145 ) =

1
1
(80 MPa + 50 MPa) + (80 MPa 50 MPa) cos 2 (145 ) + 60 MPa sin 2 (145 )
2
2
2 = (145 ) = 13.75 MPa

## Strain along segment is:

2
1

E
E
(
)
6
2
116.3 10 N/m
13.75 106 N/m2
=
0.33
70 109 N/m2
70 109 N/m2
=

= 1.596 103 J

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Problem 7.36

1000 psi
600 psi
208

300 psi

The stresses on the x-y axes are shown. Determine the normal
strain parallel to the line segment shown. Include both the direct
stress and the transverse stress (Poisson eect). Take E = 300 ksi
and = 0.4.

SOLUTION
From the x-y element infer that x = 300 psi, y = 1000 psi, and xy = 600 psi.
Need to find the normal stresses at 1 = 20 (stress parallel to the line segment) and 2 = 70 (stress
perpendicular to the line segment).
The stress transformation equation is:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

For = 20
) 1(
)
1(
300 psi + (1000 psi) + 300 psi (1000 psi) cos (2(20 ))
2
2

(2(20
+ (600 psi) sin
))

1 = (20 ) =

## 1 = (20 ) = 534 psi

For = 70
) 1(
)
1(
300 psi + (1000 psi) + 300 psi (1000 psi) cos (2(70 ))
2
2
+ (600 psi) sin (2(70 ))

2 = (70 ) =

## 2 = (70 ) = 1234 psi

Strain along segment is:

2
1

E
E
(
)
534 psi
1234 psi
=
0.4
300 103 psi
300 103 psi
=

= 3.42 103 J

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Problem 7.37
y

308
x

The two line segments shown are perpendicular under zero stress.
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 10 ksi, y = 6 ksi, and
xy = 5 ksi. What angle do these two segments make( with
) respect
6
to each other when the stresses act? Take G = 11.5 10 psi.

SOLUTION
Need to determine the shear stress on = 30 then apply
=

(1)

## The shear stress transformation equation is:

() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

1
(6 ksi 10 ksi) sin 2 (30 )
2
(30 ) = 0.768 ksi = 768 psi

768 psi

## Now apply equation (1)

() =

768 psi
= 6.678 105
6
11.5 10 psi

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## PROBLEM 7.37 CONTINUED

The shear strain corresponding to this shear can be depicted as

## Thus, the angle is reduced by to

89.996 J

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Problem 7.38

60 MPa
40 MPa

20 MPa

408

The two line segments shown are perpendicular under zero stress.
The stresses on the x-y axes are shown. What angle do these two
segments make with respect to each other when the stresses act?
Take G = 2.5 GPa.

SOLUTION
From x-y element, we can infer that x = 20 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 40 MPa.
Need to find the shear stress at = 50 .
The shear stress equation is:
)
1(
() = xy cos 2 + y x sin 2
2
1
(50 ) = 40 MPa cos 2 (50 ) + (60 MPa (20 MPa)) sin 2 (50 )
2

## (50 ) = 32.4 MPa

Because (50 ) < 0, notice the directions of shear stresses

32.4 MPa

Now apply

## 32.4 106 N/m2

=
= 1.296 102
9
2
G
2.5 10 N/m
The shear strain corresponding to this shear stress can be depicted as
=

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## PROBLEM 7.38 CONTINUED

Thus, the angle is increased by to

90.74 J

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Problem 7.39
C

The mutually perpendicular line segments, AB and AC, each having length 1 mm when zero stresses act. Under the action of
stresses on the x-y axes, x = 100 MPa, y = 200(MPa,) and
xy = 150 MPa, AB and AC are, respectively, 2.481 103 mm
(
)
longer and 7.592 104 mm shorter. Determine the Youngs
modulus and the Poisson ratio that are consistent with this observation.

y
408
x

SOLUTION
Need to find the stress at 1 = 40 and 2 = 130 .
The stress transformation equation is:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

For = 40
1 = (40 ) =

1
1
(100 MPa + 200 MPa) + (100 MPa 200 MPa) cos 2 (40 ) + 150 sin 2 (40 )
2
2
1 = (40 ) = 289 MPa

For = 130
2 = (130 ) =

1
1
(100 MPa + 200 MPa) + (100 MPa 200 MPa) cos 2 (130 ) + 150 sin 2 (130 )
2
2
2 = (130 ) = 10.96 MPa

## The strain is:

1 2 1 2

=
= 2.481 103
E
E
E
2 1 2 1
BC =

=
= 7.592 104
E
E
E
Now define R as the ratio of BC /AB and simplify for .
This yields
2 R1 10.96 MPa (0.306)(289 MPa)
=
=
1 R2 289 MPa (0.306)(10.96 MPa)
AB =

## Youngs modulus can now be found by either AB or BC .

Choosing AB
1 2 289 MPa 0.34 (10.96 MPa)
E=
=
AB
2.487 103

= 0.34 J

E = 115 GPa J

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Problem 7.40
C

The mutually perpendicular line segments, AB and AC, each having length 1 mm when zero stresses act. Under the action of
stresses on the x-y axes, x = 120 MPa, y = 140( MPa,) and
xy = 100 MPa, AB and AC are, respectively, 1.044 103 mm
(
)
shorter and 1.336 104 mm longer. Determine the Youngs
modulus and the Poisson ratio that are consistent with this observation.

358
B

SOLUTION
Need to determine the stress at 1 = 35 and 2 = 55 .
The stress transformation equation is:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

For = 35
1
1
(120 MPa + (140 MPa)) + (120 MPa (140 MPa)) cos 2 (35 )
2
2
+ 100 sin 2 (35 )

1 = (35 ) =

## 1 = (35 ) = 220.5 MPa

For = 55
1
1
(120 MPa + (140 MPa)) + (120 MPa (140 MPa)) cos 2 (55 )
2
2
+ 100 sin 2 (55 )

2 = (55 ) =

The strain is:
AB =
and
BC =

1 2
= 1.044 103
E
2 1
= 1.336 104
E

## Define R as the ratio of

BC /AB
and simplify for . This yields
=

## 2 R1 39.45 MPa (0.128)(220.5 MPa)

=
1 R2 220.5 MPa (0.128)(39.45 MPa)
= 0.3 J

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## PROBLEM 7.40 CONTINUED

Youngs modulus can now be obtained from either AB or BC .
E=

## 1 2 220 MPa 0.3 (39.45 MPa)

=
AB
1.044 103
E = 200 GPa J

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Problem 7.41
B
C
y

658

## The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 5 MPa, y = 8 MPa, and

xy = 4 MPa. The angle between the two lines shown, which
was 90 when unstressed, is 89.370 when the stresses act. Determine the elastic shear modulus consistent with this observation.

A
x

SOLUTION
Need to find the shear stress for = 65 .
The shear stress transformation equation is:
() = xy cos 2 +
For = 65

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

1
(8 MPa (5 MPa)) sin 2 (65 )
2
(65 ) = 7.55 MPa

## (65 ) = 4 MPa cos 2 (65 ) +

Thus,
= (90 89.370 )
Therefore, the shear modulus is:
G=

= 0.011
180

7.55 MPa
=

0.011
G = 686.4 MPa J

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Problem 7.42
C

## The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 60 MPa, y = 80 MPa, and

xy = 90 MPa. The angle between the two lines shown, which
was 90 when unstressed, is 90.055 when the stresses act. Determine the elastic shear modulus consistent with this observation.

A
508

y
x

SOLUTION
Need to find the shear stress for = 50 .
The shear stress transformation equation is:
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

For = 50
(50 ) = 90 MPa cos 2 (50 ) +

1
(80 MPa 60 MPa) sin 2 (50 )
2

Thus,

(
)
= (90 90.055 )
= 9.60 104

180

## Therefore, the shear modulus is:

G=

25.48 MPa
=
9.60 104
G = 26.5 GPa J

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Problem 7.43

1.00764 mm

0.99356 mm

90.2758

408

## Without any stresses acting, the element shown was a 1 1 mm

square oriented at 40 with respect to the horizontal axis. The
elastic moduli are E = 2 GPa, = 0.4, and G = 0.714 GPa.
Determine the normal and shear stresses that must act on the x-y
axes to cause the element to deform into the parallelogram shown.

SOLUTION
Lets label the sides as

## From the data given

1 = 0.00764
2 = (0.99356 1) = 0.00644
The shear strain is:
= (90 90.275 )
The strain is:
1 =

= 0.00480
180

1 2
E

and

2 1
E
These two equations can be solved for 1 and 2 as
2 =

1 =

E
2 GPa
[1 + 2 ] =
[0.00764 + 0.4 (0.00644)]
2
1
1 (0.4)2
1 = 12.06 MPa

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## PROBLEM 7.43 CONTINUED

and
2 =
2 =

E
[2 + 1 ]
1 2

2 GPa
[0.00644 + 0.4 (0.00764)]
1 (0.4)2
2 = 8.06 MPa

## The shear stress can be found from

(
)
= G = 0.714 109 N/m2 (0.00480)
= 3.43 MPa
Set x = 12.06 MPa, y = 8.06 MPa, and xy = 3.43 MPa.

12.06 MPa
40o
3.43 MPa

8.06 MPa
Find () and () for = 40 and = 50 , using the stress transformation equations
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

For = 40
(40 ) =

1
1
(12.06 MPa + (8.06 MPa)) + (12.06 MPa (8.06 MPa)) cos 2 (40 )
2
2
+ (3.43) sin 2 (40 ) = 7.12 MPa

## (40 ) = 3.43 MPa cos 2 (40 ) +

For = 50
(50 ) =
(50 ) =

1
(8.06 MPa 12.06 MPa) sin 2 (40 ) = 9.31 MPa
2

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

1
1
(12.06 MPa + (8.06 MPa)) + (12.06 MPa (8.06 MPa)) cos 2 (50 )
2
2
+ (3.43) sin 2 (50 ) = 3.12 MPa

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## PROBLEM 7.43 CONTINUED

Infer actual x , y , and xy from the stresses just found
x = (40 )
y = (50 )

xy = (40 )
x = 7.12 MPa J
y = 3.12 MPa J
xy = 9.31 MPa J

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Problem 7.44

Screw

Fracture
plane
Bone

## A bone fracture is oriented at = 30 from the axial direction. The bone is

required to withstand a loading due to weight on the foot that produces a compressive stress of 5 MPa along the bone axis. The fracture can withstand these
forces if there is sucient friction to resist slippage at the fracture plane due to
shear stress. The friction coecient, , gives the maximum shear stress that the
surfaces can sustain without slipping as a proportionality of the normal stress
(n ). In order to prevent slippage, a screw is inserted perpendicular to the fracture and tightened to give some initial compressive normal stress (and no shear
stress) squeezing the fragments together prior to any loading. If is assumed
to be 0.2, determine the average level of normal stress across the fracture plane
that the screw must induce, if, together with the applied axial stress, no slippage
between fragments is to occur.

SOLUTION

## As inferred from the problem, x = xy = 0. Axial force on bone is y = 5 MPa.

Find shear and normal stress on fracture plane due to axial compressive stress 5 MPa.
The stress transformation equations are:
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

and
() = xy cos 2 +

)
1(
y x sin 2
2

## With x = xy = 0 these reduce to

)
1
1(
() = y + y cos 2
2
2
and

1
() = y sin 2
2
(30 ) =

1
1
(5 MPa) + ( (5 MPa)) cos (2 (30 ))
2
2

## (30 ) = 1.25 MPa

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## PROBLEM 7.44 CONTINUED

1
(5 MPa) sin 2 (30 )
2
(30 ) = 2.165 MPa

(30 ) =

## Here are the stresses on fracture plane due to applied load

1.25 MPa
2.165 MPa
30o
The total compressive stress n on the fracture plane is the sum of the compression induced by the screw
screw plus the 1.25 MPa compressive stress due to applied load.
As stated in the problem, for there to be no slip the compressive stress must be suciently large compared
to the shear stress, i.e., n .
Thus, when the compressive stress is just sucient to prevent slip, screw must satisfy
(1.25 MPa + screw )(0.2) = 2.165
So
screw = 9.58 MPa J

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Problem 7.45
u

Screw

Fracture
plane
Bone

The fracture plane of orientation = 30 from the axial direction has been precompressed to a level of 10 MPa by the insertion and tightening of a screw.
The friction coecient, , gives the maximum shear stress that the surfaces can
sustain without slipping as a proportionality of the normal stress (n ). Let
the friction coecient at the fracture plane be 0.3. Determine the maximum
bending moment that can be applied before slippage occurs on the tensile side
of the bone. Take the bone to have an outer diameter of 28 mm and an inner
diameter of 14 mm.

SOLUTION
To solve this problem, first find the axial compressive stress 0 that results in slip, and then find the
moment.

n = 10 MPa +

0
cos 60
2

## The magnitude of the shear stress on the fracture plane is:

1
= 0 sin[2(30 )]
2
To be just at the limit of not slipping, the stresses on the fracture plane must satisfy
n =
The axial compression can then be found from
(

0 )
1
3
(0.3) = 0
10 MPa +
4
2
2

Therefore
0 = 8.38 MPa

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## PROBLEM 7.45 CONTINUED

We want the bending moment that produces a stress of 8.38 MPa in the bone. From bending of circular
cross-section
MR
=
I
Therefore
I
M=
R
) (
)]
) [(
(
0.014 m 4
m 4

## 8.38 106 Pa 4 0.028

2
2
M=
0.028 m
2

M = 16.93 N-m J

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Problem 7.46

Screw

Fracture
plane
Bone

## Assume there is no pre-compression at a fracture plane via

screws. Under axial compression along the bone, there will still
not be slippage for fracture planes at suitable orientations because
the shear stress increases more slowly than the normal stress. The
friction coecient, , gives the maximum shear stress that the
surfaces can sustain without slipping as a proportionality of the
normal stress (n ). Determine the range of stable orientations
of the fracture plane assuming a friction coecient of = 0.3.

SOLUTION

## The stress transformation equation with x = 0 , xy = 0, and = gives:

1
1
1
() = 0 + 0 cos 2 = 0 (1 cos 2)
2
2
2
The shear stress transformation equation for the same conditions yields
1
() = 0 sin (2)
2
For there to be no slip, the ratio () to () must be less than the coecient of friction
| ()|
<
| ()|
or

2 0
1

2 0

sin 2

(1 cos 2)

< 0.3

## sin 2 < 0.3 (1 cos 2)

Recall
sin 2 = 2 sin cos
and
sin2 =

1
(1 cos 2)
2

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## PROBLEM 7.46 CONTINUED

Thus,
2 sin cos < 0.3 (1 cos 2) = 0.3 (2) sin2
Dividing both sides by 2 sin gives:

## Dividing by 0.3 cos gives:

tan >

1
0.3
> 73.3 J

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Problem 7.47
An element has stresses x = 5400 psi, y = 3000 psi, and xy = 2800 psi. Draw the principal stress
element, showing its orientation relative to the x-y axes and all the stresses acting on it.

SOLUTION
The m can be calculated from
m =

) 1(
(
))
1(
x + y = 5400psi + 3000 psi
2
2
m = 1200 psi

## The max shear stress can be found from

)2
) (
)
1(
1(
2
y x + xy =
3000 psi 5400 psi 2 + 2800 psi 2
max =
4
4
max = 5047.78 5050 psi
The maximum shear angle ( s ) can be found from
)
(

/2
y
x

s = tan1

2
xy
1
s = tan1
2

[[
(
)] ]
3000 psi 5400 psi /2
2800 psi

## max can now be calculated as

max = m + max = 1200 psi + 5050 psi = 6250 psi
min = m max = 1200 psi 5050 psi = 3850 psi
max or min will be found at the angle
s + 45 = 28.15 + 45 = 73.15
() =

) 1(
)
1(
x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)
2
2

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## PROBLEM 7.47 CONTINUED

(73.15 ) =

) 1[
(
)]
1(
5400 psi + 3000 psi + 5400 psi 3000 psi cos 2 (73.15 )
2
2
+ (2800 psi) sin 2 (73.15 )
(73.15 ) = 3847.77 psi 3850 psi

Note: min has been found at = 73.15 . max is located 90 from that angle.

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Problem 7.48
An element has stresses x = 80 MPa, y = 110 MPa, and xy = 60 MPa. Draw the maximum shear
stress element, showing its orientation relative to the x-y axes and all the stresses acting on it.

SOLUTION
(

m =

x + y
2

)
=

= 15 MPa
2

## The max shear stress is given by:

)2
1(
1
(110 MPa 80 MPa)2 + (60 MPa)2
y x + xy 2 =
max =
4
4
max = 112.4 MPa
The maximum shear angle is:
)
(
[
]

x /2
1 1 (110 MPa 80 MPa) /2
1 1 y
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
60 MPa
s = 28.86 = 0.504 rad
See if the shear stress at s is equal to max or max
( s ) = xy cos 2 s +

)
1(
y x sin 2 s
2

1
(110 MPa 80 MPa) sin 2 (28.86 )
2
(28.86 ) = 112.4 MPa

## (28.86 ) = 60 MPa cos 2 (28.86 ) +

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## PROBLEM 7.48 CONTINUED

From this result we can draw in the right sense on = 28.86 . The shear stress on all other faces
of the element must be consistent with the first shear stress. Also, the normal stress on all faces of the
maximum shear stress element equal m .

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Problem 7.49
An element has stresses x = 130 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 90 MPa. Draw the principal stress and
maximum shear stress elements, showing their orientations relative to the x-y axes and all the stresses
acting on each.

SOLUTION
(

m =

x + y
2

)
=

= 95 MPa
2

## The max shear stress is given by:

max =

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2
4

1
(60 MPa 130 MPa)2 + (90 MPa)2
4
max = 96.566 96.6 MPa

## The max shear angle is:

)
(
[
]
1 1 y x /2 1 1 (60 MPa 130 MPa) /2
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
90 MPa
s = 10.62 = 0.185 rad
Determine whether the shear stress at s , calculated from the stress transformation equation, is equal to
max or max .
)
1(
y x sin 2 s
2
1
(10.62 ) = (90 MPa) cos 2(10.62 ) + (60 MPa 130 MPa) sin 2(10.62 )
2
(10.62 ) = 96.6 MPa = max
( s ) = xy cos 2 s +

## Now calculate max and min

max = m + max = 95 MPa + 96.6 MPa = 191.6 MPa
and
min = m max = 95 MPa 96.566 MPa = 1.566 MPa
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## PROBLEM 7.49 CONTINUED

From (28.86 ), we can draw in the right sense on that face and hence on all other faces of the
element. Also, the normal stress on all faces of the maximum shear stress element equal m .

For the principal stress element, we know that either max or min will act on

p = 10.62 + 45 = 34.38
Note the directions of the shear stresses on the maximum shear stress element, that is, the corners to
which the shear stress arrowheads point. From that we can infer that max in particular acts on the face
= 34.38 . min acts on the other face.

