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mechanics chapter 7 solutions

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shown. What describes this surface?

358

SOLUTION

The that describes the surface is given by the orientation of the outward normal.

= 90 35 = 55 J

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Problem 7.2

We are interested in the stresses that act on the internal surface

shown. What describes this surface?

y

708

x

SOLUTION

The that describes the surface is given by the orientation of the outward normal. Rotate the +x-axis

counterclockwise through to align with outward normal.

= 180 + 20 = 200 J

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Problem 7.3

Draw the right triangular element that includes the internal surface described by angle = 170 .

SOLUTION

From the +x-axis, = 170 puts one in second quadrant, i.e.,

In other words

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Problem 7.4

Draw the right triangular element that includes the internal surface described by angle = 30 .

SOLUTION

A = 30 means we are below the x-axis in fourth quadrant. So

In other words

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Problem 7.5

658

758

with the horizontal or vertical as shown, determine the angle for

each of the surfaces.

a

y

d

708

x

508

SOLUTION

For surface a

= 65 J

For surface b

= 180 15 = 165 J

For surface c

= 180 + 50 = 230 J

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For surface d

= 70 90 = 20 J

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Problem 7.6

Four surfaces a, b, c, and d, are described by angles a = 55 , b = 120 , c = 210 , and d = 325 ,

respectively. Draw a closed polygonal figure having these surfaces, and label the angle (between 0 and

90) that each surface makes with the horizontal.

SOLUTION

For surface a with a = 55

outward

normal

55

35

For surface b with b = 120

outward

normal

120

30

For surface c with c = 210

60

210

outward

normal

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For surface d with d = 325

325

55

outward

normal

Therefore

30

b

a

60

35

c

d

55

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Problem 7.7

Shear and normal stresses are drawn in particular senses on the

internal surface shown. Identify whether each of the normal ()

and shear () stresses is > 0 or < 0.

y

x

SOLUTION

Recall the sign convention

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

For this case:

Because normal stress is inward,

<0J

Because shear stress is CW from outward normal,

<0J

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Problem 7.8

y

x

internal surface shown. Identify whether each of the normal ()

and shear () stresses is > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION

Recall the sign convention

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

For this case:

Because normal stress is outward,

>0J

Because shear stress is CCW from the outward normal,

>0J

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Problem 7.9

y

Draw the shear and normal stresses in the correct senses.

SOLUTION

= 150 MPa and = 90 MPa.

Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

s

t

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Problem 7.10

y

Draw the shear and normal stresses in the correct senses.

SOLUTION

= 8000 psi (positive) and = 5000 psi (negative).

Because > 0, it points outward; because < 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.

s J

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Problem 7.11

y

b

a

c

x

d

taken from a small region of the material. The shear and normal

stresses are drawn in particular senses on each surface. For each

surface, identify whether each of the normal () and shear ()

stresses is > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION

Recall the sign convention

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

a)

Because points outward,

Because is CW from the outward normal,

b)

Because points inward,

Because is CW from the outward normal,

c)

Because points outward,

Because is CCW from the outward normal,

d)

Because points inward,

Because is CCW from the outward normal,

>0J

<0J

<0J

<0J

>0J

>0J

<0J

>0J

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Problem 7.12

a

b

c

y

x

taken from a small region of the material. The shear and normal

stresses are drawn in particular senses on each surface. For each

surface, identify whether each of the normal () and shear ()

stresses is > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION

Recall the sign convention

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

a)

Because points outward,

Because is CCW from the outward normal,

b)

Because points outward,

Because is CW from the outward normal,

c)

Because points inward,

Because is CCW from the outward normal,

d)

Because points outward,

Because is CW from the outward normal,

>0J

>0J

>0J

<0J

<0J

>0J

>0J

<0J

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Problem 7.13

y

b

a

x

d

taken from a small region of the material. The shear and normal

stresses have been determined for each surface. Draw the stresses

on each surface in the correct senses.

a:

b:

c:

d:

= 44.6 MPa

= 185 MPa

= 101 MPa

= 176 MPa

and

and

and

and

= 162 MPa

= 118 MPa

= 46.9 MPa

= 126 MPa

SOLUTION

Recall the sign convention

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

Note: Currently the magnitudes (numbers) are not relevant, only the sign matters.

a) Because < 0, it points inward; because > 0, it points CCW from outward normal.

b) Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from outward normal.

c) Because > 0, it points outward; because < 0, it points CW from outward normal.

d) Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from outward normal.

So, on the polygon we have

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Problem 7.14

y

258

x

the internal surface as shown. Identify the angle , and whether

the stresses and are each > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION

The angle must be measured from the +x-axis to the outward normal.

25

25

= 270 25

= 245 J

Recall the sign conventions

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

For this element, because points outward and points CW from the outward normal,

>0J

<0J

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Problem 7.15

The shear and normal stresses are drawn in particular senses on

the internal surface as shown. Identify the angle , and whether

the stresses and are each > 0 or < 0.

y

358

x

SOLUTION

The angle must be measured from the +x-axis to the outward normal.

55o

q = 35 o

35o

55o

Note: Since is below the x-axis

Recall the sign conventions

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

For this element, because points inward and points CCW from the outward normal,

= 35 J

<0J

>0J

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Problem 7.16

Draw the right triangular element containing the surface with angle = 120 . Assuming the stresses on

the surface are = 9000 psi and = 7500 psi, draw the stresses in the correct senses on the surface.

SOLUTION

For = 120 , = 9000 psi, and = 7500 psi, is measured from the x-axis to the outward normal.

Stress element

Thus, element at 30

Recall the sign conventions

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

For this element, because > 0 it points outward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal,

30o

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Problem 7.17

Draw the right triangular element containing the surface with angle = 210 . Assuming the stresses on

the surface are = 200 MPa and = 150 MPa, draw the stresses in the correct senses on the surface.

SOLUTION

For = 210 , = 200 MPa, and = 150 MPa, is measured from the x-axis to the outward normal.

Stress element

210o

30o

30o

Thus, element at 30

Recall the sign conventions

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

For this element, because < 0 it points inward; because > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal,

t

30o

J

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Problem 7.18

b

358

758

c

408

258

y

a

normal stresses drawn in particular senses on each surface, identify the angle of each face and whether stresses and on each

are > 0 or < 0.

SOLUTION

Recall the sign convention

(A) Normal stress is positive if it is in tension (outward).

(B) Shear is positive if it points counterclockwise from the outward normal.

For surface a

15o

75o

75o

= 15 J

Now consider the signs of the stresses.

Because points outward,

Because is CCW from the outward normal,

>0J

>0J

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For surface b

55o

35o

35o

= 180 55 = 125 J

Now consider the signs of the stresses.

Because points inward,

<0J

>0J

For surface c

40o

40o

50o

= 180 + 50 = 230 J

Now consider the signs of the stresses.

Because points outward,

>0J

<0J

For surface d

25o

q

25

= 25 90 = 65 J

Now consider the signs of the stresses.

Because points inward,

Because is CCW from the outward normal,

<0J

>0J

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Problem 7.19

Consider a polygon with four surfaces a, b, c, and d, with the following angles and stresses:

a:

b:

c:

d:

= 50 ,

= 110 ,

= 210 ,

= 305 ,

= 12.9 ksi,

= 11.2 ksi,

= 14.8 ksi,

= 12.9 ksi,

= 7.18 ksi

= 6.74 ksi

= 2.17 ksi

= 0.25 ksi

Draw a closed polygonal figure having these surfaces, label the angle (between 0 and 90 ) that each

surface makes with the horizontal, and draw the stresses in the correct senses on the faces.

SOLUTION

Angles are

J

Thus, polygon angles are

Face (a): Because < 0, it points inward; because > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.

Face (b): Because > 0, it points outward; because > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.

Face (c): Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

Face (d): Because > 0, it points outward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

Thus, the stresses are

b

a

c

d

J

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the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

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Problem 7.20

358

xy = 6 ksi. Calculate the normal and shear stresses acting on the

inclined surface shown, and then draw them in the correct senses,

labeling their magnitudes.

SOLUTION

Find angle for the surface of interest

35o

q

= (90 35 ) = 55

Given x = 3 ksi, y = 5 ksi, and xy = 6 ksi

The stress transformation equations are:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)

2

2

and

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

(55 ) =

1

1

(3 ksi + 5 ksi) + (3 ksi 5 ksi) cos(2(55)) + (6 ksi) sin 2(55 )

2

2

(55 ) = 3.27 ksi J

1

(5 ksi (3 ksi)) sin(2(55 ))

2

(55 ) = 5.81 ksi J

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Because < 0, it points inward; because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

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Problem 7.21

y

558

x

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 100 MPa, y = 200 MPa,

and xy = 150 MPa. Calculate the normal and shear stresses

acting on the inclined surface shown, and then draw them in the

correct senses, labeling their magnitudes.

SOLUTION

Given: x = 100 MPa, y = 200 MPa, and xy = 150 MPa

The surface of interest is:

q

o

55o

35

= 90 + 35 = 125

The stress transformation equations are:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

and

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

(125 ) =

1

1

(100 MPa + (200 MPa)) + (100 MPa (200 MPa)) cos(2(125 ))

2

2

+(150 MPa) sin(2(125 ))

(125 ) = 39.6 MPa J

1

(200 MPa (100 MPa)) sin(2(125 ))

2

(125 ) = 192.3 MPa J

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Because > 0, it points outward; because > 0, it points CCW to the outward normal.

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Problem 7.22

The stresses are depicted on the square element aligned with the x-y axes. Calculate and then draw and

label the normal and shear stresses acting on the inclined surface shown.

3000 psi

8000 psi

4000 psi

408

SOLUTION

From the stresses shown on x-y element, we deduce the x-y components to be x = 4000 psi,

y = 3000 psi, and xy = 8000 psi.

The surface of interest is:

= 90 40 = 50

The stress transformation equations for = 50 are:

() =

(50 ) =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)

2

2

) 1(

)

1(

4000 psi 3000 psi + 4000 psi (3000 psi) cos 2(50 ) + (8000 psi) sin 2(50 )

2

2

(50 ) = 4465 psi J

() = xy cos 2 +

(50 ) = 8000 psi cos 2(50 ) +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

)

1(

3000 psi (4000 psi) sin 2(50 )

2

(50 ) = 897 psi J

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Because > 0, it points outward. Because < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

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Problem 7.23

The stresses are depicted on the square element aligned with the x-y axes. Calculate and then draw and

label the normal and shear stresses acting on the inclined surface shown.

100 MPa

200 MPa

308

150 MPa

y

x

SOLUTION

From the stresses shown on x-y element, we deduce the x-y components to be x = 150 MPa,

y = 100 MPa, and xy = 200 MPa.

The surface of interest is:

30o

30

60o

= 180 + 60 = 240

The stress transformation equations are:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)

2

2

and

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

(240 ) =

1

1

(150 MPa + 100 MPa) + (150 MPa 100 MPa) cos 2(240 ) + 200 MPa sin 2(240 )

2

2

(240 ) = 60.7 MPa J

(240 ) = 200 MPa cos(2(240 )) +

1

(100 MPa 150 MPa) sin(2(240 ))

2

(240 ) = 78.3 MPa J

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Stress drawn on the element is:

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Problem 7.24

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 80 MPa, y = 40 MPa,

and xy = 50 MPa. Calculate the normal and shear stresses acting

on the four faces of the inclined element shown, and then draw

them in the correct senses, labeling their magnitudes.

y

258

SOLUTION

Given: x = 80 MPa, y = 40 MPa, and xy = 50 MPa.

For the upper-right surface, the angle is given by:

25o

= 25

The stress transformation equations are:

() =

(25 ) =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

1

1

(80 MPa + (40 MPa)) + (80 MPa (40 MPa)) cos 2(25 ) + 50 MPa sin 2(25 )

2

2

(25 ) = 34.5 MPa J

() = xy cos 2 +

(25 ) = 50 MPa cos 2(25 ) +

(115 ) =

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

1

(40 MPa (80 MPa)) sin(2(25 ))

2

(25 ) = 47.5 MPa J

1

1

(80 MPa + (40 MPa)) + (80 MPa (40 MPa)) cos 2(115 ) + 50 MPa sin 2(115 )

2

2

(115 ) = 85.4 MPa J

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(115 ) = 50 MPa cos 2(115 ) +

1

(40 MPa (80 MPa)) sin(2(115 ))

2

(115 ) = 47.5 MPa J

Because (25 ) < 0, it points inward; because (25 ) > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.

Because (115 ) < 0, it points inward; because (115 ) < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

Stress drawn is:

85.4 MPa

34.5 MPa

47.5 MPa

25o

J

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Problem 7.25

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 5 ksi, y = 4 ksi, and

xy = 3 ksi. Calculate the normal and shear stresses acting on the

four faces of the inclined element shown, and then draw them in

the correct senses, labeling their magnitudes.

y

158

SOLUTION

Given: x = 5 ksi, y = 4 ksi, and xy = 3 ksi.

The two surfaces of interest are = 15 and = 75 .

75o

15o

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)

2

2

and

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

For = 15

(15 ) =

1

1

(5 ksi + 4 ksi) + (5 ksi 4 ksi) cos 2(15 ) + 3 ksi sin 2(15 )

2

2

(15 ) = 5.90 ksi J

For = 75

(75 ) =

1

(4 ksi (5 ksi)) sin(2(15 ))

2

(15 ) = 0.3481 ksi J

1

1

(5 ksi + 4 ksi) + (5 ksi 4 ksi) cos 2(75 ) + 3 ksi sin 2(75 )

2

2

(75 ) = 4.90 ksi J

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(75 ) = 3 ksi cos 2(75 ) +

1

(4 ksi (5 ksi)) sin 2(75 )

2

(75 ) = 0.348 ksi J

Because (15 ) < 0, it points inward; because (15 ) > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.

Because (75 ) > 0, it points outward; because (75 ) < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

The stress drawn is:

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Problem 7.26

The stresses are drawn on an element oriented with respect to the x-y axes. Calculate the normal and

shear stresses acting on the four faces of the inclined element shown, and then draw them in the correct

senses, labeling their magnitudes.

150 MPa

50 MPa

508

y

100 MPa

x

SOLUTION

From stresses on x-y element, deduce x-y components to be x = 100 MPa, y = 150 MPa,

and xy = 50 MPa.

The two surfaces of interest are at = 40 and = 130 .

40o

40o

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)

2

2

and

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

For = 40

(40 ) =

1

1

(100 MPa + 150 MPa) + (100 MPa 150 MPa) cos 2(40 ) + 50 MPa sin 2(40 )

2

2

(40 ) = 170 MPa J

(40 ) = 50 MPa cos 2(40 ) +

For = 130

(130 ) =

1

(150 MPa 100 MPa) sin 2(40 )

2

(40 ) = 33.3 MPa J

1

1

(100 MPa + 150 MPa) + (100 MPa 150 MPa) cos 2(130 ) + 50 MPa sin 2(130 )

2

2

(130 ) = 80.1 MPa J

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(130 ) = 50 MPa cos 2(130 ) +

1

(150 MPa 100 MPa) sin 2(130 )

2

(130 ) = 33.3 MPa J

Because (40 ) > 0, it points outward; because (40 ) > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.

Because (130 ) > 0, it points outward; because (130 ) < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

The stress drawn is:

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Problem 7.27

The stresses are drawn on an element oriented with respect to the x-y axes. Calculate the normal and

shear stresses acting on the four faces of the inclined element shown, and then draw them in the correct

senses, labeling their magnitudes.

5000 psi

6000 psi

y

3000 psi

358

SOLUTION

From stresses on x-y element, deduce x-y components to be x = 3000 psi, y = 5000 psi,

and xy = 6000 ksi.

The two surfaces of interest are = 55 and = 145 .

55o

55o

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)

2

2

and

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

For = 55

) 1(

)

1(

3000 psi + 5000 psi + 3000 psi (5000 psi) cos 2(55 ) + 6000 psi sin 2(55 )

2

2

(55 ) =

(55 ) = 6000 psi cos 2(55 ) +

For = 145

(145 ) =

)

1(

5000 psi 3000 psi) sin 2(55 )

2

(55 ) = 1707 psi J

) 1(

)

1(

3000 psi + 5000 psi + 3000 psi (5000 psi) cos 2(145 ) + 6000 psi sin 2(145 )

2

2

(145 ) = 6010 psi J

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(145 ) = 6000 psi cos 2(145 ) +

)

1(

5000 psi 3000 psi) sin 2(145 )

2

(145 ) = 1707 psi J

Because (55 ) < 0, it points inward; because (55 ) < 0, it points CW from the outward normal.

Because (145 ) > 0, it points outward; because (145 ) > 0, it points CCW from the outward normal.

The stress drawn is:

6010 psi 1707 psi 8010 psi

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Problem 7.28

60 MPa

40 MPa

75 MPa

Determine the normal and shear stresses x , y and xy .

y

x

608

SOLUTION

Treat the stress as x = 75 MPa, y = 40 MPa, and x y = 60 MPa.

Consider the slice a through the element. The outward normal is parallel to the +x-axis. The normal

stress on it will correspond to the x and the shear stress will correspond to xy .

40 MPa

14 MPa

75 MPa

60 MPa

t(q)

30o

75 MPa

60 MPa

30o

a

s(q)

60 MPa

Stress transformation equations are:

() =

(30 ) =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + x y sin(2)

2

2

1

1

(75 MPa + 40 MPa) + (75 MPa 40 MPa) cos 2(30 ) + 60 MPa sin 2(30 )

2

2

() = 5.71 MPa

() = x y cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

1

(40 MPa (75 MPa)) sin 2(30 )

2

() = 79.8 MPa

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Consider the slice b through the element. The outward normal is parallel to the +y-axis. The normal

stress on it will correspond to y .

14 MPa

75 MPa

s(q)

t(q)

30o

b

60 MPa

60 MPa

(60 ) =

60o

75 MPa

60 MPa

40 MPa

1

1

(75 MPa + 40 MPa) + (75 MPa 40 MPa) cos 2(60 ) + 60 MPa sin 2(60 )

2

2

() = 40.7 MPa

1

(40 MPa (75 MPa)) sin 2(60 )

2

() = 79.8 MPa

So

x = 5.71 MPa J

y = 40.7 MPa J

xy = 79.8 MPa J

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Problem 7.29

6500 psi

Determine the normal and shear stresses x , y , and xy .

4000 psi

3000 psi

y

258

SOLUTION

Treat the stress as x = 6500 psi, y = 3000 psi, and x y = 4000 psi.

Consider the slice a through the element. The outward normal is parallel to the +x-axis. The normal

stress on it will correspond to x and the shear stress will correspond to xy .

4000 psi

6500 psi

3000 psi

4000 psi

65o

3000 psi

a

6500 psi

t(q)

a

65o

s(q)

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + x y sin(2)

2

2

] 1[

]

1[

6500 psi + (3000 psi) + 6500 psi (3000 psi) cos 2(65 )

2

2

+ (4000 psi) sin 2(65 )

(65 ) =

() = 6690 psi

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

]

1[

(65 ) = (4000 psi) cos 2(65 ) + 3000 psi (6500 psi) sin 2(65 )

2

() = 3910 psi

() = x y cos 2 +

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Consider the slice b through the element. The outward normal is parallel to the +y-axis. The normal

stress on it will correspond to y .

4000 psi

6500 psi

65o

3000 psi

b

t(q)

s(q)

6500 psi

25o

b

4000 psi

3000 psi

] 1[

]

1[

6500 psi + (3000 psi) + 6500 psi (3000 psi) cos 2(25 )

2

2

+ (4000 psi) sin 2(25 )

(25 ) =

() = 2810 psi

]

1[

3000 psi (6500 psi) sin 2(25 )

2

() = 3910 psi

So

x = 6690 psi J

y = 2810 psi J

xy = 3910 psi J

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Problem 7.30

40 MPa

308

100 MPa

y

70 MPa

The normal and shear stresses are drawn on one surface, while

only the normal stress is known on the second surface. Assuming

these are consistent with a uniform state of stress, determine the

stresses x , y , and xy and then calculate and draw the shear

stress on the second surface.

SOLUTION

From stresses drawn on the right surface, we can conclude that x = 100 MPa and xy = 70 MPa. From

the other surface, corresponding to the angle = 120 , we can conclude that (120 ) = 40 MPa.

The stress transformation equation can be used to solve for y

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin(2)

2

2

1

1

1

1

() = x + y + x cos 2 y cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

2

2

Regroup and solve for y

1

1

() = x (1 + cos 2) + y (1 cos 2) + xy sin 2

2

2

y =

() 12 x (1 + cos 2) xy sin 2

1

2

(1 cos 2)

y =

1

2

(1 cos 2 (120 ))

y = 167 MPa J

Therefore

() = xy cos 2 +

(120 ) = 70 MPa cos 2 (120 ) +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

1

(167 MPa 100 MPa) sin 2 (120 )

2

(120 ) = 150.8 MPa J

150.8 MPa

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Problem 7.31

7500 psi

4500 psi

3000 psi

y

x

The normal and shear stresses are drawn on one surface, while

only the shear stress is known on the second surface. Assuming

these are consistent with a uniform state of stress, determine the

stresses x , y , and xy and then calculate and draw the normal

stress on the second surface.

558

SOLUTION

From stresses drawn on the right surface, we conclude that y = 7500 psi and xy = 4500 psi. On the

other surface, where = 35 , () = 3000 psi.

The shear stress transformation equation is:

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

x =

() + xy cos 2 + 12 y sin 2

1

2

sin 2

x =

1

2

1

2

(

)

7500 psi sin[2(35 )]

sin[2(35 )]

x = 10610 psi J

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos(2) + xy sin(2)

2

2

] 1[

]

1[

10610 psi + (7500 psi) + 10610 psi (7500 psi) cos[2(35 )]

2

2

+ (4500 psi) sin[2(35 )]

() =

() = 5360 psi J

5360 psi

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Problem 7.32

From the general stress transformation formulas, prove that has the same value at and at + 180 .

Prove that has the same magnitude, but opposite signs, at and at + 90 .

SOLUTION

The shear stress transformation equation is given by:

() = xy cos 2 +

For = + 90

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

)

1(

y x sin 2 ( + 90 )

2

)

1(

( + 90 ) = xy cos (2 + 180 ) + y x sin (2 + 180 )

2

( + 90 ) = xy cos 2 ( + 90 ) +

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin

and

cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin

Therefore

cos (2 + 180 ) = cos 2 cos 180 sin 2 sin 180 = cos 2

Thus,

( + 90 ) = xy cos 2

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

( + 90 ) = () J

For = + 180

( + 180 ) = xy cos 2 ( + 180 ) +

)

1(

y x sin 2 ( + 180 )

2

)

1(

y x sin (2 + 360 )

2

cos (2 + 360 ) = cos 2 cos 360 sin 2 sin 360 = cos 2

sin (2 + 360 ) = sin 2 cos 360 + cos 2 sin 360 = sin 2

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Thus,

( + 180 ) = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

( + 180 ) = () J

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Problem 7.33

From the general stress transformation formulas, prove that has the same value at and at + 180 .

SOLUTION

The stress transformation equation is given by:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

(1)

For = + 180

( + 180 ) =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 ( + 180 ) + xy sin 2 ( + 180 )

2

2

( + 180 ) =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos (2 + 360 ) + xy sin (2 + 360 )

2

2

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin

and

cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin

Therefore

cos (2 + 360 ) = cos 2 cos 360 sin 2 sin 360 = cos 2

Thus,

( + 180 ) =

Comparing equations (1) and (2)

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + y x cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

(2)

() = ( + 180 ) J

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Problem 7.34

From the general stress transformation formulas, prove that () + ( + 90 ) has the same value, equal

to x + y , independent of the angle .

SOLUTION

The stress transformation equation is given by:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

(1)

For = + 90

( + 90 ) =

( + 90 ) =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 ( + 90 ) + xy sin 2 ( + 90 )

2

2

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos (2 + 180 ) + xy sin (2 + 180 )

2

2

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin

and

cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin

Therefore

sin (2 + 180 ) = sin 2 cos 180 + cos 2 sin 180 = sin 2

Thus,

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y ( cos 2) + xy ( sin 2)

2

2

Now add equation (1) to equation (2)

( + 90 ) =

() + ( + 90 ) =

(2)

) 1(

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x + y + x y [cos 2 cos 2] + xy (sin 2 sin 2)

2

2

2

() + ( + 90 ) = x + y J

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Problem 7.35

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 80 MPa, y = 50 MPa, and

xy = 60 MPa. Determine the normal strain parallel to the line

segment shown. Include both the direct stress and the transverse

stress (Poisson eect). Take E = 70 GPa and = 0.33.

y

558

x

SOLUTION

Need to determine normal stresses at 55 (stress parallel to line segment) and 90 + 55 = 145 (stress

perpendicular to line segment). The stress transformation equation is:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

For = 55

1 = (55 ) =

1

1

(80 MPa + 50 MPa) + (80 MPa 50 MPa) cos 2 (55 ) + 60 MPa sin 2 (55 )

2

2

1 = (55 ) = 116.3 MPa

For = 145

2 = (145 ) =

1

1

(80 MPa + 50 MPa) + (80 MPa 50 MPa) cos 2 (145 ) + 60 MPa sin 2 (145 )

2

2

2 = (145 ) = 13.75 MPa

2

1

E

E

(

)

6

2

116.3 10 N/m

13.75 106 N/m2

=

0.33

70 109 N/m2

70 109 N/m2

=

= 1.596 103 J

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Problem 7.36

1000 psi

600 psi

208

300 psi

The stresses on the x-y axes are shown. Determine the normal

strain parallel to the line segment shown. Include both the direct

stress and the transverse stress (Poisson eect). Take E = 300 ksi

and = 0.4.

SOLUTION

From the x-y element infer that x = 300 psi, y = 1000 psi, and xy = 600 psi.

Need to find the normal stresses at 1 = 20 (stress parallel to the line segment) and 2 = 70 (stress

perpendicular to the line segment).

The stress transformation equation is:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

For = 20

) 1(

)

1(

300 psi + (1000 psi) + 300 psi (1000 psi) cos (2(20 ))

2

2

(2(20

+ (600 psi) sin

))

1 = (20 ) =

For = 70

) 1(

)

1(

300 psi + (1000 psi) + 300 psi (1000 psi) cos (2(70 ))

2

2

+ (600 psi) sin (2(70 ))

2 = (70 ) =

Strain along segment is:

2

1

E

E

(

)

534 psi

1234 psi

=

0.4

300 103 psi

300 103 psi

=

= 3.42 103 J

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Problem 7.37

y

308

x

The two line segments shown are perpendicular under zero stress.

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 10 ksi, y = 6 ksi, and

xy = 5 ksi. What angle do these two segments make( with

) respect

6

to each other when the stresses act? Take G = 11.5 10 psi.

SOLUTION

Need to determine the shear stress on = 30 then apply

=

(1)

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

1

(6 ksi 10 ksi) sin 2 (30 )

2

(30 ) = 0.768 ksi = 768 psi

768 psi

() =

768 psi

= 6.678 105

6

11.5 10 psi

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The shear strain corresponding to this shear can be depicted as

89.996 J

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Problem 7.38

60 MPa

40 MPa

20 MPa

408

The two line segments shown are perpendicular under zero stress.

The stresses on the x-y axes are shown. What angle do these two

segments make with respect to each other when the stresses act?

Take G = 2.5 GPa.

SOLUTION

From x-y element, we can infer that x = 20 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 40 MPa.

Need to find the shear stress at = 50 .

The shear stress equation is:

)

1(

() = xy cos 2 + y x sin 2

2

1

(50 ) = 40 MPa cos 2 (50 ) + (60 MPa (20 MPa)) sin 2 (50 )

2

Because (50 ) < 0, notice the directions of shear stresses

32.4 MPa

Now apply

=

= 1.296 102

9

2

G

2.5 10 N/m

The shear strain corresponding to this shear stress can be depicted as

=

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Thus, the angle is increased by to

90.74 J

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Problem 7.39

C

The mutually perpendicular line segments, AB and AC, each having length 1 mm when zero stresses act. Under the action of

stresses on the x-y axes, x = 100 MPa, y = 200(MPa,) and

xy = 150 MPa, AB and AC are, respectively, 2.481 103 mm

(

)

longer and 7.592 104 mm shorter. Determine the Youngs

modulus and the Poisson ratio that are consistent with this observation.

y

408

x

SOLUTION

Need to find the stress at 1 = 40 and 2 = 130 .

The stress transformation equation is:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

For = 40

1 = (40 ) =

1

1

(100 MPa + 200 MPa) + (100 MPa 200 MPa) cos 2 (40 ) + 150 sin 2 (40 )

2

2

1 = (40 ) = 289 MPa

For = 130

2 = (130 ) =

1

1

(100 MPa + 200 MPa) + (100 MPa 200 MPa) cos 2 (130 ) + 150 sin 2 (130 )

2

2

2 = (130 ) = 10.96 MPa

1 2 1 2

=

= 2.481 103

E

E

E

2 1 2 1

BC =

=

= 7.592 104

E

E

E

Now define R as the ratio of BC /AB and simplify for .

This yields

2 R1 10.96 MPa (0.306)(289 MPa)

=

=

1 R2 289 MPa (0.306)(10.96 MPa)

AB =

Choosing AB

1 2 289 MPa 0.34 (10.96 MPa)

E=

=

AB

2.487 103

= 0.34 J

E = 115 GPa J

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Problem 7.40

C

The mutually perpendicular line segments, AB and AC, each having length 1 mm when zero stresses act. Under the action of

stresses on the x-y axes, x = 120 MPa, y = 140( MPa,) and

xy = 100 MPa, AB and AC are, respectively, 1.044 103 mm

(

)

shorter and 1.336 104 mm longer. Determine the Youngs

modulus and the Poisson ratio that are consistent with this observation.

358

B

SOLUTION

Need to determine the stress at 1 = 35 and 2 = 55 .

The stress transformation equation is:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

For = 35

1

1

(120 MPa + (140 MPa)) + (120 MPa (140 MPa)) cos 2 (35 )

2

2

+ 100 sin 2 (35 )

1 = (35 ) =

For = 55

1

1

(120 MPa + (140 MPa)) + (120 MPa (140 MPa)) cos 2 (55 )

2

2

+ 100 sin 2 (55 )

2 = (55 ) =

The strain is:

AB =

and

BC =

1 2

= 1.044 103

E

2 1

= 1.336 104

E

BC /AB

and simplify for . This yields

=

=

1 R2 220.5 MPa (0.128)(39.45 MPa)

= 0.3 J

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Youngs modulus can now be obtained from either AB or BC .

E=

=

AB

1.044 103

E = 200 GPa J

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Problem 7.41

B

C

y

658

xy = 4 MPa. The angle between the two lines shown, which

was 90 when unstressed, is 89.370 when the stresses act. Determine the elastic shear modulus consistent with this observation.

A

x

SOLUTION

Need to find the shear stress for = 65 .

The shear stress transformation equation is:

() = xy cos 2 +

For = 65

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

1

(8 MPa (5 MPa)) sin 2 (65 )

2

(65 ) = 7.55 MPa

Thus,

= (90 89.370 )

Therefore, the shear modulus is:

G=

rad

= 0.011

180

7.55 MPa

=

0.011

G = 686.4 MPa J

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Problem 7.42

C

xy = 90 MPa. The angle between the two lines shown, which

was 90 when unstressed, is 90.055 when the stresses act. Determine the elastic shear modulus consistent with this observation.

A

508

y

x

SOLUTION

Need to find the shear stress for = 50 .

The shear stress transformation equation is:

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

For = 50

(50 ) = 90 MPa cos 2 (50 ) +

1

(80 MPa 60 MPa) sin 2 (50 )

2

Thus,

(

)

rad

= (90 90.055 )

= 9.60 104

180

G=

25.48 MPa

=

9.60 104

G = 26.5 GPa J

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Problem 7.43

1.00764 mm

0.99356 mm

90.2758

408

square oriented at 40 with respect to the horizontal axis. The

elastic moduli are E = 2 GPa, = 0.4, and G = 0.714 GPa.

Determine the normal and shear stresses that must act on the x-y

axes to cause the element to deform into the parallelogram shown.

SOLUTION

Lets label the sides as

1 = 0.00764

2 = (0.99356 1) = 0.00644

The shear strain is:

= (90 90.275 )

The strain is:

1 =

rad

= 0.00480

180

1 2

E

and

2 1

E

These two equations can be solved for 1 and 2 as

2 =

1 =

E

2 GPa

[1 + 2 ] =

[0.00764 + 0.4 (0.00644)]

2

1

1 (0.4)2

1 = 12.06 MPa

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and

2 =

2 =

E

[2 + 1 ]

1 2

2 GPa

[0.00644 + 0.4 (0.00764)]

1 (0.4)2

2 = 8.06 MPa

(

)

= G = 0.714 109 N/m2 (0.00480)

= 3.43 MPa

Set x = 12.06 MPa, y = 8.06 MPa, and xy = 3.43 MPa.

12.06 MPa

40o

3.43 MPa

8.06 MPa

Find () and () for = 40 and = 50 , using the stress transformation equations

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

For = 40

(40 ) =

1

1

(12.06 MPa + (8.06 MPa)) + (12.06 MPa (8.06 MPa)) cos 2 (40 )

2

2

+ (3.43) sin 2 (40 ) = 7.12 MPa

For = 50

(50 ) =

(50 ) =

1

(8.06 MPa 12.06 MPa) sin 2 (40 ) = 9.31 MPa

2

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

1

1

(12.06 MPa + (8.06 MPa)) + (12.06 MPa (8.06 MPa)) cos 2 (50 )

2

2

+ (3.43) sin 2 (50 ) = 3.12 MPa

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Infer actual x , y , and xy from the stresses just found

x = (40 )

y = (50 )

xy = (40 )

x = 7.12 MPa J

y = 3.12 MPa J

xy = 9.31 MPa J

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Problem 7.44

Screw

Fracture

plane

Bone

required to withstand a loading due to weight on the foot that produces a compressive stress of 5 MPa along the bone axis. The fracture can withstand these

forces if there is sucient friction to resist slippage at the fracture plane due to

shear stress. The friction coecient, , gives the maximum shear stress that the

surfaces can sustain without slipping as a proportionality of the normal stress

(n ). In order to prevent slippage, a screw is inserted perpendicular to the fracture and tightened to give some initial compressive normal stress (and no shear

stress) squeezing the fragments together prior to any loading. If is assumed

to be 0.2, determine the average level of normal stress across the fracture plane

that the screw must induce, if, together with the applied axial stress, no slippage

between fragments is to occur.

SOLUTION

Find shear and normal stress on fracture plane due to axial compressive stress 5 MPa.

The stress transformation equations are:

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

and

() = xy cos 2 +

)

1(

y x sin 2

2

)

1

1(

() = y + y cos 2

2

2

and

1

() = y sin 2

2

(30 ) =

1

1

(5 MPa) + ( (5 MPa)) cos (2 (30 ))

2

2

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1

(5 MPa) sin 2 (30 )

2

(30 ) = 2.165 MPa

(30 ) =

1.25 MPa

2.165 MPa

30o

The total compressive stress n on the fracture plane is the sum of the compression induced by the screw

screw plus the 1.25 MPa compressive stress due to applied load.

As stated in the problem, for there to be no slip the compressive stress must be suciently large compared

to the shear stress, i.e., n .

Thus, when the compressive stress is just sucient to prevent slip, screw must satisfy

(1.25 MPa + screw )(0.2) = 2.165

So

screw = 9.58 MPa J

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Problem 7.45

u

Screw

Fracture

plane

Bone

The fracture plane of orientation = 30 from the axial direction has been precompressed to a level of 10 MPa by the insertion and tightening of a screw.

The friction coecient, , gives the maximum shear stress that the surfaces can

sustain without slipping as a proportionality of the normal stress (n ). Let

the friction coecient at the fracture plane be 0.3. Determine the maximum

bending moment that can be applied before slippage occurs on the tensile side

of the bone. Take the bone to have an outer diameter of 28 mm and an inner

diameter of 14 mm.

SOLUTION

To solve this problem, first find the axial compressive stress 0 that results in slip, and then find the

moment.

n = 10 MPa +

0

cos 60

2

1

= 0 sin[2(30 )]

2

To be just at the limit of not slipping, the stresses on the fracture plane must satisfy

n =

The axial compression can then be found from

(

0 )

1

3

(0.3) = 0

10 MPa +

4

2

2

Therefore

0 = 8.38 MPa

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We want the bending moment that produces a stress of 8.38 MPa in the bone. From bending of circular

cross-section

MR

=

I

Therefore

I

M=

R

) (

)]

) [(

(

0.014 m 4

m 4

2

2

M=

0.028 m

2

M = 16.93 N-m J

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Problem 7.46

Screw

Fracture

plane

Bone

screws. Under axial compression along the bone, there will still

not be slippage for fracture planes at suitable orientations because

the shear stress increases more slowly than the normal stress. The

friction coecient, , gives the maximum shear stress that the

surfaces can sustain without slipping as a proportionality of the

normal stress (n ). Determine the range of stable orientations

of the fracture plane assuming a friction coecient of = 0.3.