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Problem 7.50
An element has stresses x = 5 ksi, y = 6 ksi, and xy = 3 ksi. Draw the principal stress and
maximum shear stress elements, showing their orientations relative to the x-y axes and all the stresses
acting on each.

SOLUTION
(

m =

x + y
2

)
=

5 ksi + 6 ksi
= 0.5 ksi
2

## The max shear stress is given by:

)2
1(
1
y x + xy 2 = max =
max =
[6 ksi (5 ksi)]2 + (3 ksi)2
4
4
max = 6.26 ksi
The max shear angle is:
)
(
]
[

x /2
1 1 (6 ksi (5 ksi)) /2
1 1 y
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
3 ksi
s = 30.69 = 0.536 rad
Determine whether the shear stress at s , calculated from the stress transformation equation, is equal to
max or max .
)
1(
y x sin 2 s
2
1

## (30.69 ) = (3 ksi) cos 2(30.69 ) + (6 ksi (5 ksi)) sin 2(30.69 )

2
(30.69 ) = 6.26 ksi = max
( s ) = xy cos 2 s +

## max and min can be found by

max = m + max = 0.5 ksi + 6.26 ksi = 6.76 ksi
and
min = m max = 0.5 ksi 6.26 ksi = 5.76 ksi

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## PROBLEM 7.50 CONTINUED

From (30.69 ), we can draw in the right sense on that face and hence on all other faces of the element.
Also, the normal stress on all faces of the maximum shear stress element equal m .

For the principal stress element, we know that either max or min will act on

p = 30.69 + 45 = 75.69
Note the directions of the shear stresses on the maximum shear stress element, that is, the corners to
which the shear stress arrow heads point. From that we can infer that max in particular acts on the face
= 75.69 . min acts on the other face.

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Problem 7.51
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 80 MPa, y = 50 MPa, and xy = 70 MPa. The elastic moduli are
E = 200 GPa, = 0.3, and G = 80 GPa. Find the orientation of the line segment that extends the most.
What is the strain of this segment?

SOLUTION
The mean stress is:
m =
The max shear stress is:

max =

x + y 80 MPa + 50 MPa
=
= 15 MPa
2
2

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(50 MPa 80 MPa)2 + (70 MPa)2
4

## max = 95.5 MPa

The max shear angle is:
)
(
[
]

/2 1
y
x

(50
1 1
MPa

80
MPa)
/2
1
= tan
s = tan
2
2
xy
70 MPa
s = 21.44 = 0.374 rad
Evaluate max and min
max = m + max = 15 MPa + 95.5 MPa = 110.5 MPa
min = m max = 15 MPa 95.5 MPa = 80.5 MPa
max or min act on the face

p = s + 45
p = 23.56 J

Evaluate the normal stress at p using the transformation equation to see if it is max or min
1
1
(23.56 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2 p + xy sin 2 p
2
2
1
1
(23.56 ) = [80 MPa + (50 MPa)] + [80 MPa (50 MPa)] cos 2(23.56 )
2
2

## (23.56 ) = 110.5 MPa = max

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## PROBLEM 7.51 CONTINUED

From this, we can draw the principal stress element

Note: The line with max extension is parallel to max , that is, along the line 23.56 CCW from the
+x-axis.
max min
E
(
)
110.5 106 N/m2 0.3 80.5 106 N/m2
max =

max =

## 200 109 N/m2

max = 6.71 104 J

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Problem 7.52
The stresses
( ) on the x-y axes are x = 2( ksi,) y = 6 ksi, and xy = 4 ksi. The elastic moduli are
E = 10 106 psi, = 0.33, and G = 3.75 106 psi. Find the orientation of the line segment that extends
the most. What is the strain of this segment?

SOLUTION
The mean stress is:
m =

x + y 2 ksi + 6 ksi
=
= 4 ksi
2
2

## The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(6 ksi 2 ksi)2 + (4 ksi)2
4

## max = 4.472 ksi

The max shear angle is:
)
(
[
]

/2 1
y
x

1 1
(6
ksi

2
ksi)/2
1
= tan
s = tan
2
2
xy
4 ksi
s = 13.28 = 0.232 rad
min = m max = 4 ksi 4.472 ksi = 0.472 ksi
max = m + max = 4 ksi + 4.472 ksi = 8.472 ksi
s + 45 = 13.28 + 45 = 31.72
Evaluate normal stress on = 31.72 to see if it is min or max
1
1
(31.72 ) = (2 ksi + 6 ksi) + (2 ksi 6 ksi) cos 2(31.72 ) + (4 ksi) sin 2(31.72 )
2
2

## (13.28 ) = 0.472 ksi = min

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## PROBLEM 7.52 CONTINUED

8.47 ksi
0.472 ksi

31.72o

Note: Line parallel with max has the max extension, that is, along the line 31.72 CCW from the +y-axis.
max min
E
(
)
3
8.472 10 psi 0.33 0.472 103 psi
max =

max =

10 106 psi
max = 8.63 104 J

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Problem 7.53
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 7 MPa, y = 4 MPa, and xy = 3 MPa. The elastic moduli are
E = 3 GPa, = 0.4, and G = 1.1 GPa. Find the orientation of the line segment that contracts the most.
What is the strain of this segment?

SOLUTION
The mean stress is:
m =
The max shear stress is:

max =

x + y 7 MPa + 4 MPa
=
= 1.5 MPa
2
2

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(4 MPa (7 MPa))2 + (3 MPa)2
4

## max = 6.265 MPa

The max shear angle is:
)
(
]
[

/2 1
y
x

(4
MPa

(7
MPa))
/2
1 1
1
= tan
s = tan
2
2
xy
3 MPa
s = 30.69 = 0.536 rad
min = m max = 1.5 MPa 6.265 MPa = 7.765 MPa
max = m + max = 1.5 MPa + 6.265 MPa = 4.765 MPa
s + 45 = 30.69 + 45 = 14.31
Evaluate normal stress on = 14.31 to see if it is min or max
1
1
(14.31 ) = (7 MPa + 4 MPa) + (7 MPa 4 MPa) cos 2(14.31 ) + (3 MPa) sin 2(14.31 )
2
2
(14.31 ) = 7.765 MPa = min

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## PROBLEM 7.53 CONTINUED

4.765 MPa

7.765 MPa

14.31o

Note: Line parallel to min contracts the most, that is, along the line 14.31 CCW from the +x-axis.
min max
E
(
)
7.765 106 N/m2 0.4 4.765 106 N/m2
min =

min =

3 109 N/m2
min = 3.22 103 J

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Problem 7.54
The stresses
( ) on the x-y axes are x = (6 )ksi, y = 8 ksi, and xy = 5 ksi. The elastic moduli are
E = 58 106 psi, = 0.2, and G = 24 106 psi. Find the orientation of the line segment that contracts
the most. What is the strain of this segment?

SOLUTION
The mean stress is:
m =

x + y 6 ksi + 8 ksi
=
= 7 ksi
2
2

## The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(8 ksi (6 ksi))2 + (5 ksi)2
4

## max = 5.099 ksi 5.10 ksi

The max shear angle is:
)
(
[
]

/2 1
y
x

(8
(6
1 1
ksi

ksi))
/2
1
= tan
s = tan
2
2
xy
5 ksi
s = 5.655 = 0.099 rad
max = m + max = 7 ksi + 5.099 ksi = 1.901 ksi
min = m max = 7 ksi 5.099 ksi = 12.099 ksi
s + 45 = 5.655 + 45 = 39.345
Evaluate normal stress on = 39.345 to see if it is min or max
1
1
(39.345 ) = (6 ksi + (8 ksi)) + (6 ksi (8 ksi)) cos 2(39.345 ) + (5 ksi) sin 2(39.345 )
2
2
(39.345 ) = 1.901 ksi

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## PROBLEM 7.54 CONTINUED

12.10 ksi
1.901 ksi

39.345o

Note: Line parallel to min contracts the most, that is, along the line 39.345 CCW from the +y-axis.
min max
E
(
)
3
12.099 10 psi 0.2 1.901 103 psi
min =

min =

58 106 psi
max = 2.02 104 J

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Problem 7.55
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 30 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 40 MPa. The elastic moduli
are E = 70 GPa, = 0.33, and G = 26 GPa. Find the orientation of an initially 1 mm 1 mm square
which remains a rectangle. Determine the dimensions of the sides of the rectangle into which the square
deforms.

SOLUTION
The mean stress is:
m =
The max shear stress is:

max =

x + y 30 MPa + 60 MPa
=
= 45 MPa
2
2

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(60 MPa (30 MPa))2 + (40 MPa)2
4

## max = 42.72 MPa

The max shear angle is:
)
(
]
[

/2 1
y
x

MPa

(30
MPa)]
/2
1 1
[60
1
= tan
s = tan
2
2
xy
40 MPa
s = 10.278 = 0.179 rad
Note: The square that remains a rectangle is parallel to the principal stress element.
Principal stresses are:
max = m + max = 45 MPa + 42.72 MPa = 2.28 MPa
min = m max = 45 MPa 42.72 MPa = 87.72 MPa
One principal stress acts on

s + 45 = 10.278 + 45 = 34.72

1
1
(34.72 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2
1
1
(34.72 ) = [(30 MPa) + (60 MPa)] + [(30 MPa) (60 MPa)] cos 2(34.72 )
2
2

## (34.72 ) = 2.28 MPa = max

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## PROBLEM 7.55 CONTINUED

From this, the principal stress element can be drawn

87.7 MPa
2.28 MPa

34.72o

max =
max =

max min
E
(
)
2.28 106 N/m2 0.33 87.72 106 N/m2

## max = 3.81 104

min =
min =

70 109 N/m2

min max
E
(
)
87.72 106 N/m2 0.33 2.28 106 N/m2

## min = 1.242 103

70 109 N/m2

Thus,

34.72o

0.99876 mm

1.000381 mm
J

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Problem 7.56
The stresses
( )on the x-y axes are x =( 6 ksi,
) y = 10 ksi, and xy = 7 ksi. The elastic moduli are
6
6
E = 30 10 psi, = 0.3 and G = 11 10 psi. Find the orientation of an initially 1 in. 1 in. square
which remains a rectangle. Determine the dimensions of the sides of the rectangle into which the square
deforms.

SOLUTION
The mean stress is:
m =

x + y 6 ksi + 10 ksi
=
= 2 ksi
2
2

## The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(10 ksi 6 ksi)2 + (7 ksi)2
4

## max = 10.63 ksi

The max shear angle is:
)
(
[
]

/2 1
y
x

(10
1 1
ksi

6
ksi)
/2
1
= tan
s = tan
2
2
xy
7 ksi
s = 24.407 = 0.426 rad
Note: The square remains rectangular if it is aligned with principal stresses.
Principal stresses are:
min = m max = 2 ksi 10.63 ksi = 12.63 ksi
max = m + max = 2 ksi + 10.63 ksi = 8.63 ksi
s + 45 = 24.407 + 45 = 69.407
Evaluate normal stress on = 69.407 to see if it is min or max
1
1
(69.407 ) = (6 ksi + (10 ksi)) + (6 ksi (10 ksi)) cos 2(69.407 ) + (7 ksi) sin 2(69.407 )
2
2

## (69.407 ) = 12.63 ksi = min

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## Note: Line parallel with max has the max extension.

max =
max =

max min
E
(
)
8.63 103 psi 0.3 12.63 103 psi
30 106 psi

## max = 4.139 104

min =
min =

min max
E
(
)
12.63 103 psi 0.3 8.63 103 psi
30 106 psi

## max = 5.073 104

Thus, the element has dimensions of

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Problem 7.57
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 30 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 50 MPa. The elastic moduli
are E = 400 GPa, = 0.2, and G = 167 GPa. Find the orientation of an initially 1 mm 1 mm square
which shears the most. Draw the deformed element. Determine the shear strain of this element, and the
lengths of the sides of the element when the stresses are acting.

SOLUTION
The mean stress is:
m =

=
= 45 MPa
2
2

## The max shear stress is:

)2
1(
1
2
(60 MPa (30 MPa))2 + (50 MPa)2
y x + xy =
max =
4
4
max = 52.2 MPa
The max shear angle is:
]
[
[
]
1 1 (30 MPa)/2
1 1 (y x )/2
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
50 MPa
s = 8.349 = 0.146 rad
Evaluate the shear stress at s to determine if it is equal to min or max
1
( s ) = xy cos 2 s + (y x ) sin 2 s
2
1
(8.349 ) = (50 MPa) cos 2(8.349 ) + [(60 MPa) (30 MPa)] sin 2(8.349 )
2
(8.349 ) = 52.2 MPa = max

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## PROBLEM 7.57 CONTINUED

Given value for (8.349 ) we can draw the stresses on the maximum shear element.

45 MPa

45 MPa
52.2 MPa
8.349o

=

## max 52.2 106 N/m2

=
G
167 109 N/m2
= 3.126 104

=
=

m m
E
(
)
45 106 N/m2 0.2 45 106 N/m2

= 9 105

## Thus, all sides have length

side length = 1 mm 0.00009 mm
side length = 0.99991 mm J
The angle of the lower-right corner is:
(
) ( 180 )
4
= 89.982

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Problem 7.58
The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 2 ksi, y = 4 ksi, and xy = 1 ksi. The elastic moduli are
E = 350 ksi, = 0.4, and G = 125 ksi. Find the orientation of an initially 1 in. 1 in. square which
shears the most. Draw the deformed element. Determine the shear strain of this element, and the lengths
of the sides of the element when the stresses are acting.

SOLUTION
The mean stress is:
m =

x + y 2 ksi + 4 ksi
=
= 1 ksi
2
2

## The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(4 ksi 2 ksi)2 + (1 ksi)2
4

## max = 3.162 ksi

The max shear angle is:
]
[
[
]
1 1 (4 ksi 2 ksi)/2
1 1 (y x )/2
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
1 ksi
s = 35.78 = 0.625 rad
Evaluate the shear stress at s to determine if it is equal to min or max
1
( s ) = xy cos 2 s + (y x ) sin 2 s
2
1
(35.78 ) = (1 ksi) cos 2(35.78 ) + [4 ksi 2 ksi] sin 2(35.78 )
2
(35.78 ) = 3.16 MPa = max
Given value for (35.78 ) we can draw the stresses on the maximum shear element.

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## PROBLEM 7.58 CONTINUED

The shear strain is:
=

## max 3.162 ksi

=
G
125 ksi
= 0.0252

m m
E
1 ksi 0.4 (1 ksi)
=
350 ksi
= 1.714 103
=

## Thus, all sides have a length of

side length = 1 in. 1.714 103 in.
side length = 0.998286 in. J
The angle of the upper-right corner is:
(

)
180
= 88.556

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Problem 7.59
M0

## A hollow shaft with a 14 mm outer diameter and a wall thickness

of 2 mm is subjected to a twisting moment of T 0 = 20 N-m and
a bending moment of M0 = 30 N-m. Determine the stresses at
point A (where x is maximum), and then compute and draw the
maximum shear stress element. Describe its orientation relative
to the shaft axis.

A
y
L

T0
z

SOLUTION
Need to determine the stress due to the torque of 20 N-m and the moment of 30 N-m. This will give the
state of stress.
For torsion recall
T
=
Ip
For bending recall
=

My
I

## Before preceding further need the I p and I0

]
[ 4
R Ri 4
2
]
[
(0.007 m)4 (0.005 m)4
=
2
= 2.7897 109 m4

Ip =
Ip
Ip

]
[ 4
R Ri 4
4
]
[
(0.007 m)4 (0.005 m)4
I =
4
I = 1.3948 109 m4
I =

## Thus, evaluating stress on outer surface

TR
Ip
(20 N-m)(0.007 m)
=
2.7897 109 m4
= 50.2 MPa
=

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## PROBLEM 7.59 CONTINUED

MR
I
(30 N-m)(0.007 m)
=
1.3948 109 m4
= 150.6 MPa

Because of the direction of the bending moment, the normal stress on an element at point A is compressive. Because of the direction of the twisting moment, the shear stress on an element at point A is
downward on the left face, and consistent with that on all other faces.
The stress element at A is:
50.2 MPa
y

150.6 MPa
z

## The mean stress is:

m =
The max shear stress is:

max =

x + y 150.6 MPa 0
=
= 75.3 MPa
2
2

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(0 (150.6 MPa))2 + (50.2 MPa)2
4

## max = 90.499 90.5 MPa

The max shear angle is:
[
]
[
]
1 1 (y x )/2
1 1 (0 (150 MPa))/2
s = tan
= tan
2
xy
2
50.2 MPa
s = 28.15 = 0.491 rad
Evaluate (28.15 ) to determine if it equals max or max
1
(28.15 ) = (50.2 MPa) cos 2(28.15 ) + (0 (150.6 MPa)) sin 2(28.15 )
2
(28.15 ) = 90.5 MPa

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## PROBLEM 7.59 CONTINUED

Thus, the stress element is:

90.5 MPa
75.3 MPa
y

28.15o
z

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Problem 7.60
M0

A
y
L

T0
z

A hollow shaft with a 1.6 in. outer diameter and a wall thickness
of 0.125 in. is subjected to a twisting moment of T 0 = 2500 lb-in.
and a bending moment of M0 = 2000 lb-in. Determine the
stresses at point A (where x is maximum), and then compute and
draw the maximum shear stress element. Describe its orientation
relative to the shaft axis.

SOLUTION
Need to determine the stress due to the torque of 2500 lb-in. and the moment of 2000 lb-in.
For torsion
T
=
Ip
For bending
=

My
I

## Before preceding further need the I p and I

Ip =

] [
]
[ 4
(0.8 in.)4 (0.675 in.)4
R Ri 4 =
2
2
I p = 0.3173 in4
I=

]
[
(0.8 in.)4 (0.675 in.)4
4
I = 0.1586 in4

=

## T R (2500 lb-in.)(0.8 in.)

=
Ip
0.3173 in4
= 6303.18 6300 psi

## My (2000 lb-in.)(0.8 in.)

=
I
0.1586 in4
= 10084.77 10080 psi

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## PROBLEM 7.60 CONTINUED

Because of the direction of the bending moment, the normal stress on an element at point A is compressive. Because of the direction of the twisting moment, the shear stress on an element at point A is
downward on left face, and consistent with that on all other faces.
The stress element is:
6300 psi
y

10800 psi

## The mean stress is:

m =

x + y 10080 psi + 0
=
= 5040 psi
2
2

## The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

(
)) (
)
1(
0 10080 psi 2 + 6300 psi 2
4

## max = 8067.9 8070 psi

The max shear angle is:
)/
(
))/
(
(
y x
1 1
2 1 1 0 10080 psi 2

s = tan
= tan
2
xy
6300 psi
2

## s = 19.33 = 0.337 rad

Evaluate (19.33 ) to determine if it equals max or max
1
(19.33 ) = (6300 psi) cos 2(19.33 ) + (0 (10080 psi)) sin 2(19.33 )
2
(19.33 ) = 8070 psi = max
Thus, the stress element is:

5040 psi
8070 psi
5040 psi

5040 psi

19.33o
J

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Problem 7.61

f0
y
L
z

## The solid bar of circular cross-section (diameter = 20 mm) is

fixed at one end, and then the other end is rotated as shown by
0 = 1 and given an extension 0 = 0.2 mm. Determine the
stresses at point A (where x is maximum), and then compute and
draw the maximum shear stress element. Describe its orientation
relative to the shaft axis. The elastic moduli are E = 200 GPa,
= 0.3 and G = 80 GPa. Take the length L = 1.2 m.

SOLUTION
Need to find the stress associated with a twist of 1 and an extension of 0.2 mm.
For torsion
)
(
)
(
80 109 N/m2 (0.01 m)(1 ) 180

GR
=
=
L
1.2 m
= 11.64 MPa
( )
PL
For the extension = EA
or P = EA L .
Thus,
)
(
) 2 104 m
P EA ( )
(

= =
= E = 200 109 N/m2

A
A L
L
1.2 m
= 33.33 MPa
Normal stress due to extension acts in the vertical direction. Because of the direction of the twisting,
the shear stress on an element at point A is leftward on the top face and consistent with that on all other
faces.
The stress element is:

33.3 MPa

11.64 MPa
z

## The mean stress is:

m =

x + y 0 + 33.33 MPa
=
= 16.7 MPa
2
2

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## PROBLEM 7.61 CONTINUED

The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(33.33 MPa 0)2 + (11.64 MPa)2
4

## max = 20.328 MPa 20.3 MPa

The max shear angle is:
]
[
]
[
1 1 (y x )/2
1 (33.33 MPa 0)/2
s = tan
=
2
xy
2
11.64 MPa
s = 27.53 = 0.481 rad
Evaluate (27.53 ) to determine if it equals max or max
1
(27.53 ) = (11.64 MPa) cos 2(27.53 ) + (33.33 MPa 0) sin 2(27.53 )
2
(27.53 ) = 20.3 MPa = max
Thus, the maximum shear stress element is:

16.7 MPa
y
o

20.3 MPa

27.53

16.7 MPa

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Problem 7.62

f0
y
L
z

## A hollow shaft (outer diameter = 1 in., inner diameter = 0.5 in.)

is fixed at one end, and then the other end is rotated as shown
by 0 = 1 and given an extension 0 = 0.01 in. Determine
the stresses at point A (where x is maximum), and then compute
and draw the principal stress element. Describe its orientation
( )
relative to the shaft axis. The elastic moduli are E = 10 106 psi,
( )
= 0.33, and G = 3.75 106 psi. Take the length L = 50 in.

SOLUTION
Need to find the stress associated with a twist of 1 and an extension of 0.01 in.
For torsion
)
(
)
(
3.75 106 lb/in2 (0.5 in.)(1 ) 180

GR
=
=
L
50 in.
= 654.49 654 psi
( )
PL
or P = EA L
For extension = EA
Thus,
)[ (0.01 in.) ]
P EA ( )
(
6
= =
= E = 10 10 psi
A
A L
L
50 in.
= 2000 psi
Normal stress due to extension acts in the vertical direction. Because of the direction of the twisting, the
shear stress on an element at point A is leftward on top face, and consistent with that on all other faces.
The stress element is:

For x = 0, y = 2000 psi, and xy = 654 psi the mean stress is:
m =

x + y 0 + 2000 psi
=
= 1000 psi
2
2

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## PROBLEM 7.62 CONTINUED

The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

) (
)
1(
2000 psi 0 2 + 654 psi 2
4

## max = 1194.87 1195 psi

The max shear angle is:
[
[
]
]
1 1 (y x )/2
1 1 (2000 psi 0)/2
s = tan
= tan
2
xy
2
654 psi
s = 28.40 = 0.496 rad
Evaluate (28.40 ) to determine if it equals max or max
1
(28.40 ) = (654 psi) cos 2(28.40 ) + (2000 psi 0) sin 2(28.40 )
2
(28.40 ) = 1195 psi = max
Maximum shear stress element is:

1000 psi
y

1195 psi

28.40
1000 psi

## Principal stress element is oriented at

p = s + 45 = 16.60
Principal stresses are:
max = m + max = 1000 psi + 1195 psi = 2195 psi
min = m max = 1000 psi 1195 psi = 195 psi

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## PROBLEM 7.62 CONTINUED

Note corners toward which shear stresses on maximum shear stress element point. From that, principal
stress element is:

2195 psi
y

195 psi

16.60

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Problem 7.63
A solid circular shaft with a 0.25 in. diameter is fixed at one end.
The other end is rotated as shown by 0 = 0.3 and then subjected to a transverse force which causes a deflection of 0.007 in.
in the negative y-direction. Determine the stresses at point A
(where y is maximum), and then compute and draw the maximum shear stress element. Describe its orientation
( ) relative to the
shaft axis. The elastic moduli are E = 58 106 psi, = 0.2, and
( )
G = 24 106 psi. Take the length L = 6 in.

A
f0

SOLUTION
Need to find the stress associated with a twist of 0.3 and the bending due to transverse force that causes
a deflection of 0.007 in.
For torsion
G
=
L
(
)
)
(
24 106 lb/in.2 (0.125 in.)(0.3 ) 180

=
6 in.
= 2617.99 2620 psi
Bending

F0

v=

F 0 L3
3EI

F0 =

3vEI
L3

or

bend =
bend =
bend

## My (F0 L) R 3vEI ( R ) 3vER

=
=
=
I
I (
L2 )I
L2
3 (0.007 in.) 58 106 psi (0.125 in.)

(6 in.)2
= 4229.2 4230 psi

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## Thus, x = 4230 psi, y = 0, xy = 2620 psi

Using the stress transformation equations
The mean stress is:
(
)
x + y
4230 psi 0
m =
=
2
2
m = 2115 psi J
The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

) (
)
1(
0 4230 psi 2 + 2620 psi 2
4

## max = 3367 psi

The max shear angle is:
)
(
y x /2 [ (0 4230 psi)/2 ]
=
s =

xy
2620 psi
Use the stress transformation equations to find ( s ).
( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) +

)
1(
y x sin(2 s )
2

1
(19.46 ) = (2620 psi) cos[2(19.46 )] + (0 4230 psi) sin[2(19.46 )]
2
( s ) = 3367 psi J
Since ( s ) is positive, the shear stress on the face at s is drawn CCW from the outward normal. The
stress element is:
2115 psi

2115 psi

3367 psi
19.46o
J

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Problem 7.64
A
f0

## A solid circular shaft with 6 mm diameter is fixed at one end. The

other end is rotated as shown by 0 = 0.4 and then subjected to
a transverse force which causes a deflection of 0.15 mm in the
negative y-direction. Determine the stresses at point A (where
y is maximum), and then compute and draw the principal stress
element. Describe its orientation relative to the shaft axis. The
elastic moduli are E = 3 GPa, = 0.4, and G = 1.1 GPa. Take
the length L = 150 mm.

SOLUTION
Need to find the stress associated with a twist of 0.4 and the bending due to the transverse force that
causes a deflection of 0.15 mm.
For torsion
G
=
L
(
)
)
(
1.1 109 N/m2 (0.003 m)(0.4 ) 180

=
0.15 m
= 0.1536 MPa
For bending

F0

v=

F 0 L3
3EI

or

F0 =

3vEI
L3

## The stress due to bending is:

My (F0 L) R 3vEI ( R )
=
=
I
I
L2 I
3vER
=
2
L
(
)(
)
3 1.5 104 m 3 109 N/m2 (0.003 m)
=
(0.15 m)2
= 0.18 MPa

bend =
bend
bend
bend

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## PROBLEM 7.64 CONTINUED

Thus, x = 0.18 MPa, y = 0, and xy = 0.1536 MPa; the stress element is:

## Using the stress transformation equations

The mean stress is:
x + y (0.18 MPa + 0)
m =
=
= 0.09 MPa
2
2
The maximum shear stress is:

)2
1(
1
(0 0.18 MPa)2 + (0.1536 MPa)2
max =
y x + xy 2 =
4
4
max = 0.178 MPa
The max shear angle is:
]
]
[
[
1 1 (0 0.18 MPa)/2
1 1 ( x y )/2
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
0.1536 MPa
s = 15.18 = 0.265 rad
Use the stress transformation equation to find ( s ).
1
( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )
2
1
( s ) = (0.1536 MPa) cos[2(15.18 )] + (0 0.18 MPa) sin[2(15.18 )]
2
( s ) = max = 0.178 MPa
Since ( s ) > 0, the stress acts CCW from the outward normal on the face under consideration.

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## PROBLEM 7.64 CONTINUED

p = s + 45 = 15.18 + 45 = 29.82
max = m + max = 0.09 MPa + 0.178 MPa
max = 0.268 MPa J
min = m max = 0.09 MPa 0.178 MPa
min = 0.088 MPa J
Since max > 0, it will be directed outward from the stress element; since min < 0, it will be directed
inward toward the stress element.
Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is under stress max
or min .
1
1
( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )
2
2
1
1
(29.82 ) =
(0.18 MPa + 0) + (0.18 MPa 0) cos[2(29.82 )] + (0.1536 MPa) sin[2(29.82 )]
2
2
(29.82 ) = 0.268 MPa = max
( p ) =

## The principal stress element is:

0.088 MPa
0.268 MPa

29.82o
J

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Problem 7.65
A

L1

A
y

L2
F0

## The aluminum member shown is subjected to a transverse force

F0 = 30 N at its end. Determine the stresses at point A (where
z is maximum), and then compute and draw the maximum shear
and principal stress elements. Describe the orientation of these
elements relative to the axis of the portion of length L1 . Take the
member to have a circular cross-section of 12 mm in diameter
and the dimensions to be L1 = 200 mm and L2 = 300 mm.

SOLUTION
The force produces a twisting moment of 30 N (0.3 m) = 9 N-m and a bending moment of 30 N (0.2 m) =
6 N-m

=

T
Ip

## And the bending stress which is:

My
I
Before calculating these stresses we need to calculate I p and I
I p for a solid circular shaft is:

I p = R4 = (0.006 m)4
2
2
I p = 2.036 109 m4
=

## I for a circular shaft is:

4
R = (0.006 m)4
4
4
I = 1.0178 109 m4

I=

## Torsional stress is:

=

T (9 N-m)(0.006 m)
=
Ip
2.036 109 m4
= 26.5 MPa

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## PROBLEM 7.65 CONTINUED

Bending stress is:
=

My (6 N-m)(0.006 m)
=
I
1.0178 109 m4
= 35.36 MPa

## So the stress element is:

Note: y = 0
Using the stress transformation equations
The mean stress is:
x + y (35.4 MPa 0)
m =
=
= 17.7 MPa
2
2
The maximum shear stress is:

)2
1(
1
(0 (35.4 MPa))2 + (26.5 MPa)2
max =
y x + xy 2 =
4
4
max = 31.86 31.9 MPa
The maximum shear angle is:
]
[
[
]
1 1 [0 (35.4MPa)]/2
1 1 ( x y )/2
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
26.5 MPa
s = 16.85 = 0.294 rad
Use the stress transformation equation to determine the direction of ( s ).
1
( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )
2
1

## (16.85 ) = (26.5 MPa) cos[2(16.85 )] + [0 (35.4 MPa)] sin[2(16.85 )]

2
(16.85 ) = 31.9 MPa
Since ( s ) > 0, it is CCW from the outward normal of the face under consideration.

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## PROBLEM 7.65 CONTINUED

max = m + max = 17.7 MPa + 31.9 MPa
max = 14.2 MPa J
min = m max = 17.7 MPa 31.9 MPa
min = 49.6 MPa J
p = s + 45 = 16.85 + 45 = 61.85
Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is subject to min or
max .
1
1
( x + y ) + (y x ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )
2
2
1
1
(61.85 ) =
(35.4 MPa + 0) + (35.4 MPa 0) cos[2(61.85 )] + (26.5 MPa) sin[2(61.85 )]
2
2
(61.85 ) = 14.2 MPa = max
( p ) =

Principal stresses

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Problem 7.66
A

L1

y
F0
L2
z

## The steel member shown is subjected to a transverse force F0 .

Determine the stresses at point A (where y is maximum), and
then compute and draw the maximum shear and principal stress
elements. Describe the orientation of these elements relative
to the axis
( of
) the portion of length L(1 . The
) elastic moduli are
6
6
E = 30 10 psi, = 0.3, and G = 11 10 psi. Take the member
to have a hollow circular cross-section with 3 in. outer diameter
and a wall thickness of 0.09 in., and take the dimensions to be
L1 = 36 in. and L2 = 24 in.

SOLUTION
The member can be separated into two segments. First segment is L1 and the second is L2 .
The deflection due to the combined loading is given by (see page 392 of the text):
F0 L1 3 F0 L2 L1
F0 L2 3
vC =
+
L2 +
3EI
GI p
3EI
Since we are given vC = 0.25 in., we can calculate F0 . To do so, we will need the I p and I for this
member.
) (
)
( 4
(1.5 in.)4 (1.41 in.)4
Ip =
R Ri 4 =
2
2
I p = 1.7436 in.4
and
I=

) (
)
( 4
(1.5 in.)4 (1.41 in.)4
R Ri 4 =
4
4
I = 0.8718 in.4

So
vC = 0.25 in. =

F0 (36 in.)3
F0 (24 in.)(36 in.)
)(
)(
+(
)
) (24 in.)
3 30 106 lb/in.2 0.8714 in.4
11 106 lb/in.2 1.7436 in.4
(

F0 (24 in.)3
)(
+ (
)
3 30 106 lb/in.2 0.8714 in.4
Solving for F0 gives:

F0 = 135 lb

## Thus, at the cross-section of point A, the twisting moment is:

T = (135 lb)(24 in.) = 3240 lb-in.
The bending moment at the cross-section of point A is:
M = (135 lb)(36 in.) = 4860 lb-in.
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## PROBLEM 7.66 CONTINUED

The torsional stress is:
=

## T (3240 lb-in.)(1.5 in.)

=
Ip
1.7436 in.4
= 2787.3 2790 psi

=

=
I
0.8718 in.4
= 8362 8360 psi

## Stress element is:

Note: y = 0.
Using the stress transformation equations
The mean stress is:
(
)
x + y
8360 psi 0
m =
=
= 4180 psi
2
2
The maximum shear stress is:

)2
) (
)
1(
1(
max =
0 8360 psi 2 + 2790 psi 2
y x + xy 2 =
4
4
max = 5025 psi J
The maximum shear angle is:
]
]
[
[
1 1 (0 8360 psi)/2
1 1 ( x y )/2
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
2790 psi
s = 28.15 = 0.491 rad
Use the stress transformation equation to determine the direction of ( s ).
1
( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )
2
1

## (28.15 ) = (2790 psi) cos[2(28.15 )] + (0 8360 psi) sin[2(28.15 )]

2
(28.15 ) = 5025 psi
Since (28.15 ) > 0, it will be drawn CCW from the outward normal of the face under consideration.

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## PROBLEM 7.66 CONTINUED

The maximum shear stress element is:

J
max = m + max = 4180 psi + 5025 psi
max = 9205 psi J
min = m max = 4180 psi 5025 psi
min = 845 psi J
p = s 45 = 28.15 45 = 73.15
Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is subject to min or
max .
1
1
( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )
2
2
1
1
(73.15 ) =
(8360 psi + 0) + (8360 psi 0) cos[2(73.15 )] + (2790 psi) sin[2(73.15 )]
2
2
(73.15 ) = 845 psi
( p ) =

## The principal stress element is:

9205 psi
73.15o
845 psi

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Problem 7.67
w

## The steel post supporting the sign has a cross-section with an

outer diameter of 350 mm and a wall thickness of 8 mm. Consider the loading due to only the wind pressure of 2.3 kPa. Determine the stresses at point A (where x is maximum), and then
compute and draw the maximum shear and principal stress elements. Describe the orientation of these elements relative to the
post axis. Take the sign dimensions to be h1 = 8.5 m, h2 = 1.5 m,
and w = 3.5 m.

h2

p
y
h1
z

SOLUTION
The bending moment and twisting moment at the base of the post due to the wind pressure is:
[
]
h2
M = (ph2 w) h1 +
2
[
]
(
)
1.5 m
3
2
M = 2.3 10 N/m (1.5 m)(3.5 m) 8.5 m +
2
5
M = 1.117 10 N-m
and
T = pwh2

(w)

2
[
]
)
(
3.5 m
3
2
T = 2.3 10 N/m (3.5 m)(1.5 m)
2
4
T = 2.113 10 N-m
The torsional stress is:
=

T
Ip

## The bending moment stress is:

My
I
Before solving for these stresses we need to find I p and I.
=

Ip =

]
4 [
(0.175 m)4 (0.167 m)4
R =
2
2
I p = 2.514 104 m4

I=

]
4 [
(0.175 m)4 (0.167 m)4
R =
4
4
I = 1.257 105 m4

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## PROBLEM 7.67 CONTINUED

Thus, the torsional stress is:

(
=

## The bending stress is:

)
2.113 104 N-m (0.175 m)
2.514 104 m4
= 14.71 MPa

(
)
1.117 105 N-m (0.175 m)
My
=
=
I
1.257 105 m4
1 = 155.5 MPa

## Thus, x = 0, y = 155.5 MPa, and xy = 14.71 MPa

The stress element is:

## Using the stress transformation equations

The mean stress is:
x + y 0 + 155.5 MPa
m =
=
= 77.75 MPa
2
2
The maximum shear stress is:

)2
1(
1
(155.5 MPa 0)2 + (14.71 MPa)2
max =
y x + xy 2 =
4
4
max = 79.1 MPa J
The maximum shear angle is:
]
]
[
[
1 1 (155.5 MPa 0)/2
1 1 ( x y )/2
s = tan
= tan
2
xy
2
14.71 MPa
s = 39.64 = 0.692 rad
Use the stress transformation equation to determine the direction of ( s )
1
( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )
2
1
(39.64 ) = (14.71 MPa) cos[2(39.64 )] + (155.5 MPa 0) sin[2(39.64 )]
2

## (39.64 ) = 79.1 MPa

Since ( s ) > 0, it is drawn CCW to the outward normal on the face under consideration.

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## PROBLEM 7.67 CONTINUED

The maximum stress element is:

79.1 MPa
77.7 MPa
77.7 MPa

39.64o
J
max = m + max = 77.7 MPa + 79.1 MPa
max = 156.8 MPa J
min = m max = 77.7 MPa 79.1 MPa
min = 1.4 MPa J
p = s 45 = 39.64 + 45 = 84.6
Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is subject to min or
max .
1
1
( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )
2
2
1
1
(84.6 ) =
(0 + 155.5 MPa) + (0 155.5 MPa) cos[2(84.6 )] + (14.71 MPa) sin[2(84.6 )]
2
2
(84.6 ) = 156.8 MPa
( p ) =

## The principal stress element is:

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Problem 7.68
A cylindrical pressure vessel with an outer diameter of 40 in. and a wall thickness of 0.6 in. is subjected
to an internal pressure of 125 psi. Determine the stresses at a point on the surface and then compute
and draw the maximum shear and principal stress elements. Describe the orientation of these elements
relative to the vessel axis.