SOLUTION

1

1

1

() = 0 + 0 cos 2 = 0 (1 cos 2)

2

2

2

The shear stress transformation equation for the same conditions yields

1

() = 0 sin (2)

2

For there to be no slip, the ratio () to () must be less than the coecient of friction

| ()|

<

| ()|

or

2 0

1

2 0

sin 2

(1 cos 2)

< 0.3

Recall

sin 2 = 2 sin cos

and

sin2 =

1

(1 cos 2)

2

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Thus,

2 sin cos < 0.3 (1 cos 2) = 0.3 (2) sin2

Dividing both sides by 2 sin gives:

tan >

1

0.3

> 73.3 J

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Problem 7.47

An element has stresses x = 5400 psi, y = 3000 psi, and xy = 2800 psi. Draw the principal stress

element, showing its orientation relative to the x-y axes and all the stresses acting on it.

SOLUTION

The m can be calculated from

m =

) 1(

(

))

1(

x + y = 5400psi + 3000 psi

2

2

m = 1200 psi

)2

) (

)

1(

1(

2

y x + xy =

3000 psi 5400 psi 2 + 2800 psi 2

max =

4

4

max = 5047.78 5050 psi

The maximum shear angle ( s ) can be found from

)

(

/2

y

x

s = tan1

2

xy

1

s = tan1

2

[[

(

)] ]

3000 psi 5400 psi /2

= 28.15 = 0.491 rad

2800 psi

max = m + max = 1200 psi + 5050 psi = 6250 psi

min = m max = 1200 psi 5050 psi = 3850 psi

max or min will be found at the angle

s + 45 = 28.15 + 45 = 73.15

() =

) 1(

)

1(

x + y + x y cos 2 + xy sin (2)

2

2

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(73.15 ) =

) 1[

(

)]

1(

5400 psi + 3000 psi + 5400 psi 3000 psi cos 2 (73.15 )

2

2

+ (2800 psi) sin 2 (73.15 )

(73.15 ) = 3847.77 psi 3850 psi

Note: min has been found at = 73.15 . max is located 90 from that angle.

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Problem 7.48

An element has stresses x = 80 MPa, y = 110 MPa, and xy = 60 MPa. Draw the maximum shear

stress element, showing its orientation relative to the x-y axes and all the stresses acting on it.

SOLUTION

(

m =

x + y

2

)

=

= 15 MPa

2

)2

1(

1

(110 MPa 80 MPa)2 + (60 MPa)2

y x + xy 2 =

max =

4

4

max = 112.4 MPa

The maximum shear angle is:

)

(

[

]

x /2

1 1 (110 MPa 80 MPa) /2

1 1 y

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

60 MPa

s = 28.86 = 0.504 rad

See if the shear stress at s is equal to max or max

( s ) = xy cos 2 s +

)

1(

y x sin 2 s

2

1

(110 MPa 80 MPa) sin 2 (28.86 )

2

(28.86 ) = 112.4 MPa

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From this result we can draw in the right sense on = 28.86 . The shear stress on all other faces

of the element must be consistent with the first shear stress. Also, the normal stress on all faces of the

maximum shear stress element equal m .

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Problem 7.49

An element has stresses x = 130 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 90 MPa. Draw the principal stress and

maximum shear stress elements, showing their orientations relative to the x-y axes and all the stresses

acting on each.

SOLUTION

(

m =

x + y

2

)

=

= 95 MPa

2

max =

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2

4

1

(60 MPa 130 MPa)2 + (90 MPa)2

4

max = 96.566 96.6 MPa

)

(

[

]

1 1 y x /2 1 1 (60 MPa 130 MPa) /2

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

90 MPa

s = 10.62 = 0.185 rad

Determine whether the shear stress at s , calculated from the stress transformation equation, is equal to

max or max .

)

1(

y x sin 2 s

2

1

(10.62 ) = (90 MPa) cos 2(10.62 ) + (60 MPa 130 MPa) sin 2(10.62 )

2

(10.62 ) = 96.6 MPa = max

( s ) = xy cos 2 s +

max = m + max = 95 MPa + 96.6 MPa = 191.6 MPa

and

min = m max = 95 MPa 96.566 MPa = 1.566 MPa

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From (28.86 ), we can draw in the right sense on that face and hence on all other faces of the

element. Also, the normal stress on all faces of the maximum shear stress element equal m .

For the principal stress element, we know that either max or min will act on

p = 10.62 + 45 = 34.38

Note the directions of the shear stresses on the maximum shear stress element, that is, the corners to

which the shear stress arrowheads point. From that we can infer that max in particular acts on the face

= 34.38 . min acts on the other face.

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Problem 7.50

An element has stresses x = 5 ksi, y = 6 ksi, and xy = 3 ksi. Draw the principal stress and

maximum shear stress elements, showing their orientations relative to the x-y axes and all the stresses

acting on each.

SOLUTION

(

m =

x + y

2

)

=

5 ksi + 6 ksi

= 0.5 ksi

2

)2

1(

1

y x + xy 2 = max =

max =

[6 ksi (5 ksi)]2 + (3 ksi)2

4

4

max = 6.26 ksi

The max shear angle is:

)

(

]

[

x /2

1 1 (6 ksi (5 ksi)) /2

1 1 y

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

3 ksi

s = 30.69 = 0.536 rad

Determine whether the shear stress at s , calculated from the stress transformation equation, is equal to

max or max .

)

1(

y x sin 2 s

2

1

2

(30.69 ) = 6.26 ksi = max

( s ) = xy cos 2 s +

max = m + max = 0.5 ksi + 6.26 ksi = 6.76 ksi

and

min = m max = 0.5 ksi 6.26 ksi = 5.76 ksi

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From (30.69 ), we can draw in the right sense on that face and hence on all other faces of the element.

Also, the normal stress on all faces of the maximum shear stress element equal m .

For the principal stress element, we know that either max or min will act on

p = 30.69 + 45 = 75.69

Note the directions of the shear stresses on the maximum shear stress element, that is, the corners to

which the shear stress arrow heads point. From that we can infer that max in particular acts on the face

= 75.69 . min acts on the other face.

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Problem 7.51

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 80 MPa, y = 50 MPa, and xy = 70 MPa. The elastic moduli are

E = 200 GPa, = 0.3, and G = 80 GPa. Find the orientation of the line segment that extends the most.

What is the strain of this segment?

SOLUTION

The mean stress is:

m =

The max shear stress is:

max =

x + y 80 MPa + 50 MPa

=

= 15 MPa

2

2

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(50 MPa 80 MPa)2 + (70 MPa)2

4

The max shear angle is:

)

(

[

]

/2 1

y

x

(50

1 1

MPa

80

MPa)

/2

1

= tan

s = tan

2

2

xy

70 MPa

s = 21.44 = 0.374 rad

Evaluate max and min

max = m + max = 15 MPa + 95.5 MPa = 110.5 MPa

min = m max = 15 MPa 95.5 MPa = 80.5 MPa

max or min act on the face

p = s + 45

p = 23.56 J

Evaluate the normal stress at p using the transformation equation to see if it is max or min

1

1

(23.56 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2 p + xy sin 2 p

2

2

1

1

(23.56 ) = [80 MPa + (50 MPa)] + [80 MPa (50 MPa)] cos 2(23.56 )

2

2

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From this, we can draw the principal stress element

Note: The line with max extension is parallel to max , that is, along the line 23.56 CCW from the

+x-axis.

max min

E

(

)

110.5 106 N/m2 0.3 80.5 106 N/m2

max =

max =

max = 6.71 104 J

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Problem 7.52

The stresses

( ) on the x-y axes are x = 2( ksi,) y = 6 ksi, and xy = 4 ksi. The elastic moduli are

E = 10 106 psi, = 0.33, and G = 3.75 106 psi. Find the orientation of the line segment that extends

the most. What is the strain of this segment?

SOLUTION

The mean stress is:

m =

x + y 2 ksi + 6 ksi

=

= 4 ksi

2

2

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(6 ksi 2 ksi)2 + (4 ksi)2

4

The max shear angle is:

)

(

[

]

/2 1

y

x

1 1

(6

ksi

2

ksi)/2

1

= tan

s = tan

2

2

xy

4 ksi

s = 13.28 = 0.232 rad

min = m max = 4 ksi 4.472 ksi = 0.472 ksi

max = m + max = 4 ksi + 4.472 ksi = 8.472 ksi

s + 45 = 13.28 + 45 = 31.72

Evaluate normal stress on = 31.72 to see if it is min or max

1

1

(31.72 ) = (2 ksi + 6 ksi) + (2 ksi 6 ksi) cos 2(31.72 ) + (4 ksi) sin 2(31.72 )

2

2

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8.47 ksi

0.472 ksi

31.72o

Note: Line parallel with max has the max extension, that is, along the line 31.72 CCW from the +y-axis.

max min

E

(

)

3

8.472 10 psi 0.33 0.472 103 psi

max =

max =

10 106 psi

max = 8.63 104 J

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Problem 7.53

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 7 MPa, y = 4 MPa, and xy = 3 MPa. The elastic moduli are

E = 3 GPa, = 0.4, and G = 1.1 GPa. Find the orientation of the line segment that contracts the most.

What is the strain of this segment?

SOLUTION

The mean stress is:

m =

The max shear stress is:

max =

x + y 7 MPa + 4 MPa

=

= 1.5 MPa

2

2

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(4 MPa (7 MPa))2 + (3 MPa)2

4

The max shear angle is:

)

(

]

[

/2 1

y

x

(4

MPa

(7

MPa))

/2

1 1

1

= tan

s = tan

2

2

xy

3 MPa

s = 30.69 = 0.536 rad

min = m max = 1.5 MPa 6.265 MPa = 7.765 MPa

max = m + max = 1.5 MPa + 6.265 MPa = 4.765 MPa

s + 45 = 30.69 + 45 = 14.31

Evaluate normal stress on = 14.31 to see if it is min or max

1

1

(14.31 ) = (7 MPa + 4 MPa) + (7 MPa 4 MPa) cos 2(14.31 ) + (3 MPa) sin 2(14.31 )

2

2

(14.31 ) = 7.765 MPa = min

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4.765 MPa

7.765 MPa

14.31o

Note: Line parallel to min contracts the most, that is, along the line 14.31 CCW from the +x-axis.

min max

E

(

)

7.765 106 N/m2 0.4 4.765 106 N/m2

min =

min =

3 109 N/m2

min = 3.22 103 J

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Problem 7.54

The stresses

( ) on the x-y axes are x = (6 )ksi, y = 8 ksi, and xy = 5 ksi. The elastic moduli are

E = 58 106 psi, = 0.2, and G = 24 106 psi. Find the orientation of the line segment that contracts

the most. What is the strain of this segment?

SOLUTION

The mean stress is:

m =

x + y 6 ksi + 8 ksi

=

= 7 ksi

2

2

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(8 ksi (6 ksi))2 + (5 ksi)2

4

The max shear angle is:

)

(

[

]

/2 1

y

x

(8

(6

1 1

ksi

ksi))

/2

1

= tan

s = tan

2

2

xy

5 ksi

s = 5.655 = 0.099 rad

max = m + max = 7 ksi + 5.099 ksi = 1.901 ksi

min = m max = 7 ksi 5.099 ksi = 12.099 ksi

s + 45 = 5.655 + 45 = 39.345

Evaluate normal stress on = 39.345 to see if it is min or max

1

1

(39.345 ) = (6 ksi + (8 ksi)) + (6 ksi (8 ksi)) cos 2(39.345 ) + (5 ksi) sin 2(39.345 )

2

2

(39.345 ) = 1.901 ksi

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12.10 ksi

1.901 ksi

39.345o

Note: Line parallel to min contracts the most, that is, along the line 39.345 CCW from the +y-axis.

min max

E

(

)

3

12.099 10 psi 0.2 1.901 103 psi

min =

min =

58 106 psi

max = 2.02 104 J

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Problem 7.55

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 30 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 40 MPa. The elastic moduli

are E = 70 GPa, = 0.33, and G = 26 GPa. Find the orientation of an initially 1 mm 1 mm square

which remains a rectangle. Determine the dimensions of the sides of the rectangle into which the square

deforms.

SOLUTION

The mean stress is:

m =

The max shear stress is:

max =

x + y 30 MPa + 60 MPa

=

= 45 MPa

2

2

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(60 MPa (30 MPa))2 + (40 MPa)2

4

The max shear angle is:

)

(

]

[

/2 1

y

x

MPa

(30

MPa)]

/2

1 1

[60

1

= tan

s = tan

2

2

xy

40 MPa

s = 10.278 = 0.179 rad

Note: The square that remains a rectangle is parallel to the principal stress element.

Principal stresses are:

max = m + max = 45 MPa + 42.72 MPa = 2.28 MPa

min = m max = 45 MPa 42.72 MPa = 87.72 MPa

One principal stress acts on

s + 45 = 10.278 + 45 = 34.72

1

1

(34.72 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

1

1

(34.72 ) = [(30 MPa) + (60 MPa)] + [(30 MPa) (60 MPa)] cos 2(34.72 )

2

2

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From this, the principal stress element can be drawn

87.7 MPa

2.28 MPa

34.72o

max =

max =

max min

E

(

)

2.28 106 N/m2 0.33 87.72 106 N/m2

min =

min =

70 109 N/m2

min max

E

(

)

87.72 106 N/m2 0.33 2.28 106 N/m2

70 109 N/m2

Thus,

34.72o

0.99876 mm

1.000381 mm

J

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Problem 7.56

The stresses

( )on the x-y axes are x =( 6 ksi,

) y = 10 ksi, and xy = 7 ksi. The elastic moduli are

6

6

E = 30 10 psi, = 0.3 and G = 11 10 psi. Find the orientation of an initially 1 in. 1 in. square

which remains a rectangle. Determine the dimensions of the sides of the rectangle into which the square

deforms.

SOLUTION

The mean stress is:

m =

x + y 6 ksi + 10 ksi

=

= 2 ksi

2

2

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(10 ksi 6 ksi)2 + (7 ksi)2

4

The max shear angle is:

)

(

[

]

/2 1

y

x

(10

1 1

ksi

6

ksi)

/2

1

= tan

s = tan

2

2

xy

7 ksi

s = 24.407 = 0.426 rad

Note: The square remains rectangular if it is aligned with principal stresses.

Principal stresses are:

min = m max = 2 ksi 10.63 ksi = 12.63 ksi

max = m + max = 2 ksi + 10.63 ksi = 8.63 ksi

s + 45 = 24.407 + 45 = 69.407

Evaluate normal stress on = 69.407 to see if it is min or max

1

1

(69.407 ) = (6 ksi + (10 ksi)) + (6 ksi (10 ksi)) cos 2(69.407 ) + (7 ksi) sin 2(69.407 )

2

2

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max =

max =

max min

E

(

)

8.63 103 psi 0.3 12.63 103 psi

30 106 psi

min =

min =

min max

E

(

)

12.63 103 psi 0.3 8.63 103 psi

30 106 psi

Thus, the element has dimensions of

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Problem 7.57

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 30 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 50 MPa. The elastic moduli

are E = 400 GPa, = 0.2, and G = 167 GPa. Find the orientation of an initially 1 mm 1 mm square

which shears the most. Draw the deformed element. Determine the shear strain of this element, and the

lengths of the sides of the element when the stresses are acting.

SOLUTION

The mean stress is:

m =

=

= 45 MPa

2

2

)2

1(

1

2

(60 MPa (30 MPa))2 + (50 MPa)2

y x + xy =

max =

4

4

max = 52.2 MPa

The max shear angle is:

]

[

[

]

1 1 (30 MPa)/2

1 1 (y x )/2

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

50 MPa

s = 8.349 = 0.146 rad

Evaluate the shear stress at s to determine if it is equal to min or max

1

( s ) = xy cos 2 s + (y x ) sin 2 s

2

1

(8.349 ) = (50 MPa) cos 2(8.349 ) + [(60 MPa) (30 MPa)] sin 2(8.349 )

2

(8.349 ) = 52.2 MPa = max

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Given value for (8.349 ) we can draw the stresses on the maximum shear element.

45 MPa

45 MPa

52.2 MPa

8.349o

=

=

G

167 109 N/m2

= 3.126 104

=

=

m m

E

(

)

45 106 N/m2 0.2 45 106 N/m2

= 9 105

side length = 1 mm 0.00009 mm

side length = 0.99991 mm J

The angle of the lower-right corner is:

(

) ( 180 )

4

90 3.126 10 rad

= 89.982

rad

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Problem 7.58

The stresses on the x-y axes are x = 2 ksi, y = 4 ksi, and xy = 1 ksi. The elastic moduli are

E = 350 ksi, = 0.4, and G = 125 ksi. Find the orientation of an initially 1 in. 1 in. square which

shears the most. Draw the deformed element. Determine the shear strain of this element, and the lengths

of the sides of the element when the stresses are acting.

SOLUTION

The mean stress is:

m =

x + y 2 ksi + 4 ksi

=

= 1 ksi

2

2

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(4 ksi 2 ksi)2 + (1 ksi)2

4

The max shear angle is:

]

[

[

]

1 1 (4 ksi 2 ksi)/2

1 1 (y x )/2

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

1 ksi

s = 35.78 = 0.625 rad

Evaluate the shear stress at s to determine if it is equal to min or max

1

( s ) = xy cos 2 s + (y x ) sin 2 s

2

1

(35.78 ) = (1 ksi) cos 2(35.78 ) + [4 ksi 2 ksi] sin 2(35.78 )

2

(35.78 ) = 3.16 MPa = max

Given value for (35.78 ) we can draw the stresses on the maximum shear element.

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The shear strain is:

=

=

G

125 ksi

= 0.0252

m m

E

1 ksi 0.4 (1 ksi)

=

350 ksi

= 1.714 103

=

side length = 1 in. 1.714 103 in.

side length = 0.998286 in. J

The angle of the upper-right corner is:

(

)

180

90 (0.0252 rad)

= 88.556

rad

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Problem 7.59

M0

of 2 mm is subjected to a twisting moment of T 0 = 20 N-m and

a bending moment of M0 = 30 N-m. Determine the stresses at

point A (where x is maximum), and then compute and draw the

maximum shear stress element. Describe its orientation relative

to the shaft axis.

A

y

L

T0

z

SOLUTION

Need to determine the stress due to the torque of 20 N-m and the moment of 30 N-m. This will give the

state of stress.

For torsion recall

T

=

Ip

For bending recall

=

My

I

]

[ 4

R Ri 4

2

]

[

(0.007 m)4 (0.005 m)4

=

2

= 2.7897 109 m4

Ip =

Ip

Ip

]

[ 4

R Ri 4

4

]

[

(0.007 m)4 (0.005 m)4

I =

4

I = 1.3948 109 m4

I =

TR

Ip

(20 N-m)(0.007 m)

=

2.7897 109 m4

= 50.2 MPa

=

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MR

I

(30 N-m)(0.007 m)

=

1.3948 109 m4

= 150.6 MPa

Because of the direction of the bending moment, the normal stress on an element at point A is compressive. Because of the direction of the twisting moment, the shear stress on an element at point A is

downward on the left face, and consistent with that on all other faces.