SOLUTION
Two stresses on a pressure vessel are axial stress, a , and hoop stress, h . Referring to Section 6.3 of the
text, these stresses are:
(
)
125 psi (20 in. 0.3 in.)
pR
h =
=
t
0.6 in.
h = 4100 psi J
and
(
)
125 psi (20 in. 0.3 in.)
pR
a =
=
2t
2(0.6 in.)
a = 2050 psi J
The stress element is:

J
and this is also seen to be the principal stress element since there is no shear.
Since there is no other loading, xy = 0 and the equations for the maximum stress and maximum shear
angle are simplified to give:
max =

)
1
1(
(h a ) = 4100 psi 2050 psi = 1025 psi
2
2

and

s = 45

m =

## h + a 4100 psi + 2050 psi

=
= 3075 psi
2
2

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## PROBLEM 7.68 CONTINUED

The maximum shear stress element is:

1025 psi

3075 psi

3075 psi J

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Problem 7.69

T0

## A cylindrical vessel with capped end is pressurized to 1.8 MPa.

The structure on which the vessel rests becomes damaged, resulting in uneven support that causes a twisting moment T 0 of
107 N-m on the vessel. The vessel has an outer diameter of 2.5 m
and a wall thickness of 50 mm. Determine the stresses at a point
on the outer surface midway along the length of the vessel, and
then compute and draw the maximum shear and principal stress
elements. Describe the orientation of these elements relative to
the vessel axis.

SOLUTION
The hoop and axial stress on the pressure vessel are:
h =
(
h =

pR
t

)
1.8 106 N/m2 (1.225 m)
0.05 m
h = 44.1 MPa J

and
a =
(
a =

pR
2t

)
1.8 106 N/m2 (1.225 m)
2 (0.05 m)

## Thus, h = y = 44.1 MPa and a = x = 22.05 MPa

The stress due to the torque is:
(
)
1 107 N-m (1.25 m)
T
] = 21.6 MPa
=
= [

Ip
(1.25 m)4 (1.2 m)4

a = 22.05 MPa J

## Note that xy = 21.6 MPa.

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## PROBLEM 7.69 CONTINUED

The mean stress is:
m =

=
= 33.1 MPa
2
2

## The maximum shear stress is:

)2
1(
1
2
(44.1 MPa 22.05 MPa)2 + (21.6 MPa)2
max =
y x + xy =
4
4
max = 24.3 MPa J
The maximum shear angle is:
)
(
[
]
1 1 y x /2 1 1 (44.1 MPa 22.05 MPa) /2
= tan
s = tan
2
xy
2
21.6 MPa
s = 13.52
Use the stress transformation equation to determine the direction of ( s ).
1
( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )
2
1
(13.52 ) = (21.6 MPa) cos[2(13.52 )] + (44.1 MPa 22.05 MPa) sin[2(13.52 )]
2

## (13.52 ) = 24.3 MPa

Since ( s ) < 0, it is drawn CW to the outward normal on the face under consideration.
33.1 MPa

13.52o
33.1 MPa
24.3 MPa
J
max = m + max = 33.1 MPa + 24.3 MPa
max = 57.4 MPa J
min = m max = 33.1 MPa 24.3 MPa
min = 8.8 MPa J
p = s + 45 = 13.52 + 45 = 31.48

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## PROBLEM 7.69 CONTINUED

Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is subject to min or
max
1
1
( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )
2
2
1
1
(31.48 ) =
(22.05 MPa + 44.1 MPa) + (22.05 MPa 44.1 MPa) cos[2(31.48 )]
2
2
+(21.6 MPa) sin[2(31.48 )]
(31.48 ) = 8.8 MPa = min
( p ) =

## The principal stress element is:

57.4 MPa
8.8 MPa
31.48o

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Problem 7.70
A large downward force on the right pedal results in a moment about the forward axis of a bike. This
moment can be balanced by an opposite moment of the hands pulling up on right handle bar and pushing
down on the left. Thus, two equal and opposite moments have to be absorbed by the frame. Assume that
the down tube, rather than the top tube, takes most of this moment. Some of the moment acts parallel
to the tube, producing torsion and some of it perpendicularly, producing bending. Let the total moment
from the hands be 1800 lb-in. Combining the stresses due to the twisting and bending, determine the
maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress in the down tube. Take the down tube to be of
aluminum 24 in. long, oriented at an angle = 48 , with hollow circular cross-section having an outer
diameter of 1.75 in. and a wall thickness of 0.125 in.
Seat tube

Top
tube
Down
tube

tube

SOLUTION
The moment parallel to the down tube is the twisting moment given by:
T = 1800 cos 48 = 1204 lb-in.
The moment perpendicular to the tube is the bending moment
M = 1800 sin 48 = 1338 lb-in.
In order to calculate the torsional stress and bending moment stress, we need I p and I. For hollow circular
cross-section

)4
] ( 1.75 in. )4 ( 1.75 in.

[ 4
Ip =
R Ri 4 =

0.125 in.
2
2
2
2
I p = 0.424 in.4
Realize that
I=
The torsional shear stress is:
=

] 1
[ 4
R Ri 4 = I p = 0.212 in.4
4
2
T (1204 lb-in.)(0.875 in.)
=
Ip
0.424 in.4
= 2480 psi

=

## My (1338 lb-in.)(0.875 in.)

=
I
0.212 in.4
= 5520 psi

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## PROBLEM 7.70 CONTINUED

Thus, max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

) (
)
1(
5520 psi 2 + 2480 psi 2
4
max = 3710 psi J

## The maximum stress is:

max = m + max
5520
max =
psi + 3720 psi
2
max = 6470 psi J

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Problem 7.71
In using this pectoral fly machine, the hand grips and applies a
50 lb force to the handle as shown. The pivoting arm is approximated here as horizontal. Determine the stresses at the far end
of the pivoting arm, where the bending stresses are maximum.
Find the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress at
this point. Use the approximation of a thin wall for the torsion of
the pivoting arm. Take the dimensions to be w = 6 in., L = 24 in.,
a = 2 in., b = 1.5 in., t = 0.25 in., and c = 20 in.

c
a
b
Pivoting
arm
t
a

b
L

b
a

Swinging
arm

w
F0

SOLUTION
In order to find the shear and normal stress, need to find the bending moment and torsion generated by
the applied force.
Bending moment
M = F0 c = (50 lb)(20 in.)
M = 1000 lb-in.
Twisting moment
T = F0 (w + L) = (50 lb)(6 in. + 24 in.)
T = 1500 lb-in.
To determine the bending stress need the moment of intertia.
For the cross-section
I=

]
1 [
1 3
(1.5 in.) (2 in.)3 (1 in.) (1.5 in.)3 = 0.71875 in.4
bh =
12
12

=

## My (1000 lb-in.)(1 in.)

=
= 1391 psi
I
0.71875 in.4

Using the thin wall approximation (see page 179 of text) the torsional stress is given by:
max =

T
2Am t

## Where Am is the area enclosed by the mid-surface

Am = (1.5 in. 0.25 in.)(2 in. 0.25 in.) = 2.1875 in.2
Thus,
=

1500 lb-in.
(
)
= 1371 psi
2 2.1875 in.2 (0.25 in.)

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## PROBLEM 7.71 CONTINUED

Where the max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

) (
)
1(
1391 psi 2 + 1371 psi 2
4
max = 1537 psi J

max = m + max =

## + max = 695.5 psi + 1537 psi

2
max = 2230 psi J

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Problem 7.72

Say that each leg exerts an upward force of 50 lb. Determine the
maximum shear stress at two cross-sections in the shaft connecting the pivot beam to the cord plate: (a) at the cord plate and (b)
at the pivot beam. Account for both the twisting and the bending
of the shaft that occurs at these cross-sections. Note that the shaft
bends in two planes, due to the vertical force and moment applied
by the pivot beam and due to the horizontal force applied by the
cord. Take the dimensions to be a = 4 in., b = 16 in., c = 4 in.,
d = 3.5 in., D2 = 1 in., p = 2 in., q = 6 in., R = 9 in., s = 3 in.,
and w = 17 in.

q
R

Cord plate

s
D2

Pivot beam
w

F1
c
b

F2
a

SOLUTION
The two forces F1 and F2 will produce a single force and two moments at the shaft and pivot beam
connection, as seen in the FBD below.

Ay

100 lb
y

M2
Ax

By

z
x

T
M1
Bx

M1 = (50 lb)(1.75 in. + 4 in.) + (50 lb)(1.75 in. + 4 in. + 16 in.) = 1375 lb-in.
M2 = 2(50 lb)(17 in.) = 1700 lb-in.

T = 188.9 lb

100 lb By
3 in.

8 in.
z

1375 lb-in.
Ay

## M|Bx = Ay (8 in. + 3 in.) 100 lb(3 in.) + 1375 lb-in. = 0

Ay = 97.7 lb

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## PROBLEM 7.72 CONTINUED

FBD of AB (only showing loads causing bending in x-z plane)
188.9 lb
2 in.
9 in.
z
x

Ax

Bx

A x = 154.5 lb

## (a) At the cord plate, bending moments about x and y are:

M x = Ay (2 in.) = (97.71 lb)(2 in.) = 195.4 lb-in.
My = A x (2 in.) = (154.5 lb)(2 in.) = 309 lb-in.
Thus, the net bending moment is:

2
2
M = M x + My = (195.4 lb-in.)2 + (309 lb-in.)2 = 365.6 lb-in.
The twisting moment is:
T = (188.9lb)(9 in.) = 1700 lb-in.
The bending stress is given by:
=

My
I

=

4M
4 (365.5 lb-in.)
= 3724 psi
=
3
(D2 /2)
(0.5 in.)3

=

T
Ip

=

2T
2 (1700 lb-in.)
= 8660 psi
=
(D2 /2)3
(0.5 in.)3

## The max shear stress is:

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

)
) (
1(
3724 psi 2 + 8660 psi 2
4
max = 8860 psi J

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## PROBLEM 7.72 CONTINUED

(b) At the pivot beam
My = A x (8 in.) (188.9 lb)(6 in.) = (154.5 lb)(8 in.) (188.9 lb)(6 in.)
My = 102.6 lb-in.
M x = Ay (8 in.) = (97.71 lb)(8 in.) = 781.6 lb-in.

2
2
M = M x + My = (781.6 lb-in.)2 + (102.6 lb-in.)2
M = 788 lb-in.
The twisting moment is 1700 lb-in.
Thus, the bending and torsional stresses are (see part a)
Bending
4M
=
(D2 /2)3
And torsional shear stress remains the same at
= 8660 psi
=

4 (788 lb-in.)
= 8030 psi
(0.5 in.)3

## The max shear stress at pivot beam is:

)2
) (
)
1(
1(
max =
y x + xy 2 =
8030 psi 2 + 8660 psi 2
4
4
max = 9550 psi J

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Problem 7.73
The stresses on the x-y-axes are x = 80 MPa, y = 100 MPa, and xy = 50 MPa. Draw the Mohrs
circle for this stress state and determine the normal and shear stresses on a surface with normal oriented
at 20 CCW from the x-axis.

SOLUTION
Calculate m , max

## x + y 80 MPa + 110 MPa

=
= 95 MPa
2
2

)2
1(
1
(110 MPa 80 MPa)2 + (50 MPa)2
=
y x + xy 2 =
4
4
max = 52.2 MPa
m =

max

Recall
m = center of circle
Determine angular position of point ( x , xy ) on circle
]
[
50 MPa
1
= 73.3
tan
95 MPa 80 MPa
Surface located 22 CCW from x-axis would be 2(22 ) = 44 CCW around the circle.
Angle of new point on circle = 180 73.3 44 = 66.7

(110, 50)

sm
73.3o

(80, 50)

66.7o

[s(q), t(q)]

From position of new point on circle, find normal and shear stress
() = m + max cos 66.7
() = 115.6 MPa J

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## PROBLEM 7.73 CONTINUED

() = max sin 66.7
() = 47.9 MPa J

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Problem 7.74
The stresses on the x-y-axes are x = 5 ksi, y = 3 ksi, and xy = 3 ksi. Draw the Mohrs circle for this
stress state and determine the normal and shear stresses on a surface with normal oriented at 30 CCW
from the x-axis.

SOLUTION
Calculate m , max

x + y 5 ksi + (3 ksi)
=
= 1 ksi
2
2

)2
1(
1
(3 ksi 5 ksi)2 + (3 ksi)2
=
y x + xy 2 =
4
4
max = 5 ksi
m =

max

Recall
m = center of circle
Determine angular position of point ( x , xy ) on circle
]
[
3 ksi
1
= 36.87
tan
5 ksi 1 ksi
Surface located at 30 CCW from x-axis would be 2(30 ) = 60 CCW around the circle.
Angle of new point on circle = 36.87 + 60 = 23.13
[s(q), t(q)]

(3, 3)
sm

23.13o
s
36.87o
(5, 3)

From position of new point on circle, find normal and shear stress
() = m + max cos 23.13
() = 5.60 ksi J
() = max sin 23.13
() = 1.964 ksi J
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Problem 7.75
The stresses on the x-y-axes are x = 50 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 70 MPa. Draw the Mohrs
circle for this stress state. Identify the principal stresses from the Mohrs circle, and draw the principal
stress element, specifying its orientation.

SOLUTION
Calculate m , max

x + y 50 MPa + 60 MPa
=
= 5 MPa
2
2

)2
1(
1
(60 MPa + (50 MPa))2 + (70 MPa)2
=
y x + xy 2 =
4
4
max = 89 MPa
m =

max

Recall
m = center of circle
In addition, plot (60, 70) and (50, 70).
Determine angular position of point ( x , xy ) on circle
]
[
70 MPa
1
= 51.8
tan
60 MPa 5 MPa
Calculate the principal stresses
max = m + max = 94 MPa
min = m max = 84 MPa

(50, 70)
smax = 94 MPa
s
51.8o
smin = 84 MPa

(60, 70)
t

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## PROBLEM 7.75 CONTINUED

Principal stress element is oriented at 51.8 /2 = 25 CW from x-axis. Note that max on the circle
corresponds to a CCW rotation by 51.8 of the point (y , xy ). Therefore, max is 25.9 CCW from the
y-axis.
94 MPa

84 MPa

25.92o

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Problem 7.76
The stresses on the x-y-axes are x = 8 ksi, y = 12 ksi, and xy = 5 ksi. Draw the Mohrs circle for
this stress state. Identify the maximum shear stress from the Mohrs circle, and draw the maximum shear
stress element, specifying its orientation.

SOLUTION
Calculate m , max

x + y 8 ksi + 12 ksi
=
= 10 ksi
2
2

)2
1(
1
(12 ksi 8 ksi)2 + (5 ksi)2
=
y x + xy 2 =
4
4
max = 5.385 ksi
m =

max

Recall
m = center of circle
In addition, plot (12, 5) and (8, 5).
Determine angular position of point (y , xy ) on circle
]
[
1 12 ksi 10 ksi
= 21.8
tan
5 ksi

(8, 5)
sm

s
(12, 5)

21.8

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## PROBLEM 7.76 CONTINUED

Maximum shear stress element is oriented at 21.8 /2 CW from x-axis. Note that max on the circle
corresponds to a CW rotation by 21.8 of the point (y , xy ). Therefore, has maximum positive value
face that is 10.9 CW from the y-axis.
10 ksi
5.385 ksi

10 ksi

10.9o
J

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Problem 7.77
A solid shaft with 1.25 in. diameter is subjected to a bending moment of 2500 lb-in. and a twisting
moment of 3200 lb-in. Determine stresses at the point where the bending and torsional stresses are
greatest. Draw the Mohrs circle for that stress state.

SOLUTION
Need to calculate the bending stress and shear due to torsion.
Bending
My
x =
I
4
I= R , y=R
4
Thus,
4M
=
R3
4 (2500 lb-in.)
=
(0.625 in.)3
= 13040 psi J
Torsion
=
Ip =
Thus,
=

Note: y = 0.
Calculate m and max

4
R,
2

T
Ip
=R

2T
2 (3200 lb-in.)
=
R3
(0.625 in.)3
= 8340 psi

x + y 13040
=
= 6520 psi
2
2

)2
)
) (
1(
1(
=
y x + xy 2 =
13040 psi 2 + 8340 psi 2
4
4
m =

max

## max = 10590 psi J

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## PROBLEM 7.77 CONTINUED

Recall
m = center of circle
In addition, plot (13040, 8340) and (0, 8340)

(0, 8340)
sm

s
(13040, 8340)

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Problem 7.78
A tube with an outer diameter of 14 mm and a wall thickness of 1.5 mm is subjected to a bending
moment of 8 N-m and a twisting moment of 6 N-m. Determine stresses at the point where the bending
and torsional stresses are greatest. Draw the Mohrs circle for that stress state.

SOLUTION
Need to calculate the bending stress and shear due to torsion.
Bending
My
x =
I
Need I
]

[
(0.007 m)4 (0.007 m 0.0015 m)4
I = R4 =
4
4
I = 1.167 109 m4
Thus,
=

(8 N-m)(0.007 m)
1.167 109 m4
= 48 MPa J

Torsion
=
Need I p
Ip =

T
Ip

] [
]
[ 4
(0.007 m)4 (0.007 m 0.0015 m)4
R Ri 4 =
2
2
I p = 2.334 109 m4

Thus,
=

(6 N-m)(0.007 m)
= 18 MPa
2.334 109 m4

## Now calculate m and max

m =

x + y (48 MPa 0)
=
2
2
m = 24 MPa J

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(48 MPa)2 + (18 MPa)2
4
max = 30 MPa J

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## PROBLEM 7.78 CONTINUED

Recall
m = center of circle
In addition, plot (0, 18) and (48, 18)

(0, 18)
sm

s
(48, 18)

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Problem 7.79

F0
Tube 2

z
d2
Tube 1
x

y
d1
a

## A tray rests on an extendible arm consisting essentially of two

steel tubes of dierent outer diameters. The downward force is
applied at the tray center F0 = 1000 N. Determine the stresses at
the point of tube 1 where the bending and torsional stresses are
greatest. Draw the Mohrs circle for that stress state. Both members have a wall thickness of 4 mm. d1 = 40 mm, d2 = 34 mm,
a = 700 mm, and b = 500 mm.

SOLUTION
F0 produces a bending moment of
M = F0 a = (1000 N)(0.7 m) = 700 N-m
The twisting moment produced by F0 is:
T = F0 b = (1000 N)(0.5 m) = 500 N-m
The bending stress is:
x =
Need I
I=

]
4 [
(0.02 m)4 (0.02 m 0.004 m)4
R =
4
4
I = 7.419 108 m4
MR (700 N-m)(0.02 m)
=
=
I
7.419 108 m4
= 188.7 MPa

## The torsional stress is:

=
Need I p
Ip =

My
I

T
Ip

) [
]
( 4
(0.02 m)4 (0.02 m 0.004 m)4
R Ri 4 =
2
2
I p = 1.483 107 m4
=

(500 N-m)(0.02 m)
= 67.4 MPa
1.4838 107 m4

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## PROBLEM 7.79 CONTINUED

(
)
Now calculate m and max with y = 0
m =

x + y 188.7 MPa 0
=
2
2
m = 94.35 MPa J

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(0 188.7 MPa)2 + (67.4 MPa)2
4
max = 115.9 MPa J

Recall
m = center of circle
In addition, plot (0, 67.4) and (188.7, 67.4)

(0, 67.4)
sm

s
(188.7, 67.4)

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Problem 7.80
The cylindrical pressure vessel with end caps, an outer diameter
of 4 ft, and a wall thickness of 0.625 in., contains gas under a
pressure of 200 psi. Determine the stresses in the wall and draw
the Mohrs circle for the stress state.

4 ft

SOLUTION
For the pressure vessel the hoop stress is:
(
)(
200 psi 24 in.
PR
h =
=
t
0.625 in.

0.625 in.
2

h = 7580 psi J
]
[
0.625 in.
PR 200 psi 24 in. 2
a =
=
2t
2 (0.625 in.)

## The axial stress is:

a = 3790 psi J

Set x = a and y = h

xy = 0

m =

## x + y 3790 psi + 7580 psi

=
2
2
m = 5685 psi J

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

)
1(
7580 psi 3790 psi 2 + (0)2
4
max = 1895 psi J

3790 psi
sm

7580 psi
s

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Problem 7.81
A cylindrical pressure vessel with end caps has a mean diameter of 800 mm and a wall thickness of
20 mm. In addition to being subjected to an internal pressure
( of
) 2 MPa, a disruption in its supports leads
5
the vessel also to be twisted with a twisting moment of 3 10 N-m. Determine the stresses on the outer
surface of the vessel and draw the Mohrs circle for that stress state.

SOLUTION
For the pressure vessel the hoop stress is:
h =

PR (2 MPa)(0.4 m)
=
(0.02 m)
t
h = 40 MPa J

## The axial stress is:

a =

PR (2 MPa)(0.4 m)
=
2t
2 (0.02 m)
a = 20 MPa J

## In addition, there is a torsional stress given by

(
)
5
(0.410 m)
3

10
N-m
T
] = 15.28 MPa
=
= [

Ip
(0.41 m)4 (0.39 m)4
2

## Let x = h , y = a , and xy = . Calculate m and max

m =

x + y 40 MPa + 20 MPa
=
2
2
m = 30 MPa J

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

## In addition, plot (20, 15.28) and (40, 15.28)

1
(20 MPa 40 MPa)2 + (15.28 MPa)2
4
max = 18.26 MPa J

(20, 15.28)
sm

s
(40, 15.28)

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Problem 7.82
B

40 ft

25 ft
C

A road sign consists of a steel post AB that has an outer diameter of 16 in., a wall thickness of 0.75 in., and a length of 25 ft.
The pole BC has an outer diameter of 12 in., a wall thickness of
0.625 in., and a length of 40 ft to the center of the sign. The sign
is 15 ft wide by 10 ft high and is subjected to a wind pressure of
0.2 psi. Determine the largest stresses in the vertical post AB due
to the wind pressure, and draw Mohrs circle for that stress state.

SOLUTION
The bending moment generated by the wind is:
(
)][
(
)][
(
)]
(
)[
12 in.
12 in.
12 in.
2
10 ft
25 ft
M = 0.2 lb/in. 15 ft
1 ft
1 ft
1 ft
M = 1.296 106 lb-in.
The twisting moment generated is:
(
)][
(
)][
(
)]
(
)[
12 in.
12 in.
12 in.
2
T = 0.2 lb/in. 15 ft
10 ft
40 ft
1 ft
1 ft
1 ft
T = 2.07 106 lb-in.
The bending stress is:
=
Need I
I=

Thus,

My
I

) [
]
( 4
(8 in.)4 (7.25 in.)4
R R4i =
4
4
I = 1047.08 in.4

(
)
1.296 106 lb-in. (8 in.)
MR
=
=
I
1047.08 in.4
= 9900 psi J

## The torsional stress is:

=
Ip =

T
Ip

)
( 4
R R4i = 2I = 2094.16 in.4
2

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## PROBLEM 7.82 CONTINUED

T
=
Ip

)
2.07 106 lb-in. (8 in.)
2094.16 in.4

= 7910 psi
Note: y = 0.
Calculate m and max
m =

x + y 9900 psi + 0
=
2
2
m = 4950 psi J

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

) (
)
1(
0 9900 psi 2 + 7910 psi 2
4
max = 9340 psi J

## In addition, plot (9900, 7910) and (0, 7910)

(0, 7910)
sm

s
(9900, 7910)

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Problem 7.83
a

producing only a shear stress, increases until a crack is observed
to open up when the angle shown is = 20 . (a) Determine the
shear stress xy at which cracking occurs. (b) If this material were
loaded in uniaxial tension, at what critical tensile stress would
brittle fracture occur?

SOLUTION
Stresses are:
x = 80 MPa
y = 30 MPa
= 20

30 MPa

80 MPa

Maximum tension must act perpendicular to the crack. Therefore, angle of max shear must be
s = 20 45 = 25
Thus,

]
[
1 1 y x
s = 25 = tan
2
2 xy

## Solving an expression for xy

(
)
1 y x
xy =
2 tan(50 )
(
)
1 30 MPa 80 MPa
xy =
= 46.2 MPa
2
tan(50 )

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## PROBLEM 7.83 CONTINUED

Determine maximum shear stress

max =

1
(30 MPa 80 MPa)2 + (46.2 MPa)2
4
max = 71.8 MPa J

## The maximum principal stress is:

max = m + max
max = 25 + 71.8 MPa
Same material would fracture in uniaxial tension at a stress of max .

## max = 96.8 MPa J

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Problem 7.84
Under purely uniaxial tension, brittle failure in a material is known to occur at 50 ksi. The normal stresses
on the x-y-axes are fixed at the level of x = 20 ksi and y = 35 ksi. Determine (a) the shear stress xy at
which cracking (brittle failure) occurs, and (b) the orientation of the plane on which the cracks appear.

SOLUTION
(a) Stresses are x = 20 ksi, y = 35 ksi, and xy is to be determined. Maximum normal stress at which
brittle failure occurs is known to be 50 ksi. Find xy which leads to that max
(20 ksi + 35 ksi)
= 27.5 ksi
2

1
= m +
(35 ksi 20 ksi)2 + xy 2
4

m =
max
Substituting and solving for xy ,

1
(15 ksi)2 + xy 2
4

## Choose to interpret xy as +21.2 ksi.

(b) Find angle of maximum shear
]
]
[
[
1 1 y x
1 1 35 ksi 20 ksi
s = tan
= tan
= 9.74
2
2 xy
2
2(21.2 ksi)
Angle of principal stresses is:

xy = 21.2 ksi J

p = s + 45 = 54.74

## Test to determine if max or min acts on 54.74

p = 54.74 J

1
1
(54.74 ) = (20 ksi + 35 ksi) + (20 ksi 35 ksi) cos 2(54.74 ) + (21.2 ksi) sin 2(54.74 )
2
2
(54.74 ) = 50 ksi = max

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## PROBLEM 7.84 CONTINUED

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Problem 7.85
Using a strain
(
)rosette to (measure
) strains, cracks
( are
) found to initiate in a ceramic component at strains
4
4
4
x = 6.2 10 , y = 2.1 10 and xy = 6.7 10 . The elastic moduli are E = 400 GPa, = 0.22, and
G = 164 GPa. Determine the critical tensile stress at which brittle fracture occurs and the anticipated
orientation of the crack plane relative to the x-axis.

SOLUTION
Strains are:

(
)
x = 6.2 104
(
)
y = 2.1 104
(
)
xy = 6.7 104

E = 400 GPa
= 0.22
G = 164 GPa

## Use elastic moduli to determine stresses from strains

)
(
) 1(
x y
x = 6.2 104 =
E
) 1(
(
)
y = 2.1 104 =
y x
E
Solving simultaneously gives:

x = 280 MPa
y = 145.6 MPa
xy = G xy
xy = 164 GPa(6.7(104 )) = 109.8 MPa

max =

1
(145.6 MPa 280 MPa)2 + (109.8 MPa)2
4
max = 128.7 MPa

m =

= 212.8 MPa
2

## max = m + max = 212.8 MPa + 128.7 MPa

max = 341.5 MPa J

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## PROBLEM 7.85 CONTINUED

Solve for the shear angle

## Angle of principal stresses is:

[
]
1 1 y x
s = tan
= 15.732
2
2 xy
p = s + 45 = 29.27

## Thus, the angle at which brittle fracture occurs is:

Test to determine if max or min acts on 29.27

p = 29.27 J

1
1
(29.27 ) = (280 MPa + 145.6 MPa) + (280 MPa 145.6 MPa) cos 2(29.27 )
2
2
+ (109.8 MPa) sin 2(29.27 )
(29.27 ) = 341.5 MPa = max
Failure would occur in uniaxial tension at 342 MPa.

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Problem 7.86
Cracking would occur in a material when stresses on the x-y-axes are equal to x = 12 ksi, y = 3 ksi,
and xy = 7 ksi. Determine the critical tensile stress at which brittle fracture occurs, and the anticipated
orientation of the crack plane relative to the horizontal axis.

SOLUTION
The stresses are x = 12 ksi, y = 3 ksi, and xy = 7 ksi.
The mean stress is:
x + y 12 ksi + 3 ksi
m =
=
= 7.5 ksi
2
2
The maximum shear stress is:

1
1
max =
(y x )2 + 2xy =
(3 ksi 12 ksi)2 + (7 ksi)2 = 8.32 ksi
4
4
The maximum shear angle is:
]
]
[
[
1 1 y x
1 1 3 ksi 12 ksi
s = tan
= tan
= 16.37
2
2 xy
2
2(7 ksi)
The maximum stress is:
max = 7.5 ksi + 8.32 ksi = 15.82 ksi
The minimum stress is, with max on the crack plane. Note this is consistent with min .
min = 7.5 ksi 8.32 ksi = 0.822 ksi
Angle of principal stresses is:

p = s + 45 = 61.37

## Test to determine if max or min acts on 61.37

1
1
(61.37 ) = (12 ksi + 3 ksi) + (12 ksi 3 ksi) cos 2(61.37 ) + (7 ksi) sin 2(61.37 )
2
2
(61.37 ) = 0.822 ksi
Therefore, max acts on the plane 90 away
p = 61.37 90 = 28.63

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## PROBLEM 7.86 CONTINUED

so
max = 15.82 ksi J
and acts on
p = 28.63 J

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Problem 7.87
Elastic finite element analysis of a component is conducted. The loading is due to an applied force
designated by F0 applied at a particular point. When F0 = 100 N, the highest stresses in the component
are calculated to be x = 75 MPa, y = 175 MPa, and xy = 60 MPa. If the material cracks under a
critical tensile stress of 350 MPa, determine the applied load F0 at which cracking would occur.

SOLUTION
Stresses at F0 = 100 N
m =

max =

x + y
= 50 MPa
2

1
[175MPa (75 MPa)]2 + (60 MPa)2 = 138.7 MPa
4
max = m + max = 188.7 MPa

Note that max will increase in proportion if all x-y stresses are increased by the same factor. Assuming
the material responds linear elastically, all the stresses will indeed increase in proportion as the single
Determine the factor by which the current load F0 needs to increase if the max , (188.7 MPa), is to reach
the critical maximum normal stress, (350 MPa)
350 MPa
= 1.855
188.7 MPa
Therefore, failure occurs at a load that is 1.855 times as larger as F0 , or

1.855F0 = 185.5 N J

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Problem 7.88
Elastic finite element analysis of a component is conducted. The loading is due to an applied force
designated by F0 applied at a particular point. When F0 = 200 lb, the highest stresses in the component
are calculated to be x = 3760 psi, y = 7800 psi, and xy = 4520 ksi. If the material yields under a
tensile stress of 55 ksi, determine the applied load F0 at which yielding would occur.

SOLUTION
At F0 = 200 lb, x = 3760 psi, y = 7800 psi, and xy = 4520 psi.
Mean stress
x + y 3760 psi + 7800 psi
m =
=
= 2020 psi
2
2
Maximum shear stress

1
1
max =
(y x )2 + 2xy =
(7800 psi 3860 psi)2 + (4520 psi)2 = 7340 psi
4
4
The material yields (it is ductile) in uniaxial tension at a tensile stress y = 55 ksi. In uniaxial tension,
the maximum shear stress is one-half of the tensile stress, so the critical shear stress is:
Y = 27.5 ksi
Note that max will increase in proportion if all x-y stresses are increased by the same factor. Assuming
the material responds linear elastically, all the stresses will indeed increase in proportion as the single
Determine the factor by which the current load F0 needs to increase if max (7340 psi) is to reach the shear
stress at yield (27500 psi).
27500 psi
= 3.75
7340 psi
Yield, therefore, occurs, at a load that is 3.75(200 lb) or
F0 = 750 lb J

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Problem 7.89
The shear stress at a point of interest is known to be xy = 40 MPa.
At that point, there is also a tensile stress of y , but x = 0. Slip lines
due to plastic yielding are observed to first appear in the orientation
shown with = 15 . (a) Determine the magnitude of the stress y .
(b) If y alone acted, what would be the magnitude of y at which
slip lines on any plane would first be observed?

a
y

SOLUTION
sy

40 MPa

## Stresses are x = 0, y to be determined, and xy = 40 MPa.

(a) Maximum shear angle s where slipping is first noticed coincides with orientation of observed slip
lines = 15 .
]
]
[
[
y
1 1 y x
1 1
s = tan
= tan
= 15
2
2 xy
2
2(40 MPa)
Solving an expression for y gives:
y = 2(40 MPa) tan 30
y = 46.2 MPa J

(b) Since x = 0,

1
(46.2 MPa)2 + (40 MPa)2 = 46.2 MPa
4
So if y acts alone, i.e., xy = 0, then yielding occurs when
max =

y
= 46.2 MPa
2
or
y = 92.4 MPa J

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Problem 7.90
Say that uniaxial tension at a level of 40 ksi causes ductile yielding. Yielding can also occur under a
combination of compression and shear. (a) If the compressive stress in the x-direction is 25 ksi (and
y = 0), determine the shear stress xy . (b) Determine the orientation of the slip lines.

SOLUTION
(a) Ductile yielding occurs, so Y = 40 ksi, which means Y = 20 ksi.
Find shear stress xy at yield if the other stress components are x = 25 ksi and y = 0.
The maximum shear stress formula is:

1
max =
(25 ksi)2 + 2xy = 20 ksi
4
So we can solve to get
xy = 15.61 ksi J
(b) Maximum shear angle
[
[
]
]
25 ksi
1 1
1 1 y x
= tan
s = tan
2
2 xy
2
2(15.61 ksi)
So the orientation of the slip lines is:

s = 19.34 J
or
s 90 = 70.66 J

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Problem 7.91
A strain rosette is used to measure
in a steel
For a (given) load, the strains at a
( strains
)
( component.
)
4
4
point are found to be x = 6.1 10 , y = 3.8 10 , and xy = 7.1 104 . The elastic moduli
( )
( )
are E = 30 106 psi, = 0.3, and G = 11 106 psi. If the yield stress in tension is 36 ksi, by what
percentage can the load be increased without yield occurring at that same point? Assume that the strains
increase in proportion to the load.

SOLUTION
Knowing the moduli, find the stresses form the strains in the steel component
(
)
) 30 106 psi [ (
)
(
(
))]
E (
4
4
6.1
10
+
0.3
3.8
10
x =

=
y
x
1 2
1 0.32
x = 16.35 ksi
y =

E
y + x
1 2

(
)
))]
)
( (
(
30 106 psi [
4
4
+
0.3
6.1
10
=
3.8
10
1 0.32
y = 6.495 ksi

[ ( )
][
(
)]
xy = G xy = 11 106 psi (7.1) 104
xy = 8.19 ksi
Maximum shear stress

max =

)2
1(
y x + xy 2 =
4

1
(6.49 ksi 16.35 ksi)2 + (8.19 ksi)2
4

## max = 14.06 ksi

The yield stress in tension is given as 36 ksi
Y = 36 ksi
Therefore, the yield stress in shear must be
Y =

36 ksi
= 18 ksi
2

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## PROBLEM 7.91 CONTINUED

The stress components (and hence the maximum shear stress) are all assumed to increase in proportion
to the load. Therefore, determine the fractional increase in the load as corresponding to the fractional
from the current maximum shear stress 14.06 ksi to the shear yield stress 18 ksi:
18 ksi 14.06 ksi
= 0.280
14.06 ksi
28.0% J

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Problem 7.92
A circular ceramic rod 35 mm in length and 8 mm in diameter is subjected to a twisting moment. Its elastic moduli are
E = 380 GPa, = 0.2, and G = 158 GPa. Determine the twist
(relative angle of rotation) at which cracking would occur, if the
same rod would have cracked under a tensile load of 6000 N.

SOLUTION
For this rod, the maximum normal stress at cracking point under a tensile load of 6000 N is:
f =

P
6000 N
= (
)2 = 119.4 MPa
2
R
8 mm
2

If the rod is subjected to torsion, then the only stress acting is a shear stress .
If only a shear stress acts, the maximum normal stress is equal to . We want the shear stress at which
the maximum normal stress reaches the fracture stress, therefore
f = 119.4 MPa
The shear stress in torsion can be related to the twist
=

GR
(159 GPa)(4 mm)
= 119.4 MPa =
L
35 mm
= 0.379 J

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Problem 7.93
An aluminum bar would yield plastically at a tensile stress of
30 ksi. If the bar is 8 in. long, determine the acceptable range of
diameters if it is to tolerate one end twisted by 1 relative to the
other.

SOLUTION
Given the tensile yield stress
Y = 30 ksi
The shear stress at yield is

Y 30 ksi
=
= 15 ksi
2
2
Relate the maximum shear stress (on the surface of the twisting rod) to the relative twist
Y =

max =

GR
= 15 ksi
L

We rearrange the expression to find the radius, and we know that the max should not exceed 15 ksi. Thus,
R<

(15 ksi)L
G

( )
R< (
)

## R < 1.809 in.

and
d = 2R
Thus,
d < 3.62 in. J

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Problem 7.94
A twisting moment of 800 N-m first causes yielding in a circular
steel tube that is 400 mm long with an outer diameter of 30 mm
and an inner diameter of 24 mm. Determine the axial tensile force
at which the same bar would yield.