The stress element at A is:

50.2 MPa

y

150.6 MPa

z

m =

The max shear stress is:

max =

x + y 150.6 MPa 0

=

= 75.3 MPa

2

2

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(0 (150.6 MPa))2 + (50.2 MPa)2

4

The max shear angle is:

[

]

[

]

1 1 (y x )/2

1 1 (0 (150 MPa))/2

s = tan

= tan

2

xy

2

50.2 MPa

s = 28.15 = 0.491 rad

Evaluate (28.15 ) to determine if it equals max or max

1

(28.15 ) = (50.2 MPa) cos 2(28.15 ) + (0 (150.6 MPa)) sin 2(28.15 )

2

(28.15 ) = 90.5 MPa

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Thus, the stress element is:

90.5 MPa

75.3 MPa

y

28.15o

z

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Problem 7.60

M0

A

y

L

T0

z

A hollow shaft with a 1.6 in. outer diameter and a wall thickness

of 0.125 in. is subjected to a twisting moment of T 0 = 2500 lb-in.

and a bending moment of M0 = 2000 lb-in. Determine the

stresses at point A (where x is maximum), and then compute and

draw the maximum shear stress element. Describe its orientation

relative to the shaft axis.

SOLUTION

Need to determine the stress due to the torque of 2500 lb-in. and the moment of 2000 lb-in.

For torsion

T

=

Ip

For bending

=

My

I

Ip =

] [

]

[ 4

(0.8 in.)4 (0.675 in.)4

R Ri 4 =

2

2

I p = 0.3173 in4

I=

]

[

(0.8 in.)4 (0.675 in.)4

4

I = 0.1586 in4

=

=

Ip

0.3173 in4

= 6303.18 6300 psi

=

I

0.1586 in4

= 10084.77 10080 psi

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Because of the direction of the bending moment, the normal stress on an element at point A is compressive. Because of the direction of the twisting moment, the shear stress on an element at point A is

downward on left face, and consistent with that on all other faces.

The stress element is:

6300 psi

y

10800 psi

m =

x + y 10080 psi + 0

=

= 5040 psi

2

2

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

(

)) (

)

1(

0 10080 psi 2 + 6300 psi 2

4

The max shear angle is:

)/

(

))/

(

(

y x

1 1

2 1 1 0 10080 psi 2

s = tan

= tan

2

xy

6300 psi

2

Evaluate (19.33 ) to determine if it equals max or max

1

(19.33 ) = (6300 psi) cos 2(19.33 ) + (0 (10080 psi)) sin 2(19.33 )

2

(19.33 ) = 8070 psi = max

Thus, the stress element is:

5040 psi

8070 psi

5040 psi

5040 psi

19.33o

J

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Problem 7.61

f0

y

L

z

fixed at one end, and then the other end is rotated as shown by

0 = 1 and given an extension 0 = 0.2 mm. Determine the

stresses at point A (where x is maximum), and then compute and

draw the maximum shear stress element. Describe its orientation

relative to the shaft axis. The elastic moduli are E = 200 GPa,

= 0.3 and G = 80 GPa. Take the length L = 1.2 m.

SOLUTION

Need to find the stress associated with a twist of 1 and an extension of 0.2 mm.

For torsion

)

(

)

(

rad

80 109 N/m2 (0.01 m)(1 ) 180

GR

=

=

L

1.2 m

= 11.64 MPa

( )

PL

For the extension = EA

or P = EA L .

Thus,

)

(

) 2 104 m

P EA ( )

(

= =

= E = 200 109 N/m2

A

A L

L

1.2 m

= 33.33 MPa

Normal stress due to extension acts in the vertical direction. Because of the direction of the twisting,

the shear stress on an element at point A is leftward on the top face and consistent with that on all other

faces.

The stress element is:

33.3 MPa

11.64 MPa

z

m =

x + y 0 + 33.33 MPa

=

= 16.7 MPa

2

2

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The max shear stress is:

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(33.33 MPa 0)2 + (11.64 MPa)2

4

The max shear angle is:

]

[

]

[

1 1 (y x )/2

1 (33.33 MPa 0)/2

s = tan

=

2

xy

2

11.64 MPa

s = 27.53 = 0.481 rad

Evaluate (27.53 ) to determine if it equals max or max

1

(27.53 ) = (11.64 MPa) cos 2(27.53 ) + (33.33 MPa 0) sin 2(27.53 )

2

(27.53 ) = 20.3 MPa = max

Thus, the maximum shear stress element is:

16.7 MPa

y

o

20.3 MPa

27.53

16.7 MPa

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Problem 7.62

f0

y

L

z

is fixed at one end, and then the other end is rotated as shown

by 0 = 1 and given an extension 0 = 0.01 in. Determine

the stresses at point A (where x is maximum), and then compute

and draw the principal stress element. Describe its orientation

( )

relative to the shaft axis. The elastic moduli are E = 10 106 psi,

( )

= 0.33, and G = 3.75 106 psi. Take the length L = 50 in.

SOLUTION

Need to find the stress associated with a twist of 1 and an extension of 0.01 in.

For torsion

)

(

)

(

rad

3.75 106 lb/in2 (0.5 in.)(1 ) 180

GR

=

=

L

50 in.

= 654.49 654 psi

( )

PL

or P = EA L

For extension = EA

Thus,

)[ (0.01 in.) ]

P EA ( )

(

6

= =

= E = 10 10 psi

A

A L

L

50 in.

= 2000 psi

Normal stress due to extension acts in the vertical direction. Because of the direction of the twisting, the

shear stress on an element at point A is leftward on top face, and consistent with that on all other faces.

The stress element is:

For x = 0, y = 2000 psi, and xy = 654 psi the mean stress is:

m =

x + y 0 + 2000 psi

=

= 1000 psi

2

2

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The max shear stress is:

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

) (

)

1(

2000 psi 0 2 + 654 psi 2

4

The max shear angle is:

[

[

]

]

1 1 (y x )/2

1 1 (2000 psi 0)/2

s = tan

= tan

2

xy

2

654 psi

s = 28.40 = 0.496 rad

Evaluate (28.40 ) to determine if it equals max or max

1

(28.40 ) = (654 psi) cos 2(28.40 ) + (2000 psi 0) sin 2(28.40 )

2

(28.40 ) = 1195 psi = max

Maximum shear stress element is:

1000 psi

y

1195 psi

28.40

1000 psi

p = s + 45 = 16.60

Principal stresses are:

max = m + max = 1000 psi + 1195 psi = 2195 psi

min = m max = 1000 psi 1195 psi = 195 psi

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Note corners toward which shear stresses on maximum shear stress element point. From that, principal

stress element is:

2195 psi

y

195 psi

16.60

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Problem 7.63

A solid circular shaft with a 0.25 in. diameter is fixed at one end.

The other end is rotated as shown by 0 = 0.3 and then subjected to a transverse force which causes a deflection of 0.007 in.

in the negative y-direction. Determine the stresses at point A

(where y is maximum), and then compute and draw the maximum shear stress element. Describe its orientation

( ) relative to the

shaft axis. The elastic moduli are E = 58 106 psi, = 0.2, and

( )

G = 24 106 psi. Take the length L = 6 in.

A

f0

SOLUTION

Need to find the stress associated with a twist of 0.3 and the bending due to transverse force that causes

a deflection of 0.007 in.

For torsion

G

=

L

(

)

)

(

rad

24 106 lb/in.2 (0.125 in.)(0.3 ) 180

=

6 in.

= 2617.99 2620 psi

Bending

F0

v=

F 0 L3

3EI

F0 =

3vEI

L3

or

bend =

bend =

bend

=

=

=

I

I (

L2 )I

L2

3 (0.007 in.) 58 106 psi (0.125 in.)

(6 in.)2

= 4229.2 4230 psi

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Using the stress transformation equations

The mean stress is:

(

)

x + y

4230 psi 0

m =

=

2

2

m = 2115 psi J

The max shear stress is:

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

) (

)

1(

0 4230 psi 2 + 2620 psi 2

4

The max shear angle is:

)

(

y x /2 [ (0 4230 psi)/2 ]

=

= 19.46 = 0.34 rad

s =

xy

2620 psi

Use the stress transformation equations to find ( s ).

( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) +

)

1(

y x sin(2 s )

2

1

(19.46 ) = (2620 psi) cos[2(19.46 )] + (0 4230 psi) sin[2(19.46 )]

2

( s ) = 3367 psi J

Since ( s ) is positive, the shear stress on the face at s is drawn CCW from the outward normal. The

stress element is:

2115 psi

2115 psi

3367 psi

19.46o

J

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Problem 7.64

A

f0

other end is rotated as shown by 0 = 0.4 and then subjected to

a transverse force which causes a deflection of 0.15 mm in the

negative y-direction. Determine the stresses at point A (where

y is maximum), and then compute and draw the principal stress

element. Describe its orientation relative to the shaft axis. The

elastic moduli are E = 3 GPa, = 0.4, and G = 1.1 GPa. Take

the length L = 150 mm.

SOLUTION

Need to find the stress associated with a twist of 0.4 and the bending due to the transverse force that

causes a deflection of 0.15 mm.

For torsion

G

=

L

(

)

)

(

rad

1.1 109 N/m2 (0.003 m)(0.4 ) 180

=

0.15 m

= 0.1536 MPa

For bending

F0

v=

F 0 L3

3EI

or

F0 =

3vEI

L3

My (F0 L) R 3vEI ( R )

=

=

I

I

L2 I

3vER

=

2

L

(

)(

)

3 1.5 104 m 3 109 N/m2 (0.003 m)

=

(0.15 m)2

= 0.18 MPa

bend =

bend

bend

bend

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Thus, x = 0.18 MPa, y = 0, and xy = 0.1536 MPa; the stress element is:

The mean stress is:

x + y (0.18 MPa + 0)

m =

=

= 0.09 MPa

2

2

The maximum shear stress is:

)2

1(

1

(0 0.18 MPa)2 + (0.1536 MPa)2

max =

y x + xy 2 =

4

4

max = 0.178 MPa

The max shear angle is:

]

]

[

[

1 1 (0 0.18 MPa)/2

1 1 ( x y )/2

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

0.1536 MPa

s = 15.18 = 0.265 rad

Use the stress transformation equation to find ( s ).

1

( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )

2

1

( s ) = (0.1536 MPa) cos[2(15.18 )] + (0 0.18 MPa) sin[2(15.18 )]

2

( s ) = max = 0.178 MPa

Since ( s ) > 0, the stress acts CCW from the outward normal on the face under consideration.

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p = s + 45 = 15.18 + 45 = 29.82

max = m + max = 0.09 MPa + 0.178 MPa

max = 0.268 MPa J

min = m max = 0.09 MPa 0.178 MPa

min = 0.088 MPa J

Since max > 0, it will be directed outward from the stress element; since min < 0, it will be directed

inward toward the stress element.

Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is under stress max

or min .

1

1

( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )

2

2

1

1

(29.82 ) =

(0.18 MPa + 0) + (0.18 MPa 0) cos[2(29.82 )] + (0.1536 MPa) sin[2(29.82 )]

2

2

(29.82 ) = 0.268 MPa = max

( p ) =

0.088 MPa

0.268 MPa

29.82o

J

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Problem 7.65

A

L1

A

y

L2

F0

F0 = 30 N at its end. Determine the stresses at point A (where

z is maximum), and then compute and draw the maximum shear

and principal stress elements. Describe the orientation of these

elements relative to the axis of the portion of length L1 . Take the

member to have a circular cross-section of 12 mm in diameter

and the dimensions to be L1 = 200 mm and L2 = 300 mm.

SOLUTION

The force produces a twisting moment of 30 N (0.3 m) = 9 N-m and a bending moment of 30 N (0.2 m) =

6 N-m

=

T

Ip

My

I

Before calculating these stresses we need to calculate I p and I

I p for a solid circular shaft is:

I p = R4 = (0.006 m)4

2

2

I p = 2.036 109 m4

=

4

R = (0.006 m)4

4

4

I = 1.0178 109 m4

I=

=

T (9 N-m)(0.006 m)

=

Ip

2.036 109 m4

= 26.5 MPa

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Bending stress is:

=

My (6 N-m)(0.006 m)

=

I

1.0178 109 m4

= 35.36 MPa

Note: y = 0

Using the stress transformation equations

The mean stress is:

x + y (35.4 MPa 0)

m =

=

= 17.7 MPa

2

2

The maximum shear stress is:

)2

1(

1

(0 (35.4 MPa))2 + (26.5 MPa)2

max =

y x + xy 2 =

4

4

max = 31.86 31.9 MPa

The maximum shear angle is:

]

[

[

]

1 1 [0 (35.4MPa)]/2

1 1 ( x y )/2

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

26.5 MPa

s = 16.85 = 0.294 rad

Use the stress transformation equation to determine the direction of ( s ).

1

( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )

2

1

2

(16.85 ) = 31.9 MPa

Since ( s ) > 0, it is CCW from the outward normal of the face under consideration.

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max = m + max = 17.7 MPa + 31.9 MPa

max = 14.2 MPa J

min = m max = 17.7 MPa 31.9 MPa

min = 49.6 MPa J

p = s + 45 = 16.85 + 45 = 61.85

Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is subject to min or

max .

1

1

( x + y ) + (y x ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )

2

2

1

1

(61.85 ) =

(35.4 MPa + 0) + (35.4 MPa 0) cos[2(61.85 )] + (26.5 MPa) sin[2(61.85 )]

2

2

(61.85 ) = 14.2 MPa = max

( p ) =

Principal stresses

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Problem 7.66

A

L1

y

F0

L2

z

The loading results in a deflection of 0.25 in. at the load point.

Determine the stresses at point A (where y is maximum), and

then compute and draw the maximum shear and principal stress

elements. Describe the orientation of these elements relative

to the axis

( of

) the portion of length L(1 . The

) elastic moduli are

6

6

E = 30 10 psi, = 0.3, and G = 11 10 psi. Take the member

to have a hollow circular cross-section with 3 in. outer diameter

and a wall thickness of 0.09 in., and take the dimensions to be

L1 = 36 in. and L2 = 24 in.

SOLUTION

The member can be separated into two segments. First segment is L1 and the second is L2 .

The deflection due to the combined loading is given by (see page 392 of the text):

F0 L1 3 F0 L2 L1

F0 L2 3

vC =

+

L2 +

3EI

GI p

3EI

Since we are given vC = 0.25 in., we can calculate F0 . To do so, we will need the I p and I for this

member.

) (

)

( 4

(1.5 in.)4 (1.41 in.)4

Ip =

R Ri 4 =

2

2

I p = 1.7436 in.4

and

I=

) (

)

( 4

(1.5 in.)4 (1.41 in.)4

R Ri 4 =

4

4

I = 0.8718 in.4

So

vC = 0.25 in. =

F0 (36 in.)3

F0 (24 in.)(36 in.)

)(

)(

+(

)

) (24 in.)

3 30 106 lb/in.2 0.8714 in.4

11 106 lb/in.2 1.7436 in.4

(

F0 (24 in.)3

)(

+ (

)

3 30 106 lb/in.2 0.8714 in.4

Solving for F0 gives:

F0 = 135 lb

T = (135 lb)(24 in.) = 3240 lb-in.

The bending moment at the cross-section of point A is:

M = (135 lb)(36 in.) = 4860 lb-in.

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The torsional stress is:

=

=

Ip

1.7436 in.4

= 2787.3 2790 psi

=

=

I

0.8718 in.4

= 8362 8360 psi

Note: y = 0.

Using the stress transformation equations

The mean stress is:

(

)

x + y

8360 psi 0

m =

=

= 4180 psi

2

2

The maximum shear stress is:

)2

) (

)

1(

1(

max =

0 8360 psi 2 + 2790 psi 2

y x + xy 2 =

4

4

max = 5025 psi J

The maximum shear angle is:

]

]

[

[

1 1 (0 8360 psi)/2

1 1 ( x y )/2

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

2790 psi

s = 28.15 = 0.491 rad

Use the stress transformation equation to determine the direction of ( s ).

1

( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )

2

1

2

(28.15 ) = 5025 psi

Since (28.15 ) > 0, it will be drawn CCW from the outward normal of the face under consideration.

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The maximum shear stress element is:

J

max = m + max = 4180 psi + 5025 psi

max = 9205 psi J

min = m max = 4180 psi 5025 psi

min = 845 psi J

p = s 45 = 28.15 45 = 73.15

Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is subject to min or

max .

1

1

( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )

2

2

1

1

(73.15 ) =

(8360 psi + 0) + (8360 psi 0) cos[2(73.15 )] + (2790 psi) sin[2(73.15 )]

2

2

(73.15 ) = 845 psi

( p ) =

9205 psi

73.15o

845 psi

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Problem 7.67

w

outer diameter of 350 mm and a wall thickness of 8 mm. Consider the loading due to only the wind pressure of 2.3 kPa. Determine the stresses at point A (where x is maximum), and then

compute and draw the maximum shear and principal stress elements. Describe the orientation of these elements relative to the

post axis. Take the sign dimensions to be h1 = 8.5 m, h2 = 1.5 m,

and w = 3.5 m.

h2

p

y

h1

z

SOLUTION

The bending moment and twisting moment at the base of the post due to the wind pressure is:

[

]

h2

M = (ph2 w) h1 +

2

[

]

(

)

1.5 m

3

2

M = 2.3 10 N/m (1.5 m)(3.5 m) 8.5 m +

2

5

M = 1.117 10 N-m

and

T = pwh2

(w)

2

[

]

)

(

3.5 m

3

2

T = 2.3 10 N/m (3.5 m)(1.5 m)

2

4

T = 2.113 10 N-m

The torsional stress is:

=

T

Ip

My

I

Before solving for these stresses we need to find I p and I.

=

Ip =

]

4 [

(0.175 m)4 (0.167 m)4

R =

2

2

I p = 2.514 104 m4

I=

]

4 [

(0.175 m)4 (0.167 m)4

R =

4

4

I = 1.257 105 m4

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Thus, the torsional stress is:

(

=

)

2.113 104 N-m (0.175 m)

2.514 104 m4

= 14.71 MPa

(

)

1.117 105 N-m (0.175 m)

My

=

=

I

1.257 105 m4

1 = 155.5 MPa

The stress element is:

The mean stress is:

x + y 0 + 155.5 MPa

m =

=

= 77.75 MPa

2

2

The maximum shear stress is:

)2

1(

1

(155.5 MPa 0)2 + (14.71 MPa)2

max =

y x + xy 2 =

4

4

max = 79.1 MPa J

The maximum shear angle is:

]

]

[

[

1 1 (155.5 MPa 0)/2

1 1 ( x y )/2

s = tan

= tan

2

xy

2

14.71 MPa

s = 39.64 = 0.692 rad

Use the stress transformation equation to determine the direction of ( s )

1

( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )

2

1

(39.64 ) = (14.71 MPa) cos[2(39.64 )] + (155.5 MPa 0) sin[2(39.64 )]

2

Since ( s ) > 0, it is drawn CCW to the outward normal on the face under consideration.

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The maximum stress element is:

79.1 MPa

77.7 MPa

77.7 MPa

39.64o

J

max = m + max = 77.7 MPa + 79.1 MPa

max = 156.8 MPa J

min = m max = 77.7 MPa 79.1 MPa

min = 1.4 MPa J

p = s 45 = 39.64 + 45 = 84.6

Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is subject to min or

max .

1

1

( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )

2

2

1

1

(84.6 ) =

(0 + 155.5 MPa) + (0 155.5 MPa) cos[2(84.6 )] + (14.71 MPa) sin[2(84.6 )]

2

2

(84.6 ) = 156.8 MPa

( p ) =

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Problem 7.68

A cylindrical pressure vessel with an outer diameter of 40 in. and a wall thickness of 0.6 in. is subjected

to an internal pressure of 125 psi. Determine the stresses at a point on the surface and then compute

and draw the maximum shear and principal stress elements. Describe the orientation of these elements

relative to the vessel axis.

SOLUTION

Two stresses on a pressure vessel are axial stress, a , and hoop stress, h . Referring to Section 6.3 of the

text, these stresses are:

(

)

125 psi (20 in. 0.3 in.)

pR

h =

=

t

0.6 in.

h = 4100 psi J

and

(

)

125 psi (20 in. 0.3 in.)

pR

a =

=

2t

2(0.6 in.)

a = 2050 psi J

The stress element is:

J

and this is also seen to be the principal stress element since there is no shear.

Since there is no other loading, xy = 0 and the equations for the maximum stress and maximum shear

angle are simplified to give:

max =

)

1

1(

(h a ) = 4100 psi 2050 psi = 1025 psi

2

2

and

s = 45

m =

=

= 3075 psi

2

2

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The maximum shear stress element is:

1025 psi

3075 psi

3075 psi J

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Problem 7.69

T0

The structure on which the vessel rests becomes damaged, resulting in uneven support that causes a twisting moment T 0 of

107 N-m on the vessel. The vessel has an outer diameter of 2.5 m

and a wall thickness of 50 mm. Determine the stresses at a point

on the outer surface midway along the length of the vessel, and

then compute and draw the maximum shear and principal stress

elements. Describe the orientation of these elements relative to

the vessel axis.

SOLUTION

The hoop and axial stress on the pressure vessel are:

h =

(

h =

pR

t

)

1.8 106 N/m2 (1.225 m)

0.05 m

h = 44.1 MPa J

and

a =

(

a =

pR

2t

)

1.8 106 N/m2 (1.225 m)

2 (0.05 m)

The stress due to the torque is:

(

)

1 107 N-m (1.25 m)

T

] = 21.6 MPa

=

= [

Ip

(1.25 m)4 (1.2 m)4

a = 22.05 MPa J

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The mean stress is:

m =

=

= 33.1 MPa

2

2

)2

1(

1

2

(44.1 MPa 22.05 MPa)2 + (21.6 MPa)2

max =

y x + xy =

4

4

max = 24.3 MPa J

The maximum shear angle is:

)

(

[

]

1 1 y x /2 1 1 (44.1 MPa 22.05 MPa) /2

= tan

s = tan

2

xy

2

21.6 MPa

s = 13.52

Use the stress transformation equation to determine the direction of ( s ).

1

( s ) = xy cos(2 s ) + (y x ) sin(2 s )

2

1

(13.52 ) = (21.6 MPa) cos[2(13.52 )] + (44.1 MPa 22.05 MPa) sin[2(13.52 )]

2

Since ( s ) < 0, it is drawn CW to the outward normal on the face under consideration.

33.1 MPa

13.52o

33.1 MPa

24.3 MPa

J

max = m + max = 33.1 MPa + 24.3 MPa

max = 57.4 MPa J

min = m max = 33.1 MPa 24.3 MPa

min = 8.8 MPa J

p = s + 45 = 13.52 + 45 = 31.48

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Use the stress transformation equation to determine if the face under consideration is subject to min or

max

1

1

( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos(2 p ) + xy sin(2 p )

2

2

1

1

(31.48 ) =

(22.05 MPa + 44.1 MPa) + (22.05 MPa 44.1 MPa) cos[2(31.48 )]

2

2

+(21.6 MPa) sin[2(31.48 )]

(31.48 ) = 8.8 MPa = min

( p ) =

57.4 MPa

8.8 MPa

31.48o

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Problem 7.70

A large downward force on the right pedal results in a moment about the forward axis of a bike. This

moment can be balanced by an opposite moment of the hands pulling up on right handle bar and pushing

down on the left. Thus, two equal and opposite moments have to be absorbed by the frame. Assume that

the down tube, rather than the top tube, takes most of this moment. Some of the moment acts parallel

to the tube, producing torsion and some of it perpendicularly, producing bending. Let the total moment

from the hands be 1800 lb-in. Combining the stresses due to the twisting and bending, determine the

maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress in the down tube. Take the down tube to be of

aluminum 24 in. long, oriented at an angle = 48 , with hollow circular cross-section having an outer

diameter of 1.75 in. and a wall thickness of 0.125 in.

Seat tube

Top

tube

Down

tube

Head

tube

SOLUTION

The moment parallel to the down tube is the twisting moment given by:

T = 1800 cos 48 = 1204 lb-in.

The moment perpendicular to the tube is the bending moment

M = 1800 sin 48 = 1338 lb-in.

In order to calculate the torsional stress and bending moment stress, we need I p and I. For hollow circular

cross-section

)4

] ( 1.75 in. )4 ( 1.75 in.

[ 4

Ip =

R Ri 4 =

0.125 in.

2

2

2

2

I p = 0.424 in.4

Realize that

I=

The torsional shear stress is:

=

] 1

[ 4

R Ri 4 = I p = 0.212 in.4

4

2

T (1204 lb-in.)(0.875 in.)

=

Ip

0.424 in.4

= 2480 psi

=

=

I

0.212 in.4

= 5520 psi

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Thus, max shear stress is:

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

) (

)

1(

5520 psi 2 + 2480 psi 2

4

max = 3710 psi J

max = m + max

5520

max =

psi + 3720 psi

2

max = 6470 psi J

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Problem 7.71

In using this pectoral fly machine, the hand grips and applies a

50 lb force to the handle as shown. The pivoting arm is approximated here as horizontal. Determine the stresses at the far end

of the pivoting arm, where the bending stresses are maximum.

Find the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress at

this point. Use the approximation of a thin wall for the torsion of

the pivoting arm. Take the dimensions to be w = 6 in., L = 24 in.,

a = 2 in., b = 1.5 in., t = 0.25 in., and c = 20 in.

c

a

b

Pivoting

arm

t

a

b

L

b

a

Swinging

arm

w

F0

SOLUTION

In order to find the shear and normal stress, need to find the bending moment and torsion generated by

the applied force.

Bending moment

M = F0 c = (50 lb)(20 in.)

M = 1000 lb-in.

Twisting moment

T = F0 (w + L) = (50 lb)(6 in. + 24 in.)

T = 1500 lb-in.

To determine the bending stress need the moment of intertia.

For the cross-section

I=

]

1 [

1 3

(1.5 in.) (2 in.)3 (1 in.) (1.5 in.)3 = 0.71875 in.4

bh =

12

12

=

=

= 1391 psi

I

0.71875 in.4

Using the thin wall approximation (see page 179 of text) the torsional stress is given by:

max =

T

2Am t

Am = (1.5 in. 0.25 in.)(2 in. 0.25 in.) = 2.1875 in.2

Thus,

=

1500 lb-in.

(

)

= 1371 psi

2 2.1875 in.2 (0.25 in.)

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Where the max shear stress is:

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

) (

)

1(

1391 psi 2 + 1371 psi 2

4

max = 1537 psi J

max = m + max =

2

max = 2230 psi J

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Problem 7.72

Say that each leg exerts an upward force of 50 lb. Determine the

maximum shear stress at two cross-sections in the shaft connecting the pivot beam to the cord plate: (a) at the cord plate and (b)

at the pivot beam. Account for both the twisting and the bending

of the shaft that occurs at these cross-sections. Note that the shaft

bends in two planes, due to the vertical force and moment applied

by the pivot beam and due to the horizontal force applied by the

cord. Take the dimensions to be a = 4 in., b = 16 in., c = 4 in.,

d = 3.5 in., D2 = 1 in., p = 2 in., q = 6 in., R = 9 in., s = 3 in.,

and w = 17 in.

q

R

Cord plate

s

D2

Pivot beam

w

F1

c

b

F2

a

SOLUTION

The two forces F1 and F2 will produce a single force and two moments at the shaft and pivot beam

connection, as seen in the FBD below.

Ay

100 lb

y

M2

Ax

By

z

x

T

M1

Bx

M1 = (50 lb)(1.75 in. + 4 in.) + (50 lb)(1.75 in. + 4 in. + 16 in.) = 1375 lb-in.

M2 = 2(50 lb)(17 in.) = 1700 lb-in.

T = 188.9 lb

100 lb By

3 in.

8 in.

z

1375 lb-in.

Ay

Ay = 97.7 lb

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FBD of AB (only showing loads causing bending in x-z plane)

188.9 lb

2 in.

9 in.

z

x

Ax

Bx

A x = 154.5 lb

M x = Ay (2 in.) = (97.71 lb)(2 in.) = 195.4 lb-in.

My = A x (2 in.) = (154.5 lb)(2 in.) = 309 lb-in.

Thus, the net bending moment is:

2

2

M = M x + My = (195.4 lb-in.)2 + (309 lb-in.)2 = 365.6 lb-in.

The twisting moment is:

T = (188.9lb)(9 in.) = 1700 lb-in.

The bending stress is given by:

=

My

I

=

4M

4 (365.5 lb-in.)

= 3724 psi

=

3

(D2 /2)

(0.5 in.)3

=

T

Ip

=

2T

2 (1700 lb-in.)

= 8660 psi

=

(D2 /2)3

(0.5 in.)3

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

)

) (

1(

3724 psi 2 + 8660 psi 2

4

max = 8860 psi J

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(b) At the pivot beam

My = A x (8 in.) (188.9 lb)(6 in.) = (154.5 lb)(8 in.) (188.9 lb)(6 in.)

My = 102.6 lb-in.

M x = Ay (8 in.) = (97.71 lb)(8 in.) = 781.6 lb-in.

2

2

M = M x + My = (781.6 lb-in.)2 + (102.6 lb-in.)2

M = 788 lb-in.

The twisting moment is 1700 lb-in.

Thus, the bending and torsional stresses are (see part a)

Bending

4M

=

(D2 /2)3

And torsional shear stress remains the same at

= 8660 psi

=

4 (788 lb-in.)

= 8030 psi

(0.5 in.)3

)2

) (

)

1(

1(

max =

y x + xy 2 =

8030 psi 2 + 8660 psi 2

4

4

max = 9550 psi J

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Problem 7.73

The stresses on the x-y-axes are x = 80 MPa, y = 100 MPa, and xy = 50 MPa. Draw the Mohrs

circle for this stress state and determine the normal and shear stresses on a surface with normal oriented

at 20 CCW from the x-axis.

SOLUTION

Calculate m , max

=

= 95 MPa

2

2

)2

1(

1

(110 MPa 80 MPa)2 + (50 MPa)2

=

y x + xy 2 =

4

4

max = 52.2 MPa

m =

max

Recall

m = center of circle

max = radius of circle

Determine angular position of point ( x , xy ) on circle

]

[

50 MPa

1

= 73.3

tan

95 MPa 80 MPa

Surface located 22 CCW from x-axis would be 2(22 ) = 44 CCW around the circle.

Angle of new point on circle = 180 73.3 44 = 66.7

(110, 50)

sm

73.3o

(80, 50)

66.7o

[s(q), t(q)]

From position of new point on circle, find normal and shear stress

() = m + max cos 66.7

() = 115.6 MPa J

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() = max sin 66.7

() = 47.9 MPa J

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Problem 7.74

The stresses on the x-y-axes are x = 5 ksi, y = 3 ksi, and xy = 3 ksi. Draw the Mohrs circle for this

stress state and determine the normal and shear stresses on a surface with normal oriented at 30 CCW

from the x-axis.

SOLUTION

Calculate m , max

x + y 5 ksi + (3 ksi)

=

= 1 ksi

2

2

)2

1(

1

(3 ksi 5 ksi)2 + (3 ksi)2

=

y x + xy 2 =

4

4

max = 5 ksi

m =

max

Recall

m = center of circle

max = radius of circle

Determine angular position of point ( x , xy ) on circle

]

[

3 ksi

1

= 36.87

tan

5 ksi 1 ksi

Surface located at 30 CCW from x-axis would be 2(30 ) = 60 CCW around the circle.

Angle of new point on circle = 36.87 + 60 = 23.13

[s(q), t(q)]

(3, 3)

sm

23.13o

s

36.87o

(5, 3)

From position of new point on circle, find normal and shear stress

() = m + max cos 23.13

() = 5.60 ksi J

() = max sin 23.13

() = 1.964 ksi J

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Problem 7.75

The stresses on the x-y-axes are x = 50 MPa, y = 60 MPa, and xy = 70 MPa. Draw the Mohrs

circle for this stress state. Identify the principal stresses from the Mohrs circle, and draw the principal

stress element, specifying its orientation.

SOLUTION

Calculate m , max

x + y 50 MPa + 60 MPa

=

= 5 MPa

2

2

)2

1(

1

(60 MPa + (50 MPa))2 + (70 MPa)2

=

y x + xy 2 =

4

4

max = 89 MPa

m =

max

Recall

m = center of circle

max = radius of circle

In addition, plot (60, 70) and (50, 70).

Determine angular position of point ( x , xy ) on circle

]

[

70 MPa

1

= 51.8

tan

60 MPa 5 MPa

Calculate the principal stresses

max = m + max = 94 MPa

min = m max = 84 MPa

(50, 70)

smax = 94 MPa

s

51.8o

smin = 84 MPa

(60, 70)

t

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Principal stress element is oriented at 51.8 /2 = 25 CW from x-axis. Note that max on the circle

corresponds to a CCW rotation by 51.8 of the point (y , xy ). Therefore, max is 25.9 CCW from the

y-axis.

94 MPa

84 MPa

25.92o

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Problem 7.76

The stresses on the x-y-axes are x = 8 ksi, y = 12 ksi, and xy = 5 ksi. Draw the Mohrs circle for

this stress state. Identify the maximum shear stress from the Mohrs circle, and draw the maximum shear

stress element, specifying its orientation.

SOLUTION

Calculate m , max

x + y 8 ksi + 12 ksi

=

= 10 ksi

2

2

)2

1(

1

(12 ksi 8 ksi)2 + (5 ksi)2

=

y x + xy 2 =

4

4

max = 5.385 ksi

m =

max

Recall

m = center of circle

max = radius of circle

In addition, plot (12, 5) and (8, 5).

Determine angular position of point (y , xy ) on circle

]

[

1 12 ksi 10 ksi

= 21.8

tan

5 ksi

(8, 5)

sm

s

(12, 5)

21.8

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Maximum shear stress element is oriented at 21.8 /2 CW from x-axis. Note that max on the circle

corresponds to a CW rotation by 21.8 of the point (y , xy ). Therefore, has maximum positive value

face that is 10.9 CW from the y-axis.

10 ksi

5.385 ksi

10 ksi

10.9o

J

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Problem 7.77

A solid shaft with 1.25 in. diameter is subjected to a bending moment of 2500 lb-in. and a twisting

moment of 3200 lb-in. Determine stresses at the point where the bending and torsional stresses are

greatest. Draw the Mohrs circle for that stress state.

SOLUTION

Need to calculate the bending stress and shear due to torsion.

Bending

My

x =

I

4

I= R , y=R

4

Thus,

4M

=

R3

4 (2500 lb-in.)

=

(0.625 in.)3

= 13040 psi J

Torsion

=

Ip =

Thus,

=

Note: y = 0.

Calculate m and max

4

R,

2

T

Ip

=R

2T

2 (3200 lb-in.)

=

R3

(0.625 in.)3

= 8340 psi

x + y 13040

=

= 6520 psi

2

2

)2

)

) (

1(

1(

=

y x + xy 2 =

13040 psi 2 + 8340 psi 2

4

4

m =

max

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Recall

m = center of circle

max = radius of circle

In addition, plot (13040, 8340) and (0, 8340)

(0, 8340)

sm

s

(13040, 8340)

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Problem 7.78

A tube with an outer diameter of 14 mm and a wall thickness of 1.5 mm is subjected to a bending

moment of 8 N-m and a twisting moment of 6 N-m. Determine stresses at the point where the bending

and torsional stresses are greatest. Draw the Mohrs circle for that stress state.

SOLUTION

Need to calculate the bending stress and shear due to torsion.

Bending

My

x =

I

Need I

]

[

(0.007 m)4 (0.007 m 0.0015 m)4

I = R4 =

4

4

I = 1.167 109 m4

Thus,

=

(8 N-m)(0.007 m)

1.167 109 m4

= 48 MPa J

Torsion

=

Need I p

Ip =

T

Ip

] [

]

[ 4

(0.007 m)4 (0.007 m 0.0015 m)4

R Ri 4 =

2

2

I p = 2.334 109 m4

Thus,

=

(6 N-m)(0.007 m)

= 18 MPa

2.334 109 m4

m =

x + y (48 MPa 0)

=

2

2

m = 24 MPa J

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(48 MPa)2 + (18 MPa)2

4

max = 30 MPa J

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Recall

m = center of circle

max = radius of circle

In addition, plot (0, 18) and (48, 18)

(0, 18)

sm

s

(48, 18)

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Problem 7.79

F0

Tube 2

z

d2

Tube 1

x

y

d1

a

steel tubes of dierent outer diameters. The downward force is

applied at the tray center F0 = 1000 N. Determine the stresses at

the point of tube 1 where the bending and torsional stresses are

greatest. Draw the Mohrs circle for that stress state. Both members have a wall thickness of 4 mm. d1 = 40 mm, d2 = 34 mm,

a = 700 mm, and b = 500 mm.