SOLUTION
Yielding occurs at twisting moment of T = 800 N-m.
Shear stress due to twisting moment
=

TR
(
)=

4 R4
R
i
2

## (800 N-m)(15 mm)

] = 256 MPa
[
(15 mm)4 (12 mm)4

## So yielding occurs at a shear stress of

Y = 256 MPa
In uniaxial tension, the maximum shear stress equal to 1/2 of the tensile stress, so for this material
Y = 2Y = 511.2 MPa
In uniaxial tension, the normal stress is equal to P/A. Therefore, the force at which yield would occur is:
]
)
[
(
P = Y R2 R2i = (511.2 MPa) (0.015 m)2 (0.012 m)2
P = 130.1 kN J

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Problem 7.95
A bar of 20 mm in diameter and 300 mm in length is subjected to
an axial compressive stress of 20 MPa. (a) If the material undergoes brittle failure under a tensile stress of 80 MPa, what twisting moment would just produce brittle failure while the compressive force acted? (b) If the material yields plastically at a yield
strength of 80 MPa, what twisting moment would just produce
yielding while the compressive force acted?

SOLUTION
(a) Stresses on the bar are x = 20 MPa, y = 0, and shear stress to be determined.
Tensile stress at brittle fracture
f = 80 MPa
m =

x
= 10 MPa
2

and

)2
1(
y x + 2
4

1
(20 MPa)2 + 2
= 10 MPa +
4
max = 80 MPa

max =
max = m + max

Under the combination of compressive stress x and shear stress we want the maximum normal stress
to equal the uniaxial tensile stress at brittle fracture.
Solve for to find
= 89.4 MPa
Solving for the twisting moment at brittle failure
=

TR
2T
=
Ip
R3

89.4 MPa =

2T
(0.020 m)3
T brittle = 1124 N-m J

## (b) The material yields plastically

max

Y = 80 MPa
80 MPa
= 40 MPa
Y =
2

)2
1(
1
(20 MPa)2 + 2 = 40 MPa
=
y x + 2 =
4
4

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## PROBLEM 7.95 CONTINUED

Solve for the shear stress

= 38.7 MPa

## Solving for the twisting moment at plastic yield

=

TR
2T
=
Ip
R3

38.7 MPa =

2T
(0.020 m)3
T ductile = 487 N-m J

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Problem 7.96

1 in.
1 in.

## A plastic to be used for a torsional snap fit is known to yield under

a tensile stress of 8 ksi. Determine the allowable rotation of the
tabs, if the snap fit is not to yield. The twisting member has a
diameter of 0.3 in. and the tabs are 1 in. away from each of the
fixed ends. (Take G = 150 ksi.)

SOLUTION
Y 8 ksi
=
= 4 ksi
2
2
The rotating tabs are in the center, and the two ends are fixed. So the shear stress in each part of the rod
is like a shaft of length L = 1 in. twisted by an angle .
Y =

Y =

GR
L

Thus,
4 ksi =

## (150 ksi)[(0.3 in.)/2]

1 in.
= 10.19 J

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Problem 7.97
A steel rod that is 40 mm long and has a diameter of 8 mm is composed of an alloy that yields plastically
at a uniaxial tensile stress of 450 MPa. One end of the bar has been twisted relative to the other by 1.5 .
Determine the amount by which the bar can be elongated, while it is already twisted, without yielding.

SOLUTION
Y = 450 MPa
The maximum shear stress when yielding is:
Y =

Y 450 MPa
=
= 225 MPa
2
2

## GR (80 GPa)(0.004 m) (1.5 )

=
=
L
0.040 m

180

)
= 209.4 MPa

Determine the axial stress which, when combined with the shear stress of 209.4 MPa, produces a
maximum shear equal to the yield value.

1 2
max =
+ 2 = 225 MPa
4
Solve for

= 164.4 MPa

## Elongation which would occur for a tensile stress of = 164.4 MPa

= E = E

= (200 GPa)
L
40 mm
= 0.0329 mm J

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Problem 7.98
u0

A bar that is 1.5 in. long and 0.25 in. in diameter is subjected to
a tensile stress of 5000 psi. The bar is also inadvertently twisted.
Cracks are observed to appear at an angle shown with 0 = 65 .
(a) Determine the torque that was applied. (b) If there had been
no initial tension, what torque could have been applied without
cracking?

SOLUTION

The cracks appear on a plane oriented at 25 CW from the x-axis. So a plane of maximum shear is
oriented at 25 + 45 = 20 . The shear stress can be determined from the maximum shear angle
[ ]
1
x
s = 20 = tan1
2
2
5000 psi
= 2980 psi
2 tan 40
(a) Now we are able to find the applied torque
=

T=

R
=
2
3

TR
2T
=
Ip
R3
(2980 psi)

)
0.25 in. 3
2

(b) To find the torque which, when acting alone causes cracking, determine max
tension and torsion.

5000 psi
1
max =
+
(5000 psi)2 + (2980 psi)2 = 6390 psi
2
4

T = 9.14 lb-in. J
for previous case of

If there were only torsion, there would be only shear stress. Then, the max is equal to the shear stress.
So the shear stress must be
= max = 6390 psi

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## PROBLEM 7.98 CONTINUED

From the shear stress just determined, find the associated torque.
T=

R
=
2
3

(6390 psi)

)
0.25 in. 3
2

2
T = 19.6 lb-in. J

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Problem 7.99

## A circular aluminum bar is 200 mm long and has a diameter of

14 mm. Yielding would occur in this aluminum alloy under a
tensile stress of 280 MPa. The elastic moduli are E = 70 GPa,
= 0.33, and G = 26 GPa. The bar is elongated by = 0.5 mm
and then twisted. Determine the relative rotation of one end of
the rod with respect to the other at which yielding would occur.
Determine the plane on which slip would be observed.

f0

SOLUTION
From given tensile yield stress
Y = 280 MPa
Find shear yield stress

Y
= 140 MPa
2
Normal stress due to the extension can be found
Y =

0.5 mm
= (70 GPa)
= 175 MPa
L
200 mm

1 2
max =
+ 2xy = 140 MPa
4 x

x = E

So
xy = 109.3 MPa
From this torsional shear stress we are able to determine the relative rotation of one end of the rod by
xy =
109.3 MPa =
Solving for gives:

GR
L

## (26 GPa) [(0.014 m)/2]

0.200 m
or
= 6.88 J

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## PROBLEM 7.99 CONTINUED

The angle on which slip would occur is:
[
[
]
]
175 MPa
1 1 x
1 1
s = tan
= tan
2
2 xy
2
2(109.3 MPa)
or
s = 19.34 J

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Problem 7.100
A steel bar with rectangular cross-section is cantilevered at one
end and the free end is subjected to a transverse force. The alloy
yields at a tensile stress of 450 MPa. Use beam theory to predict the end deflection at which the bar would yield. Take the
dimensions to be a = 20 mm, b = 50 mm, and c = 400 mm.
Explain whether beam theory will give a good prediction of the
end deflection.

b
a

SOLUTION
Y = 450 MPa
There are only axial stresses in bending

Relate the maximum normal stress at the support to the applied force
=

## My (F0 c)b/2 6F0 c

= 1 3 =
I
ab2
ab
12

ab2
(1)
6c
From tabulated solution found in Appendix G-1.1, the deflection can be related to the force and the
dimensions by
F 0 c3
v=
3EI
F 0 c3
(2)
v= 1
Eab3
4
F0 =

Substituting equation (1) into equation (2), and setting the stress equal to the yield stress, we have
v=

Y ab2 c3
2Y c2 2(450 MPa)(400 mm)2
=
=
3Eb
3(200 GPa)(50 mm)
6c 14 Eab3

v = 4.8 mm J
Since v is small compared to the length of 400 mm, the deflection is predicted well by beam theory.
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Problem 7.101
A circular steel shaft which is 16 in. long and with a diameter of 1.2 in. is known to yield when subjected
to a twisting moment of 16 kip-in. Instead, the rod is simply supported, and subjected to a transverse
force in the center. Determine the center deflection at which yielding occurs. Explain whether beam
theory will give a good prediction of the center deflection.

SOLUTION
Determine the shear stress due to the twisting moment
=

## T R (16000 lb-in.)(0.6 in.)

=
= 47157 psi

Ip
(0.6 in.)4
2

Since yield has occurred under this twisting moment, the shear stress is the shear stress for yield. Under
uniaxial tension, yield would occur at a tensile stress equal to twice this value or
Y = 94300 psi
Consider conditions under which the maximum normal stress in bending equals the tensile yield stress
just found.

L
Maximum bending moment is:
M=
Maximum normal stress is:
=

PL
4

(1)

MR 4M
=
Ip
R3

From tabulated solution found in Appendix G-2.1, relate the deflection to the force using the given
dimensions
PL
PL3
=
(2)
v=
48EI 12ER4

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## PROBLEM 7.101 CONTINUED

Solving equation (1) for P, substituting into equation (2), and setting the stress equal to the yield stress
gives:
Y L 2
(94300 psi)(16 in.)2
v=
(
)
=
12ER 12 30 106 psi [(1.2 in.)/2]
v = 0.112 in. J
v is much smaller than the length, so beam theory can predict the deflection accurately.

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Problem 7.102

T0

A circular rod is composed of a ceramic that cracks under a tensile stress of 370 MPa. The rod has a length of 60 mm and a
diameter of 12 mm, and it is subjected to a bending moment of
M0 = 40 N-m. Determine the twisting moment T 0 that could be
applied, in addition to the bending moment, before the rod cracks.

M0
M0
T0

SOLUTION
The normal stress due to bending is
x =

4M0
4(40 N-m)
=
= 236 MPa
3
R
(0.006 m)3

Set maximum stress, due to the combination of the normal stress just found and an unknown shear stress
xy , equal to the normal stress that causes cracking

1 2
x
+
+ 2xy = 370 MPa
max =
2
4 x
So
xy = 223 MPa
The twisting moment that produces this shear stress is:
T0 =

[(0.012 mm)/2]3
R3
xy =
(223 MPa)
2
2
T 0 = 75.7 N-m J

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Problem 7.103
M0
T0

T0

M0

## A circular steel shaft of a length of 14 in. and a diameter of

0.75 in. is composed of an alloy that yields under a tensile stress
of 60 ksi. The shaft is subjected to a twisting moment of
T 0 = 1500 lb-in. Determine the bending moment M0 that could
be applied, in addition to the twisting moment, before the rod
yields.

SOLUTION
Find the shear yield stress from the tensile yield stress
Y =

Y 60 ksi
=
= 30 ksi
2
2

=

## T 0 R (1500 lb-in.) [(0.75 in.)/2]

=

Ip
[(0.75 in.)/2]4
2
= 18.1 ksi

Set maximum shear stress, due to the combination of the shear stress just found and an unknown normal
stress x , equal to the shear yield stress

1 2
max =
+ 2xy = 30 ksi
4 x
So
x = 47.8 ksi
The bending moment that produces this normal stress is:
M0 =

## R x = [(0.75 in.)/2]3 (47.8 ksi)

4
4
M0 = 1980 lb-in. J

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Problem 7.104
The hollow steel rod with an outer diameter
inner diameter of 55 mm is known to yield
of 325 MPa. Determine the magnitude of the
the member yields. Take the lengths to be
L2 = 0.8 m.

L1

of 60 mm and an
at a tensile stress
force F0 at which
L1 = 1.6 m and

F0
L2

SOLUTION
Find the shear yield stress from the tensile yield stress
Y =

Y
= 162.5 MPa
2

M = F0 L1

and

T = F 0 L2

x =

MR
I

xy =

TR TR
=
Ip
2I

## Using these expressions, we can write the maximum shear stress as

1 2
1 ( MR )2 ( T R )2
2
max =
+ xy =
+
4 x
4 I
2I
Set the maximum shear stress equal to the shear yield stress, and replace the moments in terms of the
force F0

1R
162.5 MPa =
F0 L12 + L22
2I
Solve for the force
F0 = 1132 N J

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## PROBLEM 7.104 CONTINUED

2I(162.6 MPa)

R L12 + L22
[
](
)
2 4 (0.03 m)4 (0.0275 m)4 162.5 106 N/m2
F0 =

## (0.03 m) (1.6 m)2 + (0.8 m)2

F0 =

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Problem 7.105
A ceramic rod of a diameter of 7 mm is known to crack at a
tensile stress of 200 MPa. Determine magnitude of the force F0
at which the member cracks. Take the lengths to be L1 = 50 mm
and L2 = 40 mm.

L2

L1
F0

SOLUTION
Moments are related to force by
M = F0 L1

T = F 0 L2

and

## Stresses are related to moments by

=

MR
I

and

TR TR
=
Ip
2I

Find maximum normal stress due to combination of normal and shear stress due to bending and twisting
and set equal to the tensile stress for fracture.

1 2
max = 200 MPa = +
+ 2
2
4
Substituting the expressions for and gives:

MR
1 ( MR )2 ( T R )2
max =
+
+
= 200 MPa
2I
4 I
2I
Substituting for M and T gives:
200 MPa
Solving for F0 gives:

F0 R [
L1 +
2I

L12 + L22

F0 = 118.1 N J

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Problem 7.106
F0

An aluminum rod is subjected to a force of F0 = 20 lb without failing. The rod has a diameter of 0.5 in. and a length of
L1 = 14 in. Determine the allowable range of the length L2 if the
rod is not to yield, given a uniaxial yield stress of 35 ksi.

L2

L1

SOLUTION
From tensile yield stress find shear yield stress
yield = 35 ksi

so

## yield = 17.5 ksi

Find bending moment from force and then find bending stress.
M = F0 L1 = 280 lb-in.
MR
= 22.8 ksi
I
Note that normal stress will not change with length L2 , which only aects twisting moment.
Set maximum shear stress, due to combination of known normal stress and unknown torsional shear
stress , equal to shear yield stress

1 2
max =
+ 2 = 17.5 ksi
4
=

So
= 13.27 ksi
Find twisting moment which would produce this level of shear stress
T0 =

3
R = 326 lb-in.
2

## Relate twisting moment to length

T = F0 L2
Since twisting moment increases with L2 , and the twisting moment cannot exceed 326 lb-in. without
yield occurring
326 lb-in.
L2 <
20 lb
L2 < 16.285 in. J

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Problem 7.107
The allowable tensile force on drill pipe is often adjusted to
account for the make-up torque that is applied while screwing
neighboring segments together. Consider a drill pipe with a 5 in.
outer diameter and 4.408 in. inner diameter. (a) If the yield stress
of the pipe in tension is 100, 000 psi, what is the allowable tensile force on the pipe disregarding the make-up torque? (b) Say
the make-up torque is 26000 lb-ft. What is the allowable tensile
force when the make-up torque is accounted for?

Pipe

Collars

Bit

SOLUTION
(a) The allowable tensile force is:

Fallowed

)
(
Fallowed = Y R2o R2i
]
[
= (100, 000 psi) (5 in.)2 (4.408 in.)2
4

## Fallowed = 437, 000 lb J

(b) When accounting for the make-up torque, the shear stress due to the make-up torque is:
(
)( )
12 in. 5 in.
lb-ft)
(26000
TR
1 ft
2
[( )4 (
] = 32100 psi
=
=
)
4
Ip

5 in.
4.408 in.
2

Set maximum shear stress, due to combination of unknown normal stress and known shear stress due
to the make-up torque, equal to shear yield stress

1 2
100, 000 psi
max =
+ 2 =
4
2
Solving for gives:

= 76700 psi

Determine again the axial force which would produce this lower level of axial stress
]
[
Fallowed = (76700 psi) (5 in.)2 (4.408 in.)2
4
Fallowed = 335, 000 lb J

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Problem 7.108
From a finite element analysis, the stresses at a critical point in an aluminum component are found to
be as follows: x = 80 MPa, y = 70 MPa, z = 50 MPa, xy = 75 MPa, xy = 60 MPa, and
xy = 30 MPa. (a) Calculate the von Mises stress at this point. (b) If the material is ductile and has a
uniaxial tensile yield strength of 270 MPa, determine the factor of safety using the von Mises stress
criterion for yielding.

SOLUTION
(a) von Mises stress
[
vM = (80 MPa)2 + (70 MPa)2 + (50 MPa)2 (80 MPa)(70 MPa) (80 MPa)(50 MPa)
]1/2
(70 MPa)(50 MPa) + 3(75 MPa)2 + 3(60 MPa)2 + 3(30 MPa)2
vM = 215 MPa J
(b)
F.S. =

Y
270 MPa
=
vM 215 MPa
F.S. = 1.26 J

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Problem 7.109
A steel alloy has a uniaxial yield strength of 580 MPa. Consider this steel to be subjected to only a
shear stress . (a) Determine the value of at yield assuming a maximum shear stress yield criterion.
(b) Determine the value of at yield assuming a von Mises yield criterion.

SOLUTION
The steel is subjected to only shear stress.
(a) When there is only a shear stress acting, the maximum shear stress is equal to that stress. Setting that
equal to the yield stress is shear gives:
max =

Y 580 MPa
=
2
2

## max = 290 MPa J

(b) Express the von Mises stress in terms of the shear stress and set equal to the tensile yield stress

vM = 32 = 580 MPa
Solve for , and label this shear stress to cause yield according to the von Mises criterion vM
vM = 335 MPa J

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Problem 7.110
A plastic molding includes a handle that is loaded as shown.
Yielding where the handle meets the support is of concern.
The uniaxial yield strength of the plastic is 30 MPa. Take
L1 = 50 mm, L2 = 30 mm, and d = 8 mm. (a) Determine the
load F0 at yield assuming a maximum shear stress yield criterion. (b) Determine the load F0 at which yield occurs assuming a
von Mises yield criterion.

L1

F0
L2
d

SOLUTION
Relate the bending and twisting moments to the load and dimensions
M = F 0 L1
and
T = F0 L2
Relate the normal and shear stresses to the bending and twisting moments and hence the load
=

MR 4F0 L1
=
I
R3

T R 2F0 L2
=
Ip
R3

(a) For the maximum shear stress criterion, determine the maximum shear stress due to and and set
equal to the shear yield stress

2
30
max =
+ 2 = ,
4
2
Substitute expressions of stress in terms of the force

2F0
L12 + L22 = 15 106 Pa
3
R
Solving for F0 gives:

F0 = 25.9 N J
(b) For the von Mises criterion, determine the von Mises stress in terms of and and set equal to the
tensile yield stress

vM = 2 + 32 = 30 MPa

## Substitute expressions of stress in terms of the force

(
) ( ) (
)
4F0
3 2
2
L1 + L2 = 30 106 Pa
3
R
4
F0 = 26.8 N J
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Problem 7.111
An automotive component of complex shape experiences a primary load designated as F0 . Finite element
analysis is carried out using a value F0 = 100 N. From the results, the principal stresses at the point where
failure is observed are found to be I = 20 MPa, II = 10 MPa, and III = 5 MPa. Assume stresses
increase in proportion to F0 . (a) Assuming the material experiences brittle failure at a uniaxial tensile
stress of 140 MPa, determine the load F0 at which the component would fail. (b) Assuming the material
experiences ductile failure at a uniaxial tensile stress of 140 MPa, and that a maximum shear stress yield
criterion applies, determine the load F0 at which the component would fail. (c) Assuming the material
experiences ductile failure at a uniaxial tensile stress of 140 MPa, and that a von Mises criterion applies,
determine the load F0 at which the component would fail.