SOLUTION

F0 produces a bending moment of

M = F0 a = (1000 N)(0.7 m) = 700 N-m

The twisting moment produced by F0 is:

T = F0 b = (1000 N)(0.5 m) = 500 N-m

The bending stress is:

x =

Need I

I=

]

4 [

(0.02 m)4 (0.02 m 0.004 m)4

R =

4

4

I = 7.419 108 m4

MR (700 N-m)(0.02 m)

=

=

I

7.419 108 m4

= 188.7 MPa

=

Need I p

Ip =

My

I

T

Ip

) [

]

( 4

(0.02 m)4 (0.02 m 0.004 m)4

R Ri 4 =

2

2

I p = 1.483 107 m4

=

(500 N-m)(0.02 m)

= 67.4 MPa

1.4838 107 m4

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(

)

Now calculate m and max with y = 0

m =

x + y 188.7 MPa 0

=

2

2

m = 94.35 MPa J

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(0 188.7 MPa)2 + (67.4 MPa)2

4

max = 115.9 MPa J

Recall

m = center of circle

max = radius of circle

In addition, plot (0, 67.4) and (188.7, 67.4)

(0, 67.4)

sm

s

(188.7, 67.4)

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Problem 7.80

The cylindrical pressure vessel with end caps, an outer diameter

of 4 ft, and a wall thickness of 0.625 in., contains gas under a

pressure of 200 psi. Determine the stresses in the wall and draw

the Mohrs circle for the stress state.

4 ft

SOLUTION

For the pressure vessel the hoop stress is:

(

)(

200 psi 24 in.

PR

h =

=

t

0.625 in.

0.625 in.

2

h = 7580 psi J

]

[

0.625 in.

PR 200 psi 24 in. 2

a =

=

2t

2 (0.625 in.)

a = 3790 psi J

Set x = a and y = h

xy = 0

m =

=

2

2

m = 5685 psi J

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

)

1(

7580 psi 3790 psi 2 + (0)2

4

max = 1895 psi J

3790 psi

sm

7580 psi

s

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Problem 7.81

A cylindrical pressure vessel with end caps has a mean diameter of 800 mm and a wall thickness of

20 mm. In addition to being subjected to an internal pressure

( of

) 2 MPa, a disruption in its supports leads

5

the vessel also to be twisted with a twisting moment of 3 10 N-m. Determine the stresses on the outer

surface of the vessel and draw the Mohrs circle for that stress state.

SOLUTION

For the pressure vessel the hoop stress is:

h =

PR (2 MPa)(0.4 m)

=

(0.02 m)

t

h = 40 MPa J

a =

PR (2 MPa)(0.4 m)

=

2t

2 (0.02 m)

a = 20 MPa J

(

)

5

(0.410 m)

3

10

N-m

T

] = 15.28 MPa

=

= [

Ip

(0.41 m)4 (0.39 m)4

2

m =

x + y 40 MPa + 20 MPa

=

2

2

m = 30 MPa J

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(20 MPa 40 MPa)2 + (15.28 MPa)2

4

max = 18.26 MPa J

(20, 15.28)

sm

s

(40, 15.28)

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Problem 7.82

B

40 ft

25 ft

C

A road sign consists of a steel post AB that has an outer diameter of 16 in., a wall thickness of 0.75 in., and a length of 25 ft.

The pole BC has an outer diameter of 12 in., a wall thickness of

0.625 in., and a length of 40 ft to the center of the sign. The sign

is 15 ft wide by 10 ft high and is subjected to a wind pressure of

0.2 psi. Determine the largest stresses in the vertical post AB due

to the wind pressure, and draw Mohrs circle for that stress state.

SOLUTION

The bending moment generated by the wind is:

(

)][

(

)][

(

)]

(

)[

12 in.

12 in.

12 in.

2

10 ft

25 ft

M = 0.2 lb/in. 15 ft

1 ft

1 ft

1 ft

M = 1.296 106 lb-in.

The twisting moment generated is:

(

)][

(

)][

(

)]

(

)[

12 in.

12 in.

12 in.

2

T = 0.2 lb/in. 15 ft

10 ft

40 ft

1 ft

1 ft

1 ft

T = 2.07 106 lb-in.

The bending stress is:

=

Need I

I=

Thus,

My

I

) [

]

( 4

(8 in.)4 (7.25 in.)4

R R4i =

4

4

I = 1047.08 in.4

(

)

1.296 106 lb-in. (8 in.)

MR

=

=

I

1047.08 in.4

= 9900 psi J

=

Ip =

T

Ip

)

( 4

R R4i = 2I = 2094.16 in.4

2

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T

=

Ip

)

2.07 106 lb-in. (8 in.)

2094.16 in.4

= 7910 psi

Note: y = 0.

Calculate m and max

m =

x + y 9900 psi + 0

=

2

2

m = 4950 psi J

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

) (

)

1(

0 9900 psi 2 + 7910 psi 2

4

max = 9340 psi J

(0, 7910)

sm

s

(9900, 7910)

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Problem 7.83

a

of x = 80 MPa and y = 30 MPa. An additional loading,

producing only a shear stress, increases until a crack is observed

to open up when the angle shown is = 20 . (a) Determine the

shear stress xy at which cracking occurs. (b) If this material were

loaded in uniaxial tension, at what critical tensile stress would

brittle fracture occur?

SOLUTION

Stresses are:

x = 80 MPa

y = 30 MPa

= 20

30 MPa

80 MPa

Maximum tension must act perpendicular to the crack. Therefore, angle of max shear must be

s = 20 45 = 25

Thus,

]

[

1 1 y x

s = 25 = tan

2

2 xy

(

)

1 y x

xy =

2 tan(50 )

(

)

1 30 MPa 80 MPa

xy =

= 46.2 MPa

2

tan(50 )

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Determine maximum shear stress

max =

1

(30 MPa 80 MPa)2 + (46.2 MPa)2

4

max = 71.8 MPa J

max = m + max

max = 25 + 71.8 MPa

Same material would fracture in uniaxial tension at a stress of max .

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Problem 7.84

Under purely uniaxial tension, brittle failure in a material is known to occur at 50 ksi. The normal stresses

on the x-y-axes are fixed at the level of x = 20 ksi and y = 35 ksi. Determine (a) the shear stress xy at

which cracking (brittle failure) occurs, and (b) the orientation of the plane on which the cracks appear.

SOLUTION

(a) Stresses are x = 20 ksi, y = 35 ksi, and xy is to be determined. Maximum normal stress at which

brittle failure occurs is known to be 50 ksi. Find xy which leads to that max

(20 ksi + 35 ksi)

= 27.5 ksi

2

1

= m +

(35 ksi 20 ksi)2 + xy 2

4

m =

max

Substituting and solving for xy ,

1

(15 ksi)2 + xy 2

4

(b) Find angle of maximum shear

]

]

[

[

1 1 y x

1 1 35 ksi 20 ksi

s = tan

= tan

= 9.74

2

2 xy

2

2(21.2 ksi)

Angle of principal stresses is:

xy = 21.2 ksi J

p = s + 45 = 54.74

p = 54.74 J

1

1

(54.74 ) = (20 ksi + 35 ksi) + (20 ksi 35 ksi) cos 2(54.74 ) + (21.2 ksi) sin 2(54.74 )

2

2

(54.74 ) = 50 ksi = max

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Problem 7.85

Using a strain

(

)rosette to (measure

) strains, cracks

( are

) found to initiate in a ceramic component at strains

4

4

4

x = 6.2 10 , y = 2.1 10 and xy = 6.7 10 . The elastic moduli are E = 400 GPa, = 0.22, and

G = 164 GPa. Determine the critical tensile stress at which brittle fracture occurs and the anticipated

orientation of the crack plane relative to the x-axis.

SOLUTION

Strains are:

(

)

x = 6.2 104

(

)

y = 2.1 104

(

)

xy = 6.7 104

E = 400 GPa

= 0.22

G = 164 GPa

)

(

) 1(

x y

x = 6.2 104 =

E

) 1(

(

)

y = 2.1 104 =

y x

E

Solving simultaneously gives:

x = 280 MPa

y = 145.6 MPa

xy = G xy

xy = 164 GPa(6.7(104 )) = 109.8 MPa

max =

1

(145.6 MPa 280 MPa)2 + (109.8 MPa)2

4

max = 128.7 MPa

m =

= 212.8 MPa

2

max = 341.5 MPa J

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Solve for the shear angle

[

]

1 1 y x

s = tan

= 15.732

2

2 xy

p = s + 45 = 29.27

Test to determine if max or min acts on 29.27

p = 29.27 J

1

1

(29.27 ) = (280 MPa + 145.6 MPa) + (280 MPa 145.6 MPa) cos 2(29.27 )

2

2

+ (109.8 MPa) sin 2(29.27 )

(29.27 ) = 341.5 MPa = max

Failure would occur in uniaxial tension at 342 MPa.

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Problem 7.86

Cracking would occur in a material when stresses on the x-y-axes are equal to x = 12 ksi, y = 3 ksi,

and xy = 7 ksi. Determine the critical tensile stress at which brittle fracture occurs, and the anticipated

orientation of the crack plane relative to the horizontal axis.

SOLUTION

The stresses are x = 12 ksi, y = 3 ksi, and xy = 7 ksi.

The mean stress is:

x + y 12 ksi + 3 ksi

m =

=

= 7.5 ksi

2

2

The maximum shear stress is:

1

1

max =

(y x )2 + 2xy =

(3 ksi 12 ksi)2 + (7 ksi)2 = 8.32 ksi

4

4

The maximum shear angle is:

]

]

[

[

1 1 y x

1 1 3 ksi 12 ksi

s = tan

= tan

= 16.37

2

2 xy

2

2(7 ksi)

The maximum stress is:

max = 7.5 ksi + 8.32 ksi = 15.82 ksi

The minimum stress is, with max on the crack plane. Note this is consistent with min .

min = 7.5 ksi 8.32 ksi = 0.822 ksi

Angle of principal stresses is:

p = s + 45 = 61.37

1

1

(61.37 ) = (12 ksi + 3 ksi) + (12 ksi 3 ksi) cos 2(61.37 ) + (7 ksi) sin 2(61.37 )

2

2

(61.37 ) = 0.822 ksi

Therefore, max acts on the plane 90 away

p = 61.37 90 = 28.63

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so

max = 15.82 ksi J

and acts on

p = 28.63 J

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Problem 7.87

Elastic finite element analysis of a component is conducted. The loading is due to an applied force

designated by F0 applied at a particular point. When F0 = 100 N, the highest stresses in the component

are calculated to be x = 75 MPa, y = 175 MPa, and xy = 60 MPa. If the material cracks under a

critical tensile stress of 350 MPa, determine the applied load F0 at which cracking would occur.

SOLUTION

Stresses at F0 = 100 N

m =

max =

x + y

= 50 MPa

2

1

[175MPa (75 MPa)]2 + (60 MPa)2 = 138.7 MPa

4

max = m + max = 188.7 MPa

Note that max will increase in proportion if all x-y stresses are increased by the same factor. Assuming

the material responds linear elastically, all the stresses will indeed increase in proportion as the single

load F0 increases.

Determine the factor by which the current load F0 needs to increase if the max , (188.7 MPa), is to reach

the critical maximum normal stress, (350 MPa)

350 MPa

= 1.855

188.7 MPa

Therefore, failure occurs at a load that is 1.855 times as larger as F0 , or

1.855F0 = 185.5 N J

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Problem 7.88

Elastic finite element analysis of a component is conducted. The loading is due to an applied force

designated by F0 applied at a particular point. When F0 = 200 lb, the highest stresses in the component

are calculated to be x = 3760 psi, y = 7800 psi, and xy = 4520 ksi. If the material yields under a

tensile stress of 55 ksi, determine the applied load F0 at which yielding would occur.

SOLUTION

At F0 = 200 lb, x = 3760 psi, y = 7800 psi, and xy = 4520 psi.

Mean stress

x + y 3760 psi + 7800 psi

m =

=

= 2020 psi

2

2

Maximum shear stress

1

1

max =

(y x )2 + 2xy =

(7800 psi 3860 psi)2 + (4520 psi)2 = 7340 psi

4

4

The material yields (it is ductile) in uniaxial tension at a tensile stress y = 55 ksi. In uniaxial tension,

the maximum shear stress is one-half of the tensile stress, so the critical shear stress is:

Y = 27.5 ksi

Note that max will increase in proportion if all x-y stresses are increased by the same factor. Assuming

the material responds linear elastically, all the stresses will indeed increase in proportion as the single

load F0 increases.

Determine the factor by which the current load F0 needs to increase if max (7340 psi) is to reach the shear

stress at yield (27500 psi).

27500 psi

= 3.75

7340 psi

Yield, therefore, occurs, at a load that is 3.75(200 lb) or

F0 = 750 lb J

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Problem 7.89

The shear stress at a point of interest is known to be xy = 40 MPa.

At that point, there is also a tensile stress of y , but x = 0. Slip lines

due to plastic yielding are observed to first appear in the orientation

shown with = 15 . (a) Determine the magnitude of the stress y .

(b) If y alone acted, what would be the magnitude of y at which

slip lines on any plane would first be observed?

a

y

SOLUTION

sy

40 MPa

(a) Maximum shear angle s where slipping is first noticed coincides with orientation of observed slip

lines = 15 .

]

]

[

[

y

1 1 y x

1 1

s = tan

= tan

= 15

2

2 xy

2

2(40 MPa)

Solving an expression for y gives:

y = 2(40 MPa) tan 30

y = 46.2 MPa J

(b) Since x = 0,

1

(46.2 MPa)2 + (40 MPa)2 = 46.2 MPa

4

So if y acts alone, i.e., xy = 0, then yielding occurs when

max =

y

= 46.2 MPa

2

or

y = 92.4 MPa J

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Problem 7.90

Say that uniaxial tension at a level of 40 ksi causes ductile yielding. Yielding can also occur under a

combination of compression and shear. (a) If the compressive stress in the x-direction is 25 ksi (and

y = 0), determine the shear stress xy . (b) Determine the orientation of the slip lines.

SOLUTION

(a) Ductile yielding occurs, so Y = 40 ksi, which means Y = 20 ksi.

Find shear stress xy at yield if the other stress components are x = 25 ksi and y = 0.

The maximum shear stress formula is:

1

max =

(25 ksi)2 + 2xy = 20 ksi

4

So we can solve to get

xy = 15.61 ksi J

(b) Maximum shear angle

[

[

]

]

25 ksi

1 1

1 1 y x

= tan

s = tan

2

2 xy

2

2(15.61 ksi)

So the orientation of the slip lines is:

s = 19.34 J

or

s 90 = 70.66 J

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Problem 7.91

A strain rosette is used to measure

in a steel

For a (given) load, the strains at a

( strains

)

( component.

)

4

4

point are found to be x = 6.1 10 , y = 3.8 10 , and xy = 7.1 104 . The elastic moduli

( )

( )

are E = 30 106 psi, = 0.3, and G = 11 106 psi. If the yield stress in tension is 36 ksi, by what

percentage can the load be increased without yield occurring at that same point? Assume that the strains

increase in proportion to the load.

SOLUTION

Knowing the moduli, find the stresses form the strains in the steel component

(

)

) 30 106 psi [ (

)

(

(

))]

E (

4

4

6.1

10

+

0.3

3.8

10

x =

=

y

x

1 2

1 0.32

x = 16.35 ksi

y =

E

y + x

1 2

(

)

))]

)

( (

(

30 106 psi [

4

4

+

0.3

6.1

10

=

3.8

10

1 0.32

y = 6.495 ksi

[ ( )

][

(

)]

xy = G xy = 11 106 psi (7.1) 104

xy = 8.19 ksi

Maximum shear stress

max =

)2

1(

y x + xy 2 =

4

1

(6.49 ksi 16.35 ksi)2 + (8.19 ksi)2

4

The yield stress in tension is given as 36 ksi

Y = 36 ksi

Therefore, the yield stress in shear must be

Y =

36 ksi

= 18 ksi

2

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The stress components (and hence the maximum shear stress) are all assumed to increase in proportion

to the load. Therefore, determine the fractional increase in the load as corresponding to the fractional

from the current maximum shear stress 14.06 ksi to the shear yield stress 18 ksi:

18 ksi 14.06 ksi

= 0.280

14.06 ksi

28.0% J

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Problem 7.92

A circular ceramic rod 35 mm in length and 8 mm in diameter is subjected to a twisting moment. Its elastic moduli are

E = 380 GPa, = 0.2, and G = 158 GPa. Determine the twist

(relative angle of rotation) at which cracking would occur, if the

same rod would have cracked under a tensile load of 6000 N.

SOLUTION

For this rod, the maximum normal stress at cracking point under a tensile load of 6000 N is:

f =

P

6000 N

= (

)2 = 119.4 MPa

2

R

8 mm

2

If the rod is subjected to torsion, then the only stress acting is a shear stress .

If only a shear stress acts, the maximum normal stress is equal to . We want the shear stress at which

the maximum normal stress reaches the fracture stress, therefore

f = 119.4 MPa

The shear stress in torsion can be related to the twist

=

GR

(159 GPa)(4 mm)

= 119.4 MPa =

L

35 mm

= 0.379 J

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Problem 7.93

An aluminum bar would yield plastically at a tensile stress of

30 ksi. If the bar is 8 in. long, determine the acceptable range of

diameters if it is to tolerate one end twisted by 1 relative to the

other.

SOLUTION

Given the tensile yield stress

Y = 30 ksi

The shear stress at yield is

Y 30 ksi

=

= 15 ksi

2

2

Relate the maximum shear stress (on the surface of the twisting rod) to the relative twist

Y =

max =

GR

= 15 ksi

L

We rearrange the expression to find the radius, and we know that the max should not exceed 15 ksi. Thus,

R<

(15 ksi)L

G

( )

R< (

)

and

d = 2R

Thus,

d < 3.62 in. J

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Problem 7.94

A twisting moment of 800 N-m first causes yielding in a circular

steel tube that is 400 mm long with an outer diameter of 30 mm

and an inner diameter of 24 mm. Determine the axial tensile force

at which the same bar would yield.

SOLUTION

Yielding occurs at twisting moment of T = 800 N-m.

Shear stress due to twisting moment

=

TR

(

)=

4 R4

R

i

2

] = 256 MPa

[

(15 mm)4 (12 mm)4

Y = 256 MPa

In uniaxial tension, the maximum shear stress equal to 1/2 of the tensile stress, so for this material

Y = 2Y = 511.2 MPa

In uniaxial tension, the normal stress is equal to P/A. Therefore, the force at which yield would occur is:

]

)

[

(

P = Y R2 R2i = (511.2 MPa) (0.015 m)2 (0.012 m)2

P = 130.1 kN J

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Problem 7.95

A bar of 20 mm in diameter and 300 mm in length is subjected to

an axial compressive stress of 20 MPa. (a) If the material undergoes brittle failure under a tensile stress of 80 MPa, what twisting moment would just produce brittle failure while the compressive force acted? (b) If the material yields plastically at a yield

strength of 80 MPa, what twisting moment would just produce

yielding while the compressive force acted?

SOLUTION

(a) Stresses on the bar are x = 20 MPa, y = 0, and shear stress to be determined.

Tensile stress at brittle fracture

f = 80 MPa

m =

x

= 10 MPa

2

and

)2

1(

y x + 2

4

1

(20 MPa)2 + 2

= 10 MPa +

4

max = 80 MPa

max =

max = m + max

Under the combination of compressive stress x and shear stress we want the maximum normal stress

to equal the uniaxial tensile stress at brittle fracture.

Solve for to find

= 89.4 MPa

Solving for the twisting moment at brittle failure

=

TR

2T

=

Ip

R3

89.4 MPa =

2T

(0.020 m)3

T brittle = 1124 N-m J

max

Y = 80 MPa

80 MPa

= 40 MPa

Y =

2

)2

1(

1

(20 MPa)2 + 2 = 40 MPa

=

y x + 2 =

4

4

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Solve for the shear stress

= 38.7 MPa

=

TR

2T

=

Ip

R3

38.7 MPa =

2T

(0.020 m)3

T ductile = 487 N-m J

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Problem 7.96

1 in.

1 in.

a tensile stress of 8 ksi. Determine the allowable rotation of the

tabs, if the snap fit is not to yield. The twisting member has a

diameter of 0.3 in. and the tabs are 1 in. away from each of the

fixed ends. (Take G = 150 ksi.)

SOLUTION

Y 8 ksi

=

= 4 ksi

2

2

The rotating tabs are in the center, and the two ends are fixed. So the shear stress in each part of the rod

is like a shaft of length L = 1 in. twisted by an angle .

Y =

Y =

GR

L

Thus,

4 ksi =

1 in.

= 10.19 J

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Problem 7.97

A steel rod that is 40 mm long and has a diameter of 8 mm is composed of an alloy that yields plastically

at a uniaxial tensile stress of 450 MPa. One end of the bar has been twisted relative to the other by 1.5 .

Determine the amount by which the bar can be elongated, while it is already twisted, without yielding.

SOLUTION

Y = 450 MPa

The maximum shear stress when yielding is:

Y =

Y 450 MPa

=

= 225 MPa

2

2

=

=

L

0.040 m

180

)

= 209.4 MPa

Determine the axial stress which, when combined with the shear stress of 209.4 MPa, produces a

maximum shear equal to the yield value.

1 2

max =

+ 2 = 225 MPa

4

Solve for

= 164.4 MPa

= E = E

= (200 GPa)

L

40 mm

= 0.0329 mm J

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Problem 7.98

u0

A bar that is 1.5 in. long and 0.25 in. in diameter is subjected to

a tensile stress of 5000 psi. The bar is also inadvertently twisted.

Cracks are observed to appear at an angle shown with 0 = 65 .

(a) Determine the torque that was applied. (b) If there had been

no initial tension, what torque could have been applied without

cracking?

SOLUTION

The cracks appear on a plane oriented at 25 CW from the x-axis. So a plane of maximum shear is

oriented at 25 + 45 = 20 . The shear stress can be determined from the maximum shear angle

[ ]

1

x

s = 20 = tan1

2

2

5000 psi

= 2980 psi

2 tan 40

(a) Now we are able to find the applied torque

=

T=

R

=

2

3

TR

2T

=

Ip

R3

(2980 psi)

)

0.25 in. 3

2

(b) To find the torque which, when acting alone causes cracking, determine max

tension and torsion.

5000 psi

1

max =

+

(5000 psi)2 + (2980 psi)2 = 6390 psi

2

4

T = 9.14 lb-in. J

for previous case of

If there were only torsion, there would be only shear stress. Then, the max is equal to the shear stress.

So the shear stress must be

= max = 6390 psi

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From the shear stress just determined, find the associated torque.

T=

R

=

2

3

(6390 psi)

)

0.25 in. 3

2

2

T = 19.6 lb-in. J

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Problem 7.99

14 mm. Yielding would occur in this aluminum alloy under a

tensile stress of 280 MPa. The elastic moduli are E = 70 GPa,

= 0.33, and G = 26 GPa. The bar is elongated by = 0.5 mm

and then twisted. Determine the relative rotation of one end of

the rod with respect to the other at which yielding would occur.

Determine the plane on which slip would be observed.

f0

SOLUTION

From given tensile yield stress

Y = 280 MPa

Find shear yield stress

Y

= 140 MPa

2

Normal stress due to the extension can be found

Y =

0.5 mm

= (70 GPa)

= 175 MPa

L

200 mm

1 2

max =

+ 2xy = 140 MPa

4 x

x = E

So

xy = 109.3 MPa

From this torsional shear stress we are able to determine the relative rotation of one end of the rod by

xy =

109.3 MPa =

Solving for gives:

GR

L

0.200 m

= 0.120 rad J

or

= 6.88 J

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The angle on which slip would occur is:

[

[

]

]

175 MPa

1 1 x

1 1

s = tan

= tan

2

2 xy

2

2(109.3 MPa)

s = 0.3375 rad J

or

s = 19.34 J

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Problem 7.100

A steel bar with rectangular cross-section is cantilevered at one

end and the free end is subjected to a transverse force. The alloy

yields at a tensile stress of 450 MPa. Use beam theory to predict the end deflection at which the bar would yield. Take the

dimensions to be a = 20 mm, b = 50 mm, and c = 400 mm.

Explain whether beam theory will give a good prediction of the

end deflection.

b

a

SOLUTION

Y = 450 MPa

There are only axial stresses in bending

Relate the maximum normal stress at the support to the applied force

=

= 1 3 =

I

ab2

ab

12

ab2

(1)

6c

From tabulated solution found in Appendix G-1.1, the deflection can be related to the force and the

dimensions by

F 0 c3

v=

3EI

F 0 c3

(2)

v= 1

Eab3

4

F0 =

Substituting equation (1) into equation (2), and setting the stress equal to the yield stress, we have

v=

Y ab2 c3

2Y c2 2(450 MPa)(400 mm)2

=

=

3Eb

3(200 GPa)(50 mm)

6c 14 Eab3

v = 4.8 mm J

Since v is small compared to the length of 400 mm, the deflection is predicted well by beam theory.

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Problem 7.101

A circular steel shaft which is 16 in. long and with a diameter of 1.2 in. is known to yield when subjected

to a twisting moment of 16 kip-in. Instead, the rod is simply supported, and subjected to a transverse

force in the center. Determine the center deflection at which yielding occurs. Explain whether beam

theory will give a good prediction of the center deflection.

SOLUTION

Determine the shear stress due to the twisting moment

=

=

= 47157 psi

Ip

(0.6 in.)4

2

Since yield has occurred under this twisting moment, the shear stress is the shear stress for yield. Under

uniaxial tension, yield would occur at a tensile stress equal to twice this value or

Y = 94300 psi

Consider conditions under which the maximum normal stress in bending equals the tensile yield stress

just found.

L

Maximum bending moment is:

M=

Maximum normal stress is:

=

PL

4

(1)

MR 4M

=

Ip

R3

From tabulated solution found in Appendix G-2.1, relate the deflection to the force using the given

dimensions

PL

PL3

=

(2)

v=

48EI 12ER4

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Solving equation (1) for P, substituting into equation (2), and setting the stress equal to the yield stress

gives:

Y L 2

(94300 psi)(16 in.)2

v=

(

)

=

12ER 12 30 106 psi [(1.2 in.)/2]

v = 0.112 in. J

v is much smaller than the length, so beam theory can predict the deflection accurately.

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Problem 7.102

T0

A circular rod is composed of a ceramic that cracks under a tensile stress of 370 MPa. The rod has a length of 60 mm and a

diameter of 12 mm, and it is subjected to a bending moment of

M0 = 40 N-m. Determine the twisting moment T 0 that could be

applied, in addition to the bending moment, before the rod cracks.

M0

M0

T0

SOLUTION

The normal stress due to bending is

x =

4M0

4(40 N-m)

=

= 236 MPa

3

R

(0.006 m)3

Set maximum stress, due to the combination of the normal stress just found and an unknown shear stress

xy , equal to the normal stress that causes cracking

1 2

x

+

+ 2xy = 370 MPa

max =

2

4 x

So

xy = 223 MPa

The twisting moment that produces this shear stress is:

T0 =

[(0.012 mm)/2]3

R3

xy =

(223 MPa)

2

2

T 0 = 75.7 N-m J

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Problem 7.103

M0

T0

T0

M0

0.75 in. is composed of an alloy that yields under a tensile stress

of 60 ksi. The shaft is subjected to a twisting moment of

T 0 = 1500 lb-in. Determine the bending moment M0 that could

be applied, in addition to the twisting moment, before the rod

yields.

SOLUTION

Find the shear yield stress from the tensile yield stress

Y =

Y 60 ksi

=

= 30 ksi

2

2

=

=

Ip

[(0.75 in.)/2]4

2

= 18.1 ksi

Set maximum shear stress, due to the combination of the shear stress just found and an unknown normal

stress x , equal to the shear yield stress

1 2

max =

+ 2xy = 30 ksi

4 x

So

x = 47.8 ksi

The bending moment that produces this normal stress is:

M0 =

4

4

M0 = 1980 lb-in. J

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Problem 7.104

The hollow steel rod with an outer diameter

inner diameter of 55 mm is known to yield

of 325 MPa. Determine the magnitude of the

the member yields. Take the lengths to be

L2 = 0.8 m.

L1

of 60 mm and an

at a tensile stress

force F0 at which

L1 = 1.6 m and

F0

L2

SOLUTION

Find the shear yield stress from the tensile yield stress

Y =

Y

= 162.5 MPa

2

M = F0 L1

and

T = F 0 L2

x =

MR

I

xy =

TR TR

=

Ip

2I

1 2

1 ( MR )2 ( T R )2

2

max =

+ xy =

+

4 x

4 I

2I

Set the maximum shear stress equal to the shear yield stress, and replace the moments in terms of the

force F0

1R

162.5 MPa =

F0 L12 + L22

2I

Solve for the force

F0 = 1132 N J

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2I(162.6 MPa)

R L12 + L22

[

](

)

2 4 (0.03 m)4 (0.0275 m)4 162.5 106 N/m2

F0 =

F0 =

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Problem 7.105

A ceramic rod of a diameter of 7 mm is known to crack at a

tensile stress of 200 MPa. Determine magnitude of the force F0

at which the member cracks. Take the lengths to be L1 = 50 mm

and L2 = 40 mm.

L2

L1

F0

SOLUTION

Moments are related to force by

M = F0 L1

T = F 0 L2

and

=

MR

I

and

TR TR

=

Ip

2I

Find maximum normal stress due to combination of normal and shear stress due to bending and twisting

and set equal to the tensile stress for fracture.

1 2

max = 200 MPa = +

+ 2

2

4

Substituting the expressions for and gives:

MR

1 ( MR )2 ( T R )2

max =

+

+

= 200 MPa

2I

4 I

2I

Substituting for M and T gives:

200 MPa

Solving for F0 gives:

F0 R [

L1 +

2I

L12 + L22

F0 = 118.1 N J

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Problem 7.106

F0

An aluminum rod is subjected to a force of F0 = 20 lb without failing. The rod has a diameter of 0.5 in. and a length of

L1 = 14 in. Determine the allowable range of the length L2 if the

rod is not to yield, given a uniaxial yield stress of 35 ksi.

L2

L1

SOLUTION

From tensile yield stress find shear yield stress

yield = 35 ksi

so

Find bending moment from force and then find bending stress.

M = F0 L1 = 280 lb-in.

MR

= 22.8 ksi

I

Note that normal stress will not change with length L2 , which only aects twisting moment.

Set maximum shear stress, due to combination of known normal stress and unknown torsional shear

stress , equal to shear yield stress

1 2

max =

+ 2 = 17.5 ksi

4

=

So

= 13.27 ksi

Find twisting moment which would produce this level of shear stress

T0 =

3

R = 326 lb-in.

2

T = F0 L2

Since twisting moment increases with L2 , and the twisting moment cannot exceed 326 lb-in. without

yield occurring

326 lb-in.

L2 <

20 lb

L2 < 16.285 in. J

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Problem 7.107

The allowable tensile force on drill pipe is often adjusted to

account for the make-up torque that is applied while screwing

neighboring segments together. Consider a drill pipe with a 5 in.

outer diameter and 4.408 in. inner diameter. (a) If the yield stress

of the pipe in tension is 100, 000 psi, what is the allowable tensile force on the pipe disregarding the make-up torque? (b) Say

the make-up torque is 26000 lb-ft. What is the allowable tensile

force when the make-up torque is accounted for?

Pipe

Collars

Bit

SOLUTION

(a) The allowable tensile force is:

Fallowed

)

(

Fallowed = Y R2o R2i

]

[

= (100, 000 psi) (5 in.)2 (4.408 in.)2

4

(b) When accounting for the make-up torque, the shear stress due to the make-up torque is:

(

)( )

12 in. 5 in.

lb-ft)

(26000

TR

1 ft

2

[( )4 (

] = 32100 psi

=

=

)

4

Ip

5 in.

4.408 in.

2

Set maximum shear stress, due to combination of unknown normal stress and known shear stress due

to the make-up torque, equal to shear yield stress

1 2

100, 000 psi

max =

+ 2 =

4

2

Solving for gives:

= 76700 psi

Determine again the axial force which would produce this lower level of axial stress

]

[

Fallowed = (76700 psi) (5 in.)2 (4.408 in.)2

4

Fallowed = 335, 000 lb J

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Problem 7.108

From a finite element analysis, the stresses at a critical point in an aluminum component are found to

be as follows: x = 80 MPa, y = 70 MPa, z = 50 MPa, xy = 75 MPa, xy = 60 MPa, and

xy = 30 MPa. (a) Calculate the von Mises stress at this point. (b) If the material is ductile and has a

uniaxial tensile yield strength of 270 MPa, determine the factor of safety using the von Mises stress

criterion for yielding.

SOLUTION

(a) von Mises stress

[

vM = (80 MPa)2 + (70 MPa)2 + (50 MPa)2 (80 MPa)(70 MPa) (80 MPa)(50 MPa)

]1/2

(70 MPa)(50 MPa) + 3(75 MPa)2 + 3(60 MPa)2 + 3(30 MPa)2

vM = 215 MPa J

(b)

F.S. =

Y

270 MPa

=

vM 215 MPa

F.S. = 1.26 J

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Problem 7.109

A steel alloy has a uniaxial yield strength of 580 MPa. Consider this steel to be subjected to only a

shear stress . (a) Determine the value of at yield assuming a maximum shear stress yield criterion.

(b) Determine the value of at yield assuming a von Mises yield criterion.

SOLUTION

The steel is subjected to only shear stress.

(a) When there is only a shear stress acting, the maximum shear stress is equal to that stress. Setting that

equal to the yield stress is shear gives:

max =

Y 580 MPa

=

2

2

(b) Express the von Mises stress in terms of the shear stress and set equal to the tensile yield stress

vM = 32 = 580 MPa

Solve for , and label this shear stress to cause yield according to the von Mises criterion vM

vM = 335 MPa J

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Problem 7.110

A plastic molding includes a handle that is loaded as shown.

Yielding where the handle meets the support is of concern.

The uniaxial yield strength of the plastic is 30 MPa. Take

L1 = 50 mm, L2 = 30 mm, and d = 8 mm. (a) Determine the

load F0 at yield assuming a maximum shear stress yield criterion. (b) Determine the load F0 at which yield occurs assuming a

von Mises yield criterion.

L1

F0

L2

d

SOLUTION

Relate the bending and twisting moments to the load and dimensions

M = F 0 L1

and

T = F0 L2

Relate the normal and shear stresses to the bending and twisting moments and hence the load

=

MR 4F0 L1

=

I

R3

T R 2F0 L2

=

Ip

R3

(a) For the maximum shear stress criterion, determine the maximum shear stress due to and and set

equal to the shear yield stress

2

30

max =

+ 2 = ,

4

2

Substitute expressions of stress in terms of the force

2F0

L12 + L22 = 15 106 Pa

3

R

Solving for F0 gives:

F0 = 25.9 N J

(b) For the von Mises criterion, determine the von Mises stress in terms of and and set equal to the

tensile yield stress

vM = 2 + 32 = 30 MPa

(

) ( ) (

)

4F0

3 2

2

L1 + L2 = 30 106 Pa

3

R

4

F0 = 26.8 N J

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Problem 7.111

An automotive component of complex shape experiences a primary load designated as F0 . Finite element

analysis is carried out using a value F0 = 100 N. From the results, the principal stresses at the point where

failure is observed are found to be I = 20 MPa, II = 10 MPa, and III = 5 MPa. Assume stresses

increase in proportion to F0 . (a) Assuming the material experiences brittle failure at a uniaxial tensile

stress of 140 MPa, determine the load F0 at which the component would fail. (b) Assuming the material

experiences ductile failure at a uniaxial tensile stress of 140 MPa, and that a maximum shear stress yield

criterion applies, determine the load F0 at which the component would fail. (c) Assuming the material

experiences ductile failure at a uniaxial tensile stress of 140 MPa, and that a von Mises criterion applies,

determine the load F0 at which the component would fail.

SOLUTION

At the primary load F0 = 100 N,

I = 20 MPa

II = 10 MPa

III = 5 MPa

(a) Brittle failure will occur when the maximum principal stress equals the failure stress in uniaxial

tension.

Since all stresses increase by the same factor, so do the principal stresses. Thus, for brittle fracture to

occur the load must increase by a factor of

140 MPa

20 MPa

So failure would be predicted to occur if the load is increased to

)

(

140 MPa

F0 = (100 N )

20 MPa

F0 = 700 N J

(b) Under a maximum shear stress criterion, yield occurs when the absolute maximum shear stress equals

the shear yield stress. Given the principal stresses, the absolute maximum shear stress is:

abs =

I III (20 + 5)

=

= 12.5 MPa

2

2

140 MPa

= 70 MPa

2

All stresses, principal stresses, and abs increase by the same factor. Thus, for ductile fracture to occur,

according to a maximum shear stress criterion, the load must increase to

)

(

70 MPa

F0 = (100 N)

12.5 MPa

F0 = 560 N J

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(c) Under a von Mises yield criterion, yield occurs when the von Mises stress equals the tensile yield

stress. Given the principal stresses, the von Mises stress is

vM =

= 21.8 MPa

2

Since all stresses increase by the same factor, so does the von Mises stress. Thus, for ductile fracture to

occur, according to a von Mises yield criterion, the load must increase to

(

)

140 MPa

F0 = (100 N)

21.8 MPa

F0 = 642 N J

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Problem 7.112

L2

F0

L1

diameter of 10 in. and a wall thickness of 0.5 in. Take L1 = 12 ft

and L2 = 8 ft. The steel has a uniaxial yield strength of 36 ksi. If

the load F0 = 2500 lb, determine the factor of safety for yielding

at the base, assuming a von Mises yield criterion.

SOLUTION

Determine bending and twisting moments from the load

M = F0 L1 = 2500(12) lb-ft

T = F0 L2 = (2500)(8) lb-ft

Determine stresses from the moments

(

)

12 in.

[2500(12)

lb-ft]

(5 in.)

MR

1 ft

[

]

= 10660 psi

=

=

I

4

(

)

12 in.

lb-ft]

(5 in.)