SOLUTION
At the primary load F0 = 100 N,

I = 20 MPa
II = 10 MPa
III = 5 MPa

(a) Brittle failure will occur when the maximum principal stress equals the failure stress in uniaxial
tension.
Since all stresses increase by the same factor, so do the principal stresses. Thus, for brittle fracture to
occur the load must increase by a factor of
140 MPa
20 MPa
So failure would be predicted to occur if the load is increased to
)
(
140 MPa
F0 = (100 N )
20 MPa
F0 = 700 N J
(b) Under a maximum shear stress criterion, yield occurs when the absolute maximum shear stress equals
the shear yield stress. Given the principal stresses, the absolute maximum shear stress is:
abs =

I III (20 + 5)
=
= 12.5 MPa
2
2

## The yield stress in shear equals

140 MPa
= 70 MPa
2
All stresses, principal stresses, and abs increase by the same factor. Thus, for ductile fracture to occur,
according to a maximum shear stress criterion, the load must increase to
)
(
70 MPa
F0 = (100 N)
12.5 MPa
F0 = 560 N J
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## PROBLEM 7.111 CONTINUED

(c) Under a von Mises yield criterion, yield occurs when the von Mises stress equals the tensile yield
stress. Given the principal stresses, the von Mises stress is

## (I II )2 + (I III )2 + (II III )2

vM =
= 21.8 MPa
2
Since all stresses increase by the same factor, so does the von Mises stress. Thus, for ductile fracture to
occur, according to a von Mises yield criterion, the load must increase to
(
)
140 MPa
F0 = (100 N)
21.8 MPa
F0 = 642 N J

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Problem 7.112
L2

F0

L1

## The steel structure is composed of a hollow tube with an outer

diameter of 10 in. and a wall thickness of 0.5 in. Take L1 = 12 ft
and L2 = 8 ft. The steel has a uniaxial yield strength of 36 ksi. If
the load F0 = 2500 lb, determine the factor of safety for yielding
at the base, assuming a von Mises yield criterion.

SOLUTION
Determine bending and twisting moments from the load
M = F0 L1 = 2500(12) lb-ft
T = F0 L2 = (2500)(8) lb-ft
Determine stresses from the moments

(
)
12 in.
[2500(12)
lb-ft]
(5 in.)
MR
1 ft
[
]
= 10660 psi
=
=

## (5 in.)4 (4.5 in.)4

I
4
(
)
12 in.
lb-ft]
(5 in.)
[2500(8)
TR
1 ft
=
] = 3550 psi
=
[
Ip
(5 in.)4 (4.5 in.)4
2

For only two stress components, the von Mises stress is found to be

vM = 2 + 32 = 12310 psi
Factor of safety
F.S. =

36000 psi
12310 psi
F.S. = 2.92 J

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Problem 7.113
A cylindrical vessel is pressurized to 1.7 MPa. The structure on
which the vessel rests becomes damaged, resulting
( ) in uneven support that causes a twisting moment T 0 of 8 106 N-m on the vessel. The vessel has an outer diameter of 2.5 m and a wall thickness of 50 mm. The steel wall has a uniaxial yield strength of
600 MPa. Determine the factor of safety with respect to yielding (a) assuming a maximum shear stress yield criterion and (b)
assuming a von Mises yield criterion.

T0

SOLUTION

( )
Cylindrical vessel pressurized to 1.7 MPa with a twisting force T 0 = 8 106 N-m
Find hoop and axial stresses due to pressure
h =

pR (1.7 MPa)(1.225 m)
=
= 41.6 MPa
t
0.05

a =

pR 41.65 MPa
=
= 20.825 MPa
2t
2

## Find shear stress due to twisting

(
)
8 106 N-m (1.225 m)
T0R
] = 17.31 MPa
=
= [
4

4
Ip
(1.25
m)

(1.20
m)
2
(a) Maximum shear stress is

max =

1
(41.6 MPa 20.825 MPa)2 + (17.31MPa)2 = 20.2 MPa
4

Find factor of safety by comparing maximum shear stress to shear yield stress which is equal to half the
tensile yield stress
( 600 MPa )

F.S. =
20.2 MPa
F.S. = 14.85 J
(b) von Mises stress is found to be
vM =

2h + 2a a h + 32 = 46.9 MPa

Find factor of safety by comparing von Mises stress to tensile yield stress
)
(
600 MPa
F.S. =
46.9 MPa
F.S. = 12.79 J
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Problem 7.114
For the 45 rosette shown, determine
( the) strains x , ( y , and
) xy ,
6
6
if the strain gages read a = 550 10 , b = 100 10 , and
(
)
c = 300 106 .

c
b
y

a
x

SOLUTION
Apply strain transformation formula () for the three angles at which the strain gauges are oriented.
(
)
a = (0 ) = x = 550 106
(
)
1
1
1
b = (45 ) = (x + y ) + (x y ) cos 2(45 ) + xy sin 2(45 ) = 100 106
2
2
2
)
(
c = (90 ) = y = 300 106
Substitute values for x and y into expression for b
)
) 1
(
(
1
(250) 106 + xy = 100 106
2
2
Solve for xy

(
)
xy = 50 106 J
(
)
x = 550 106 J
(
)
Y = 300 106 J

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Problem 7.115
A steel bridge girder is instrumented with a 45 rosette as shown.
(
)
(
)
(
)
b = 250 106 , and c = 150 106 . Assuming a state of plane
stress, determine the stress components in psi at the rosette.

c
b
y

a
x

SOLUTION
Apply strain transformation formula () for the three angles at which the strain gauges are oriented.
(
)
x = (0 ) = a = 400 106
(
)
1
1
1
b = (45 ) = (x + y ) + (x y ) cos 2(45 ) + xy sin 2(45 ) = 250 106
2
2
2
)
(
c = (90 ) = y = 150 106
Substitute values for x and y into expression for b
)
) 1
(
(
1
(250) 106 + xy = 250 106
2
2
(
)
xy = 250 106
x =

E
(y + x )
1 2
x = 11700 psi J

y =

E
(y + x )
1 2
y = 989 psi J
xy = G xy
xy = 2875 psi J

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Problem 7.116
One portion of an aluminium aircraft fuselage is load tested while

instrumented
gages
( with
) a 45 rosette
( as) shown. The strain
(
)
6
6
6
a = 170 10 , b = 200 10 , and c = 250 10 . Assuming a state of plane stress, determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress.

c
b
y

a
x

SOLUTION
Apply strain transformation formula () for the three angles at which the strain gauges are oriented.
(
)
a = (0 ) = x = 170 106
(
)
1
1
1
b = (45 ) = (x + y ) + (x y ) cos 2(45 ) + xy sin 2(45 ) = 200 106
2
2
2
)
(
c = (90 ) = y = 250 106
[

170 + 250
xy = 2 200
2
Solving for x and y

)] (
)
(
)
106 = (820) 106

)
E (

x
y = 2830 psi
1 2
)
E (
= 3380 psi
y =

x
y
1 2

x =

Then
xy = G xy = 3080 psi
Find maximum shear stress and principal stresses

1
1
max =
(y x )2 + 2xy =
(3380 psi 2830 psi)2 + (3080 psi)2
4
4
max = 3095 psi J
m =

## x + y 2830 psi + 3380 psi

=
2
2
m = 3110 psi J

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## PROBLEM 7.116 CONTINUED

max = m + max = 3110 psi + 3095 psi
max = 6210 psi J
max = m max = 3110 psi 3095 psi
min = 15 psi J

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Problem 7.117
30
y

30

c
x

## For the 30 rosette shown, determine

( the) strains x , ( y , and
) xy ,
6
6
if the strain gages read a = 120 10 , b = 350 10 , and
(
)
c = 200 106 .

SOLUTION
Apply strain transformation formula () for the three angles at which the strain gauges are oriented.
a = (0 ) = x

(
)
x = 120 106 J

)
(
1
1
1
b = (60 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(60 ) + xy sin 2(60 ) = 350 106
2
2
2
(
)
1
1
1
c = (120 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(120 ) + xy sin 2(120 ) = 200 106
2
2
2

Subtract expressions b and c and use the facts that cos(120 ) = cos(240 ) and sin(120 ) = sin(240 )
b c = xy sin 120
)
(
b c = (350 + 200) 106
Thus, solving for xy
Add expressions for b and c

(
)
xy = 635 106 J

( )
1
1
3
b + c = x + y + ( x y ) = x + y
2
2
2
(
)
b + c = (350 200) 106
Substituting for x and solving for y gives:

(
)
y = 60 106 J

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Problem 7.118
30
y

30

b
a

## A steel structure in an earthquake prone region is instrumented

with a 30 rosette as shown.( During
a minor (quake,
)
) the
6
6
strain gages read a = 270 10 , b = 350 10 , and
(
)
c = 250 106 . Assuming a state of plane stress, determine the
stress components at the rosette.

SOLUTION
)
(
a = (0 ) = x = 270 106
(
)
1
1
1
b = (60 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(60 ) + xy sin 2(60 ) = 350 106
2
2
2
(
)
1
1
1
c = (120 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(120 ) + xy sin 2(120 ) = 250 106
2
2
2
Subtract expressions b and c and use the facts that cos(120 ) = cos(240 ) and sin(120 ) = sin(240 )
)
(
b c = xy sin 120 = 600 106
Thus, solving for xy

(
)
xy = 693 106

## Add expressions for b and c

( )
1
1
3
b + c = x + y + ( x y ) = x + y
2
2
2
(
)
b + c = 100 106
Solving for y

(
)

(
)
270
10

y = 100 106
3
2
(
)
y = 23.3 106

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## PROBLEM 7.118 CONTINUED

Solving for x-y stresses
x =

)
E (

x
y
1 2
x = 57.8 MPa J

y =

)
E (

y
x
1 2
y = 12.67 MPa J
xy = G xy
xy = 55.4 MPa J

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Problem 7.119
30
y

30

b
a

## An aluminum storage container on a truck is instrumented with

a 30 rosette as (shown
) while subjected
( to) load. The strain( gages
)
6
read a = 400 10 , b = 300 106 , and c = 600 106 .
Assuming a state of plane stress, determine the principal stresses
and the maximum shear stress in MPa.

SOLUTION
)
(
a = (0 ) = x = 400 106
(
)
1
1
1
b = (60 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(60 ) + xy sin 2(60 ) = 300 106
2
2
2
(
)
1
1
1
c = (120 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(120 ) + xy sin 2(120 ) = 600 106
2
2
2
Subtract expressions b and c and use the facts that cos(120 ) = cos(240 ) and sin(120 ) = sin(240 )
)
(
b c = xy sin 120 = 900 106
Thus, solving for xy

(
)
xy = 1039 106

## Add expressions for b and c

( )
1
1
3
b + c = x + y + ( x y ) = x + y
2
2
2
(
)
b + c = 300 106
Solving for y

(
)

(
)
400
10

y = 300 106
3
2
(
)
y = 66.7 106

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## PROBLEM 7.119 CONTINUED

Solving for x-y stresses
x =

)
E (

= 33.15 MPa
x
y
1 2

y =

)
E (

= 15.61 MPa
y
x
1 2
xy = G xy = 28.05 MPa

## Find maximum shear stress and principal stresses

1
1
max =
(y x )2 + 2xy =
(15.61 MPa 33.15 MPa)2 + (28.05 MPa)2
4
4
max = 29.4 MPa J
m =

=
2
2
m = 24.4 MPa J

## max = m + max = 24.4 MPa + 29.4 MPa

max = 53.8 MPa J
max = m max = 24.4 MPa 29.4 MPa
min = 5.0 MPa J

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Problem 7.120
are
to result( in ) strains
)
( expected
)
6
6
x = 370 10 , y = 280 10 , and xy = 450 106 . If the
structure is instrumented with a 45 rosette as shown, what should
be the strains in the gages a , b , and c ?

c
b
y

a
x

SOLUTION
Since x and y are parallel to a and c

(
)
x = 370 106 = a

(
)
a = 370 106 J

(
)
y = 280 106 = c
Using the strain transformation formula to relate x-y strains to b

(
)
c = 280 106 J

1
1
1
b = (45 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(45 ) + xy sin 2(45 )
2
2
2
Evaluating formula
b =
Substituting given values of x-y strains

) 1
1(
x + y + xy
2
2
)
(
b = 180 106 J

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Problem 7.121

30
y

30

c
x

b
a

(
)
Loads on a structure are expected to result in strains x = 230 106 ,
(
)
(
)
y = 420 106 , and xy = 180 106 . If the structure is instrumented with a 30 rosette as shown, what should be the strains in
the gages a , b , and c ?

SOLUTION
Since x is parallel to a

(
)
x = 230 106 = a

## Using the strain transformation formula to relate x-y strains to b

b =

) 1(
)
1(
1
x + y + x y cos (120 ) + xy sin 120
2
2
2

1
3
1 3
b = x + y +
xy
4
4
2 2

## Using the strain transformation formula to relate x-y strains to c

c =

) 1(
)
1(
1
x + y + x y cos (240 ) + xy sin 240
2
2
2

1
3
1 3
xy
c = x + y
4
4
2 2

(
)
a = 230 106 J

(
)
b = 295 106 J

(
)
c = 450 106 J

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Problem 7.122
30
y

30

c
x

b
a

## FEA analysis predicts the stresses in a steel structure to be

x = 56 MPa, y = 40 MPa, and xy = 80 MPa. If the structure is instrumented with a 30 rosette as shown, what should be
the strains in the gages a , b , and c ?

SOLUTION
Given x = 56 MPa, y = 40 MPa, and ( xy = 80 MPa.
)
First calculate x and y strain components x , y , xy
x =
y =

]
1[
x vy = 3.4 104
E

]
1[
y v x = (2.84) 104
E

xy = = 103
G

Since x is parallel to a
Using the strain transformation formula to relate x-y strains to b and c
b =

c =

) 1(
)
1(
1
x + y + x y cos (120 ) + xy sin 120
2
2
2

1
3
1 3
b = x + y +
xy
4
4
2 2
) 1(
)
1(
1
x + y + x y cos (240 ) + xy sin 240
2
2
2

1
3
1 3
xy
b = x + y
4
4
2 2

)
(
a = 340 106 J

)
(
b = 561 106 J

(
)
c = 305 106 J

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Problem 7.123
30

30

## A steel cylindrical pressure vessel has an outer diameter of 2.5 m

and a wall thickness of 50 mm. Due to a rearrangement
of sup( )
6
ports, the vessel experiences a torque T = 8 10 N-m. In addition, the pressure is raised by 1 MPa. If the structure is instrumented with a 30 rosette as shown, what should be the strains
measured in the gages a , b , and c due to the torque and pressure increase?

b
a

SOLUTION
( )
T = 8 106 N-m
p = 1 MPa
First find the pressure vessel stresses and torsional shear stress h , a , and
h =

pR (1 MPa)(1.225 m)
= 24.5 MPa
=
(0.05 m)
t

pR 24.5 MPa
=
= 12.25 MPa
2t
2
)
(
8 106 N-m (1.25 m)
TR
]
=
= [

Ip
(1.25 m)4 (1.20 m)4
a =

= 17.31 MPa
Assign the stress components taking the x-axis to be parallel to the vessel axis. x = 12.25 MPa,
y = 24.5 MPa, and xy = 17.31 MPa.
Solving for x , y , and xy
]
(
)
1[
x =
x vy = 24.5 106
E
]
(
)
1[
y =
y v x = 104.1 106
E
(
)
I xy
xy =
= 216 106
G
Since x is parallel to strain gage a
(
)
a = 24.5 106 J

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## PROBLEM 7.123 CONTINUED

Using the strain transformation formula to relate x-y strains to b and c
b =

c =

) 1(
)
1(
1
x + y + x y cos (120 ) + xy sin 120
2
2
2

1
3
1 3
b = x + y +
xy
4
4
2 2
) 1(
)
1
1(
x + y + x y cos (240 ) + xy sin 240
2
2
2

1
3
1 3
xy
c = x + y
4
4
2 2

(
)
b = 9.47 106 J

(
)
c = 177.9 106 J

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Problem 7.124
P
b

Determine the maximum stress in the bar shown if the axial force
P = 30 kN. The plate widths are a = 60 mm and b = 30 mm, the
thickness is t = 4 mm, and the fillet radius is r = 10 mm.

a
r

P
t

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.1 in Appendix H.
P = 30 kN
The ratio

D
d

## in this case is equivalent to

a
b

D 60 mm
=
=2
d
30 mm
r 10 mm
=
= 0.33
d 30 mm
Solving for the nominal stress
nom =

P
30 kN
= 250 MPa
=
bt 0.03 m 0.04 m

Utilizing the chart from Appendix H for the stress concentration factor K as a function of the ratio
D
, we find that K = 1.54. Thus, we can calculate
d

r
d

and

max = Knom
max = 385 MPa J

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Problem 7.125
Determine
( the
) maximum stress in the bar shown if the axial force
3
P = 25 10 lb. The plate has a width of a = 4 in. and a thickness
of t = 0.25 in., and the hole diameter is 1.5 in.

P
b
a
P

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.2 in Appendix H.
( )
P = 25 103 lb
Calculating ratios

nom

r
0.75 in.
=
= 0.185
D
4 in.
( )
25
103 lb
P
=
= 10000 psi
=
a b 4 in. 1.5 in.
nom = 10000 psi

K = 2.47 at

r
= 0.1875
d

## Thus, we are able to find

max = Knom
(
)
max = 2.47 10000 psi
max = 24700 psi J

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Problem 7.126
The maximum stress in the aluminum bar is not to exceed 15 ksi.
The plate has widths of a = 4.5 in. and b = 3 in., and a thickness of t = 0.3 in. The fillet radius is r = 1 in. Determine the
maximum allowable axial force P.

P
b
a
r

P
t

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.1 in Appendix H.
D 4.5 in.
=
= 1.5
d
3 in.
r 1 in.
=
= 0.33
d 3 in.
Also, we know
nom =

P
bt

and

max = Knom

P = nom bt

(1)

## To find K, refer to chart H.1 in Appendix H

D
= 1.5
d

and

r
= 0.33
d

K = 1.49
Thus, knowing max = 15000, we are able to find nom
nom =

max
= 10070 psi
K

## Plugging this value into equation (1)

P = 10070 psi (3 in.)(0.3 in.)
P = 9063 lb J

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Problem 7.127

## The maximum stress in the nylon bar is not to exceed 40 MPa.

The plate has a width of a = 35 mm and a thickness of t = 3 mm,
and the hole diameter is 10 mm. Determine the maximum allowable axial force P.

b
a
P

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.2 in Appendix H.
r
5 mm
=
= 0.143
d 35 mm
From chart H.2 in Appendix H, where Dr = 0.143, K = 2.55.
Given that max = 40 MPa, we are able to find
nom =

max 40 MPa
=
K
2.55

## nom = 15.68 MPa

Thus, we are able to find P
P = nom (a b)
P = 15.69 MPa (35 mm 10 mm)
P = 392 N J

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Problem 7.128
The steel plate of thickness t = 0.5 in. is to be designed under the
constraint that the maximum stress remains below 21 ksi. The
hole must have a diameter of b = 2 in. Determine the allowable
plate width a within the nearest 0.1 in. if it is to withstand an axial
force of P = 30 kip.

P
b
a
P

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.2 in Appendix H.
Given that
max 6 21000 psi
we know max = Knom and K is dependent on the ratio ba or Dr .
For equation
30000 lb
nom =
(0.5)(a 2 in.)
In order to solve for nominal stress nom and a, assume value of K.
Assuming K = 2.5 then nom = 8400 psi and we are able to find a
a=b+

300, 000 lb
(
)
(0.5 in.) 8400 psi

a = 9.14 in.
1
= 0.1094.
based on assumed values. In order to check if our assumption is correct, use Dr = 9.14
From the chart in Appendix H, we note that K = 2.63 for these values, and is close to our assumed K of
2.5.
To get more accurate values we must iterate

a (in.)
9.2
9.3
9.5
9.6

r/d
0.408
0.107
0.105
0.104

K (from App. H)
2.63
2.64
2.64
2.64

max (psi)
21920
21700
21120
20840

We see that assuming a = 9.6 in. and (K = 2.64) matches our assumed stress (max ) most closely.
a = 9.6 in. J

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Problem 7.129
The aluminum plate of thickness t = 3.5 mm is to be designed so
the maximum stress remains below 100 MPa. The hole must have
a diameter of b = 25 mm. Determine the allowable plate width
a within the nearest 5 mm if it is to withstand an axial force of
P = 25 kN.

P
b
a
P

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.2 in Appendix H.
max < 100 MPa
max = Knom
and we know that K depends on
For nom , we have

b
a

or dr .

nom =

25000 N

)
(
(3.5 mm)(a 25 mm) 106

(1)

In order to solve for nominal stress nom and a we employ equation (1) and assume a value of K.
Assuming K = 2.5 then
nom = 40 MPa
and we are able to find a

25000 N
+ 25 mm = 203.6 mm
(3.5)(40 MPa)
based on assumed values. In order to check if our assumption is correct, use
a=

12.5 mm
r
=
d 203.6 mm
From the chart in Appendix H, we note that K = 2.74 for these values, and is close to our assumed K of
2.5.
To get more accurate values we must iterate
a (mm)
205
210
215
220
230

r/d
0.061
0.0595
0.0581
0.0568
0.0543

K (from App. H)
2.74
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.76

## Closest value to our assumed stress is when K = 2.76 and

max (MPa)
108.7
106.2
103.4
101.1
96.2
a = 230 mm J

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Problem 7.130
Recommendations are sought regarding the fillet geometry in the
steel bar. The widths are fixed at a = 120 mm and b = 60 mm,
and the thickness is fixed at t = 5 mm. The bar is to withstand
an axial force of 35 kN without the maximum stress exceeding
170 MPa. Specify the minimum allowable fillet radius.

P
b
a
r

P
t

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.1 in Appendix H.
Axial force = 35 kN
max < 170 MPa
P
35000 N
(
)
nom =
=
bt (60 mm)(5 mm) 106
nom = 116.7 MPa
Since max = 170 MPa, we can calculate K from
max = Knom
K=

max
170 MPa
=
nom 116.7 MPa
K = 1.456

## We can also determine

D 120 mm
=
=2
d
60 mm
Thus, from chart in Appendix H, corresponding to K = 1.456, we can find
r
= 0.44
d
r = 0.44 (60 mm)
r = 26.4 mm J

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Problem 7.131
F4
b
F3
a

F2

## The bar is subjected to the axial forces shown, with F1 = 3 kN,

F2 = 6 kN, F3 = 11 kN, and F4 = 20 kN. Determine the maximum stress in the bar. The plate widths are a = 40 mm and
b = 25 mm, the thickness is t = 3 mm, and the fillet radius is
r = 8 mm.

F1
t

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.1 in Appendix H. But we need to use the internal force corresponding to
the cross-section of fillet.
F1 = 3 kN
F2 = 6 kN
F3 = 11 kN
F4 = 20 kN
Note that the internal force at the cross-section of the fillet is:
P = F4 F3 = 9 kN
8 mm
r
=
= 0.32
d 25 mm
D 40 mm
= 1.6
=
d
25 mm
From chart H.1 of Appendix H, K = 1.52

## max = Knom = 1.52

(
) = 182.4 MPa
(25 mm)(3 mm) 106
9000 N

The maximum stress could also occur in the narrow portion of the bar, where the internal force is
F4 = 20 kN, but with no stress concentration. There,
=

20000 N

(
) = 267 MPa
(25 mm)(3 mm) 106

Therefore, the maximum stress is not at the fillet, but where the internal force is greatest.
max = 267 MPa J

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Problem 7.132
r2

The maximum stress in the bar shown must not exceed 80 MPa.
The widths are a = 60 mm, b = 120 mm, and c = 80 mm, and
the thickness is t = 4 mm. The fillet radii are r1 = 40 mm and
r2 = 30 mm. Determine the maximum allowable axial force that
can be applied to the bar. Assume that the stress concentrations
due to the two steps can be analyzed independently.

P
c

r1
b
a
P
t

SOLUTION
Problem has two fillets and two stress concentrations, both corresponding to chart H.1 in Appendix H.
max = 80 MPa
For the left fillet (section 1)
D
=2
d
From Appendix H, K = 1.33.
Thus,
max = 1.33

r 40 mm 2
=
=
d 60 mm 3

and

) = 80 MPa
(
(60 mm)(4 mm) 106
P1 = 14440

## For right fillet (section 2)

D
= 1.5
d
From Appendix H, K = 1.45.
Thus,
max = 1.45

and

r 30 mm
=
= 0.375
d 80 mm

(
) = 80 MPa
(80 mm)(4 mm) 106
P2 = 17660

Since we want the maximum stress at neither fillet to exceed 80 MPa, Pmax would be P1
Pmax = 14440 N J

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Problem 7.133
r

## The bar is subjected to an axial force of P = 2 kip. The plate has

widths of a = 3 in. and c = 1 in., and a thickness of t = 0.2 in.
The diameter of the hole is b = 1.5 in., and the fillet radius is
r = 0.25 in. Assuming that the stress concentrations due to the
hole and the fillet can be analyzed independently, determine the
maximum stress in the bar.

P
c
b
a
P

SOLUTION
Problem has two stress concentrations, one corresponding to a fillet (chart H.1), and the other corresponding to a hole.
Stress concentration at hole
r
0.75 in.
= 0.25
=
D
3 in.
From chart H.2 in Appendix H, K = 2.38
= Knom

2000 lb
= 2.38
(3 in. 1.5 in.)(0.2 in.)

= 15870 psi
Stress concentration at fillet

D 3 in.
=
=3
d
1 in.

and

r 0.25 in.
= 0.25
=
d
1 in.

## From chart H.1 in Appendix H, K = 1.7

[

= Knom

2000 lb
= 1.7
(1 in.)(0.2 in.)

= 17000 psi
Max stress occurs in the fillet where
= 17000 psi J

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Problem 7.134
r2

## The bar is subjected to an axial force of P = 30 kN. The widths

are a = 100 mm, b = 120 mm, and c = 90 mm, and the thickness
is t = 3 mm. The fillet radius is r2 = 20 mm. Determine the
radius of fillet r1 so that there is an equal likelihood of failure at
the two fillets.

P
r1

c
b
a

P
t

SOLUTION
Problem has two fillets and two stress concentrations, both corresponding to chart H.1 in Appendix H.
Left fillet (section 1)
D 120 mm
=
= 1.2
d
100 mm
r
20 mm
=
= 0.2
d 100 mm
From Appendix H, K = 1.53
max = 1.53

(
) = 5.1 103 P
6
(100 mm)(3 mm) 10

## Right fillet (section 2)

D 120 mm
=
= 1.33
d
90 mm
To find Kright , we equate the maximum stresses
max = Kright

(
) = 5.1 103 P
6
(90 mm)(3 mm) 10
Kright = 1.38

r
d

## is approximately 0.37. Thus,

r = 0.37 (90 mm)
r = 33 mm J

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Problem 7.135
L1

L2

## The stepped shaft is subjected to torque of T 1 = 300 N-m. There

is a fillet of radius r1 = 3 mm at the step. Determine the
maximum stress in the shaft. (L1 = 400 mm, L2 = 300 mm,
d1 = 30 mm, and d2 = 50 mm.)

T1
d2

d1
T1
r

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.
nom =

T R 2 (300 mm)
=
Ip
R3

2 (300 mm)
= 56.6 MPa
(0.015)3
D 50 mm
r
3 mm
= 1.67
and
= 0.1
=
=
d
30 mm
d 30 mm
From Appendix H, K = 1.39
max = Knom
nom =

## max = 1.39 (56.6 MPa)

max = 78.7 MPa J

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Problem 7.136
The shaft is driven by a motor and has a step and fillet at B. The
motor delivers 8 hp at 1000 rpm. The gear at C delivers 60%
of the power and the gear at D delivers 40%. From A to B, the
diameter is 1.5 in., from B to D the shaft is 0.75 in. The fillet
radius is r = 0.1 in. Determine the maximum shear stress in the
shaft.

SOLUTION
Motor delivers 8 hp at 1000 rpm.
The maximum internal torque occurs in ABC at the fillet.
Power
(
)(
)
lb-ft 12 in.
lb-in.
P = 8 hp = 8 hp 550
= 5.28 104
s
ft
s
The power can also be expressed as
(
)(
)
(
rev ) 2 rad 1 min
P = T = T 1000
= T (104.72 Hz)
min
rev
60 s
Setting these two expressions equal to each other gives:
T = 504.2 lb-in.
Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.
D
1.5
=
= 2 and
d
0.75
using the table in Appendix H for these values,

r
0.1
=
= 0.1333
d 0.75

K = 1.35
2T
= 6087 psi
R3
max = Knom

nom =

## max = 8220 psi J

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Problem 7.137
L2
L1
r
d2
A
d1
B
C

## The stepped shaft (G = 27 GPa) has a fillet (r = 4 mm) and is

fixed at A. A torque is applied at C that produces a rotation at C
of 1 . Determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft. The rotation must account for the diering radii of the two segments of the
shaft. While the step and fillet produce a stress concentration, assume they have negligible eect on the rotation. (L1 = 350 mm,
L2 = 250 mm, d1 = 20 mm, and d2 = 25 mm.)

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.
Define applied torque at C to be T 0

( )
L2
T 0 L1
=
= 4 + 4 = 1
G
180
d
d
32 2
32 1
D 25 mm
=
d
20 mm
From Appendix H, K = 1.9
and

T 0 = 18.82 N-m
4 mm
r
=
and
= 0.2
d 20 mm
max = Knom

(1)

2T 0 2 (18.82 N-m)
=
R3
(4 mm)3
nom = 11.98 MPa

nom =

## Substituting into equation (1)

max = 1.9 (11.98 MPa)
max = 14.26 MPa

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Problem 7.138
d1

## The stepped shaft has a fillet of radius r = 0.06 in. and is

subjected to the torques T 1 = 600 lb-in., T 2 = 550 lb-in.,
T 3 = 60 lb-in., and T 4 = 10 lb-in. Determine the maximum shear
stress in the shaft. (d1 = 0.4 in. and d2 = 0.8 in.)

T4
r

T3

T2
T1

d2

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.
Max shear stress can occur in one of the following places:
1) Between T 1 and T 2 , internal torque is 600 lb-in., there is no fillet.
2) Between T 2 and T 3 , internal torque is 50 lb-in., there is no fillet.
In case (1), between T 1 and T 2
2 (600 lb-in.)
=
(
)3 = 5970 psi
0.8
in.
2
In case (2), between T 2 and T 3
D 0.8 in.
=
=2
d
0.4 in.

and

nom =

r 0.06 in.
=
= 0.15
d
0.4 in.

2 (50 lb-in.)
(
)3 = 3980 psi
0.42in.

## = Knom = 5170 psi

The max shear is:
max = 5970 psi (occurring between T 1 and T 2 ) J

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Problem 7.139
r
d2

d1
T1

T2
T3

T4

## The stepped shaft (G = 80 GPa) is subjected to torques

T 1 = 60 N-m, T 2 = 30 N-m, T 3 = 80 N-m, and T 4 = 10 N-m.
If the maximum shear stress is not to exceed 70 MPa, determine the minimum acceptable fillet radius r. (d1 = 20 mm and
d2 = 50 mm.)

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.
The max shear occurs at the fillet, where the internal force = 90 N-m
nom =

2 (90 N-m)
(0.01 mm)3

## nom = 57.3 MPa

max < 70 MPa
max = Knom
Thus
K<

70 MPa
= 1.22
57.3 MPa

From Appendix H
D 5 mm
= 2.5
=
d
2 mm
r
= 0.23
d
r = 0.23 (20 mm)
r = 4.6 mm J

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Problem 7.140
L1
L2
L3
r
d2

TC

TD

A
d1
B
C

## The stepped shaft is fixed at A and is subjected to torques at C and

D. The torque applied at D has a known value T D = 300 lb-in.
The step has a fillet with radius r = 0.1 in. If the maximum shear
stress of 7 ksi is not to be exceeded, determine the maximum
value for the torque TC . (L1 = 10 in., L2 = 2 in., L3 = 8 in.,
d1 = 0.8 in., and d2 = 1 in.)

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.
D
1 in.
=
= 1.25
d
0.8 in.
r 0.1 in.
=
= 0.125
d 0.8 in.
From Appendix H, K = 1.275.
Since max = 7000 psi, we find nom

max = Knom
7000 psi = 1.275nom
nom = 5490 psi

Torque

(
)( )
(1 in.)3
(T ) = 5490 psi
2
T = 552 lb-in.

## Relate internal torque at cross-section of fillet to applied torques

TC = 552 lb-in. 300 lb-in.
TC = 252 lb-in. J

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Problem 7.141
M
r
b
M

## Determine the maximum stress in the bar shown if the bending

moment M = 200 N-m. The plate widths are a = 50 mm and
b = 150 mm, the thickness is t = 5 mm, and the fillet radius is
r = 20 mm.

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.4 in Appendix H.
D 150 mm
=
=3
d
50 mm

and

r 20 mm
=
= 0.4
d 50 mm

## From Appendix H, K = 1.29

nom =

My 6M
6 (200 N-m)
= 2 =
= 96 MPa
I
ta
(0.005 m)(0.050 m)2
max = Knom
max = 1.29 (96 MPa)
max = 123.8 MPa J

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Problem 7.142
M

r
b
a

## Determine the maximum stress in the bar shown if the bending

moment M = 900 lb-in. The plate widths are a = 3 in. and
b = 2 in., the thickness is t = 0.25 in., and the fillet radius is
r = 0.8 in.

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.4 in Appendix H.
D 3 in.
=
= 1.5
d
2 in.

and

r 0.8 in.
=
= 0.4
d
2 in.

## From Appendix H, K = 1.26.

nom =

6 (900 lb-in.)
My 6M
= 5400 psi
= 2 =
I
tb
(0.25 in.) (2 in.)2
max = Knom
(
)
max = 1.26 5400 psi
max = 6800 psi J

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Problem 7.143
M

r
b
a

## If the maximum stress in the bar is not to exceed 14 ksi, determine

the maximum allowable bending moment M. The plate widths
are a = 6 in. and b = 2 in., the thickness is t = 0.3 in., and the
fillet radius is r = 1.2 in.

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.4 in Appendix H.
D 6 in.
=
=3
d
2 in.
From Appendix H, K = 1.2.

and

r 1.2 in.
=
= 0.6
d
2 in.

## And we are given 1.4 ksi

max = Knom
1400 psi = 1.2nom
nom = 11670 psi
To find moment

My 6M
= 2
I
tb
2
tb
M=
nom
6
(0.3 in.) (2 in.)2 (
)
M=
11670 psi
6
nom =

M = 2330 lb-in. J

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Problem 7.144
M
r
b
M

If the maximum stress in the bar is not to exceed 100 MPa, determine the maximum allowable bending moment M. The plate
widths are a = 40 mm and b = 50 mm, the thickness is t = 3 mm,
and the fillet radius is r = 12 mm.

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.4 in Appendix H.
D 50 mm
=
= 1.25
d
40 mm
From Appendix H, K = 1.3.

and

r 12 mm
=
= 0.3
d 40 mm

max = Knom
max = 100 MPa = 1.3 (nom )
nom = 76.9 MPa

and
nom =
So

My 6M
= 2
I
ta

ta2
nom
6
(3 mm) (40 mm)2
(76.9 MPa)
M=
6
M=

M = 61.5 N-m J

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Problem 7.145
M

## Determine the maximum stress in the bar shown containing a

semi-circular notch. The bending moment M = 300 N-m. The
plate width is a = 150 mm, the thickness is t = 5 mm, and the
notch radius is r = 25mm.

a
M
r
t

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.5 in Appendix H.
For semicircular notch of bar
b
=1
r
And
r
25 mm
=
= 0.25
d 100 mm
From Appendix H, K = 1.43
max = Knom
and

6M
th2
My
6 (300 N-m)
=
=
I
(0.005 m) (0.1 m)2
nom = 36 MPa
nom =

nom

Thus,
max = (36 MPa)(1.43)
max = 51.5 MPa J

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Problem 7.146
M

## The maximum stress in the bar with the semi-circular notch is to

remain below 12 ksi. Determine the maximum allowable bending moment M. The plate width is a = 2.5 in., the thickness is
t = 0.125 in., and the notch radius is r = 0.175 in.

r
t

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.5 in Appendix H.
For semicircular notch of bar
max < 12 ksi
b
=1
r
and
r 0.175 mm
= 0.081
=
d
2.15 mm
From Appendix H, K = 2
max = Knom
nom < 6 ksi
and

My 6M
= 2
I
th
2
t(a 2r)
M<
nom
6
(0.125 in.)(2.15 in.)2 (
)
M<
6000 psi
6
nom =

## M < 578 lb-in. J

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Problem 7.147
P
b
P

A notch bend test on a plate with a semi-circular notch is conducted on the specimen shown. Determine the maximum stress
when the load P = 600 lb. The specimen dimensions are
a = 1.5 in., b = 1 in., L = 6 in., and t = 0.2 in., and the notch
radius is r = 0.175 in.

a
r
t

SOLUTION
Problem corresponds to chart H.5 in Appendix H.
(
)
6
1
M = P in. in.
2
2
M = 600 (2.5 in.)
M = 1500 lb-in.
For semicircular notch

r 0.175 in.
=
= 0.152
d
1.15 in.

## From Appendix H, K = 1.57

nom =

6M
6 (1500 lb-in.)
=
t(a 2r)2 (0.2 in.)(1.15 in.)2
nom = 34000 psi J