[2500(8)

TR

1 ft

=

] = 3550 psi

=

[

Ip

(5 in.)4 (4.5 in.)4

2

For only two stress components, the von Mises stress is found to be

vM = 2 + 32 = 12310 psi

Factor of safety

F.S. =

36000 psi

12310 psi

F.S. = 2.92 J

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Problem 7.113

A cylindrical vessel is pressurized to 1.7 MPa. The structure on

which the vessel rests becomes damaged, resulting

( ) in uneven support that causes a twisting moment T 0 of 8 106 N-m on the vessel. The vessel has an outer diameter of 2.5 m and a wall thickness of 50 mm. The steel wall has a uniaxial yield strength of

600 MPa. Determine the factor of safety with respect to yielding (a) assuming a maximum shear stress yield criterion and (b)

assuming a von Mises yield criterion.

T0

SOLUTION

( )

Cylindrical vessel pressurized to 1.7 MPa with a twisting force T 0 = 8 106 N-m

Find hoop and axial stresses due to pressure

h =

pR (1.7 MPa)(1.225 m)

=

= 41.6 MPa

t

0.05

a =

pR 41.65 MPa

=

= 20.825 MPa

2t

2

(

)

8 106 N-m (1.225 m)

T0R

] = 17.31 MPa

=

= [

4

4

Ip

(1.25

m)

(1.20

m)

2

(a) Maximum shear stress is

max =

1

(41.6 MPa 20.825 MPa)2 + (17.31MPa)2 = 20.2 MPa

4

Find factor of safety by comparing maximum shear stress to shear yield stress which is equal to half the

tensile yield stress

( 600 MPa )

F.S. =

20.2 MPa

F.S. = 14.85 J

(b) von Mises stress is found to be

vM =

2h + 2a a h + 32 = 46.9 MPa

Find factor of safety by comparing von Mises stress to tensile yield stress

)

(

600 MPa

F.S. =

46.9 MPa

F.S. = 12.79 J

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Problem 7.114

For the 45 rosette shown, determine

( the) strains x , ( y , and

) xy ,

6

6

if the strain gages read a = 550 10 , b = 100 10 , and

(

)

c = 300 106 .

c

b

y

a

x

SOLUTION

Apply strain transformation formula () for the three angles at which the strain gauges are oriented.

(

)

a = (0 ) = x = 550 106

(

)

1

1

1

b = (45 ) = (x + y ) + (x y ) cos 2(45 ) + xy sin 2(45 ) = 100 106

2

2

2

)

(

c = (90 ) = y = 300 106

Substitute values for x and y into expression for b

)

) 1

(

(

1

(250) 106 + xy = 100 106

2

2

Solve for xy

(

)

xy = 50 106 J

(

)

x = 550 106 J

(

)

Y = 300 106 J

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Problem 7.115

A steel bridge girder is instrumented with a 45 rosette as shown.

(

)

Under a test loading, the strain gages read a = 400 106 ,

(

)

(

)

b = 250 106 , and c = 150 106 . Assuming a state of plane

stress, determine the stress components in psi at the rosette.

c

b

y

a

x

SOLUTION

Apply strain transformation formula () for the three angles at which the strain gauges are oriented.

(

)

x = (0 ) = a = 400 106

(

)

1

1

1

b = (45 ) = (x + y ) + (x y ) cos 2(45 ) + xy sin 2(45 ) = 250 106

2

2

2

)

(

c = (90 ) = y = 150 106

Substitute values for x and y into expression for b

)

) 1

(

(

1

(250) 106 + xy = 250 106

2

2

(

)

xy = 250 106

x =

E

(y + x )

1 2

x = 11700 psi J

y =

E

(y + x )

1 2

y = 989 psi J

xy = G xy

xy = 2875 psi J

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Problem 7.116

One portion of an aluminium aircraft fuselage is load tested while

instrumented

gages

read

( with

) a 45 rosette

( as) shown. The strain

(

)

6

6

6

a = 170 10 , b = 200 10 , and c = 250 10 . Assuming a state of plane stress, determine the principal stresses and the

maximum shear stress.

c

b

y

a

x

SOLUTION

Apply strain transformation formula () for the three angles at which the strain gauges are oriented.

(

)

a = (0 ) = x = 170 106

(

)

1

1

1

b = (45 ) = (x + y ) + (x y ) cos 2(45 ) + xy sin 2(45 ) = 200 106

2

2

2

)

(

c = (90 ) = y = 250 106

[

170 + 250

xy = 2 200

2

Solving for x and y

)] (

)

(

)

106 = (820) 106

)

E (

x

y = 2830 psi

1 2

)

E (

= 3380 psi

y =

x

y

1 2

x =

Then

xy = G xy = 3080 psi

Find maximum shear stress and principal stresses

1

1

max =

(y x )2 + 2xy =

(3380 psi 2830 psi)2 + (3080 psi)2

4

4

max = 3095 psi J

m =

=

2

2

m = 3110 psi J

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max = m + max = 3110 psi + 3095 psi

max = 6210 psi J

max = m max = 3110 psi 3095 psi

min = 15 psi J

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Problem 7.117

30

y

30

c

x

( the) strains x , ( y , and

) xy ,

6

6

if the strain gages read a = 120 10 , b = 350 10 , and

(

)

c = 200 106 .

SOLUTION

Apply strain transformation formula () for the three angles at which the strain gauges are oriented.

a = (0 ) = x

(

)

x = 120 106 J

)

(

1

1

1

b = (60 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(60 ) + xy sin 2(60 ) = 350 106

2

2

2

(

)

1

1

1

c = (120 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(120 ) + xy sin 2(120 ) = 200 106

2

2

2

Subtract expressions b and c and use the facts that cos(120 ) = cos(240 ) and sin(120 ) = sin(240 )

b c = xy sin 120

)

(

b c = (350 + 200) 106

Thus, solving for xy

Add expressions for b and c

(

)

xy = 635 106 J

( )

1

1

3

b + c = x + y + ( x y ) = x + y

2

2

2

(

)

b + c = (350 200) 106

Substituting for x and solving for y gives:

(

)

y = 60 106 J

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Problem 7.118

30

y

30

b

a

with a 30 rosette as shown.( During

a minor (quake,

)

) the

6

6

strain gages read a = 270 10 , b = 350 10 , and

(

)

c = 250 106 . Assuming a state of plane stress, determine the

stress components at the rosette.

SOLUTION

)

(

a = (0 ) = x = 270 106

(

)

1

1

1

b = (60 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(60 ) + xy sin 2(60 ) = 350 106

2

2

2

(

)

1

1

1

c = (120 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(120 ) + xy sin 2(120 ) = 250 106

2

2

2

Subtract expressions b and c and use the facts that cos(120 ) = cos(240 ) and sin(120 ) = sin(240 )

)

(

b c = xy sin 120 = 600 106

Thus, solving for xy

(

)

xy = 693 106

( )

1

1

3

b + c = x + y + ( x y ) = x + y

2

2

2

(

)

b + c = 100 106

Solving for y

(

)

(

)

270

10

y = 100 106

3

2

(

)

y = 23.3 106

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Solving for x-y stresses

x =

)

E (

x

y

1 2

x = 57.8 MPa J

y =

)

E (

y

x

1 2

y = 12.67 MPa J

xy = G xy

xy = 55.4 MPa J

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Problem 7.119

30

y

30

b

a

a 30 rosette as (shown

) while subjected

( to) load. The strain( gages

)

6

read a = 400 10 , b = 300 106 , and c = 600 106 .

Assuming a state of plane stress, determine the principal stresses

and the maximum shear stress in MPa.

SOLUTION

)

(

a = (0 ) = x = 400 106

(

)

1

1

1

b = (60 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(60 ) + xy sin 2(60 ) = 300 106

2

2

2

(

)

1

1

1

c = (120 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(120 ) + xy sin 2(120 ) = 600 106

2

2

2

Subtract expressions b and c and use the facts that cos(120 ) = cos(240 ) and sin(120 ) = sin(240 )

)

(

b c = xy sin 120 = 900 106

Thus, solving for xy

(

)

xy = 1039 106

( )

1

1

3

b + c = x + y + ( x y ) = x + y

2

2

2

(

)

b + c = 300 106

Solving for y

(

)

(

)

400

10

y = 300 106

3

2

(

)

y = 66.7 106

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Solving for x-y stresses

x =

)

E (

= 33.15 MPa

x

y

1 2

y =

)

E (

= 15.61 MPa

y

x

1 2

xy = G xy = 28.05 MPa

1

1

max =

(y x )2 + 2xy =

(15.61 MPa 33.15 MPa)2 + (28.05 MPa)2

4

4

max = 29.4 MPa J

m =

=

2

2

m = 24.4 MPa J

max = 53.8 MPa J

max = m max = 24.4 MPa 29.4 MPa

min = 5.0 MPa J

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Problem 7.120

Loads on ( a structure

are

to result( in ) strains

)

( expected

)

6

6

x = 370 10 , y = 280 10 , and xy = 450 106 . If the

structure is instrumented with a 45 rosette as shown, what should

be the strains in the gages a , b , and c ?

c

b

y

a

x

SOLUTION

Since x and y are parallel to a and c

(

)

x = 370 106 = a

(

)

a = 370 106 J

(

)

y = 280 106 = c

Using the strain transformation formula to relate x-y strains to b

(

)

c = 280 106 J

1

1

1

b = (45 ) = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2(45 ) + xy sin 2(45 )

2

2

2

Evaluating formula

b =

Substituting given values of x-y strains

) 1

1(

x + y + xy

2

2

)

(

b = 180 106 J

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Problem 7.121

30

y

30

c

x

b

a

(

)

Loads on a structure are expected to result in strains x = 230 106 ,

(

)

(

)

y = 420 106 , and xy = 180 106 . If the structure is instrumented with a 30 rosette as shown, what should be the strains in

the gages a , b , and c ?

SOLUTION

Since x is parallel to a

(

)

x = 230 106 = a

b =

) 1(

)

1(

1

x + y + x y cos (120 ) + xy sin 120

2

2

2

1

3

1 3

b = x + y +

xy

4

4

2 2

c =

) 1(

)

1(

1

x + y + x y cos (240 ) + xy sin 240

2

2

2

1

3

1 3

xy

c = x + y

4

4

2 2

(

)

a = 230 106 J

(

)

b = 295 106 J

(

)

c = 450 106 J

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Problem 7.122

30

y

30

c

x

b

a

x = 56 MPa, y = 40 MPa, and xy = 80 MPa. If the structure is instrumented with a 30 rosette as shown, what should be

the strains in the gages a , b , and c ?

SOLUTION

Given x = 56 MPa, y = 40 MPa, and ( xy = 80 MPa.

)

First calculate x and y strain components x , y , xy

x =

y =

]

1[

x vy = 3.4 104

E

]

1[

y v x = (2.84) 104

E

xy = = 103

G

Since x is parallel to a

Using the strain transformation formula to relate x-y strains to b and c

b =

c =

) 1(

)

1(

1

x + y + x y cos (120 ) + xy sin 120

2

2

2

1

3

1 3

b = x + y +

xy

4

4

2 2

) 1(

)

1(

1

x + y + x y cos (240 ) + xy sin 240

2

2

2

1

3

1 3

xy

b = x + y

4

4

2 2

)

(

a = 340 106 J

)

(

b = 561 106 J

(

)

c = 305 106 J

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Problem 7.123

30

30

and a wall thickness of 50 mm. Due to a rearrangement

of sup( )

6

ports, the vessel experiences a torque T = 8 10 N-m. In addition, the pressure is raised by 1 MPa. If the structure is instrumented with a 30 rosette as shown, what should be the strains

measured in the gages a , b , and c due to the torque and pressure increase?

b

a

SOLUTION

( )

T = 8 106 N-m

p = 1 MPa

First find the pressure vessel stresses and torsional shear stress h , a , and

h =

pR (1 MPa)(1.225 m)

= 24.5 MPa

=

(0.05 m)

t

pR 24.5 MPa

=

= 12.25 MPa

2t

2

)

(

8 106 N-m (1.25 m)

TR

]

=

= [

Ip

(1.25 m)4 (1.20 m)4

a =

= 17.31 MPa

Assign the stress components taking the x-axis to be parallel to the vessel axis. x = 12.25 MPa,

y = 24.5 MPa, and xy = 17.31 MPa.

Solving for x , y , and xy

]

(

)

1[

x =

x vy = 24.5 106

E

]

(

)

1[

y =

y v x = 104.1 106

E

(

)

I xy

xy =

= 216 106

G

Since x is parallel to strain gage a

(

)

a = 24.5 106 J

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Using the strain transformation formula to relate x-y strains to b and c

b =

c =

) 1(

)

1(

1

x + y + x y cos (120 ) + xy sin 120

2

2

2

1

3

1 3

b = x + y +

xy

4

4

2 2

) 1(

)

1

1(

x + y + x y cos (240 ) + xy sin 240

2

2

2

1

3

1 3

xy

c = x + y

4

4

2 2

(

)

b = 9.47 106 J

(

)

c = 177.9 106 J

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Problem 7.124

P

b

Determine the maximum stress in the bar shown if the axial force

P = 30 kN. The plate widths are a = 60 mm and b = 30 mm, the

thickness is t = 4 mm, and the fillet radius is r = 10 mm.

a

r

P

t

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.1 in Appendix H.

P = 30 kN

The ratio

D

d

a

b

D 60 mm

=

=2

d

30 mm

r 10 mm

=

= 0.33

d 30 mm

Solving for the nominal stress

nom =

P

30 kN

= 250 MPa

=

bt 0.03 m 0.04 m

Utilizing the chart from Appendix H for the stress concentration factor K as a function of the ratio

D

, we find that K = 1.54. Thus, we can calculate

d

r

d

and

max = Knom

max = 385 MPa J

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Problem 7.125

Determine

( the

) maximum stress in the bar shown if the axial force

3

P = 25 10 lb. The plate has a width of a = 4 in. and a thickness

of t = 0.25 in., and the hole diameter is 1.5 in.

P

b

a

P

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.2 in Appendix H.

( )

P = 25 103 lb

Calculating ratios

nom

r

0.75 in.

=

= 0.185

D

4 in.

( )

25

103 lb

P

=

= 10000 psi

=

a b 4 in. 1.5 in.

nom = 10000 psi

K = 2.47 at

r

= 0.1875

d

max = Knom

(

)

max = 2.47 10000 psi

max = 24700 psi J

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Problem 7.126

The maximum stress in the aluminum bar is not to exceed 15 ksi.

The plate has widths of a = 4.5 in. and b = 3 in., and a thickness of t = 0.3 in. The fillet radius is r = 1 in. Determine the

maximum allowable axial force P.

P

b

a

r

P

t

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.1 in Appendix H.

D 4.5 in.

=

= 1.5

d

3 in.

r 1 in.

=

= 0.33

d 3 in.

Also, we know

nom =

P

bt

and

max = Knom

P = nom bt

(1)

D

= 1.5

d

and

r

= 0.33

d

K = 1.49

Thus, knowing max = 15000, we are able to find nom

nom =

max

= 10070 psi

K

P = 10070 psi (3 in.)(0.3 in.)

P = 9063 lb J

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Problem 7.127

The plate has a width of a = 35 mm and a thickness of t = 3 mm,

and the hole diameter is 10 mm. Determine the maximum allowable axial force P.

b

a

P

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.2 in Appendix H.

r

5 mm

=

= 0.143

d 35 mm

From chart H.2 in Appendix H, where Dr = 0.143, K = 2.55.

Given that max = 40 MPa, we are able to find

nom =

max 40 MPa

=

K

2.55

Thus, we are able to find P

P = nom (a b)

P = 15.69 MPa (35 mm 10 mm)

P = 392 N J

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Problem 7.128

The steel plate of thickness t = 0.5 in. is to be designed under the

constraint that the maximum stress remains below 21 ksi. The

hole must have a diameter of b = 2 in. Determine the allowable

plate width a within the nearest 0.1 in. if it is to withstand an axial

force of P = 30 kip.

P

b

a

P

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.2 in Appendix H.

Given that

max 6 21000 psi

we know max = Knom and K is dependent on the ratio ba or Dr .

For equation

30000 lb

nom =

(0.5)(a 2 in.)

In order to solve for nominal stress nom and a, assume value of K.

Assuming K = 2.5 then nom = 8400 psi and we are able to find a

a=b+

300, 000 lb

(

)

(0.5 in.) 8400 psi

a = 9.14 in.

1

= 0.1094.

based on assumed values. In order to check if our assumption is correct, use Dr = 9.14

From the chart in Appendix H, we note that K = 2.63 for these values, and is close to our assumed K of

2.5.

To get more accurate values we must iterate

a (in.)

9.2

9.3

9.5

9.6

r/d

0.408

0.107

0.105

0.104

K (from App. H)

2.63

2.64

2.64

2.64

max (psi)

21920

21700

21120

20840

We see that assuming a = 9.6 in. and (K = 2.64) matches our assumed stress (max ) most closely.

a = 9.6 in. J

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Problem 7.129

The aluminum plate of thickness t = 3.5 mm is to be designed so

the maximum stress remains below 100 MPa. The hole must have

a diameter of b = 25 mm. Determine the allowable plate width

a within the nearest 5 mm if it is to withstand an axial force of

P = 25 kN.

P

b

a

P

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.2 in Appendix H.

max < 100 MPa

max = Knom

and we know that K depends on

For nom , we have

b

a

or dr .

nom =

25000 N

)

(

(3.5 mm)(a 25 mm) 106

(1)

In order to solve for nominal stress nom and a we employ equation (1) and assume a value of K.

Assuming K = 2.5 then

nom = 40 MPa

and we are able to find a

25000 N

+ 25 mm = 203.6 mm

(3.5)(40 MPa)

based on assumed values. In order to check if our assumption is correct, use

a=

12.5 mm

r

=

d 203.6 mm

From the chart in Appendix H, we note that K = 2.74 for these values, and is close to our assumed K of

2.5.

To get more accurate values we must iterate

a (mm)

205

210

215

220

230

r/d

0.061

0.0595

0.0581

0.0568

0.0543

K (from App. H)

2.74

2.75

2.75

2.75

2.76

max (MPa)

108.7

106.2

103.4

101.1

96.2

a = 230 mm J

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Problem 7.130

Recommendations are sought regarding the fillet geometry in the

steel bar. The widths are fixed at a = 120 mm and b = 60 mm,

and the thickness is fixed at t = 5 mm. The bar is to withstand

an axial force of 35 kN without the maximum stress exceeding

170 MPa. Specify the minimum allowable fillet radius.

P

b

a

r

P

t

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.1 in Appendix H.

Axial force = 35 kN

max < 170 MPa

P

35000 N

(

)

nom =

=

bt (60 mm)(5 mm) 106

nom = 116.7 MPa

Since max = 170 MPa, we can calculate K from

max = Knom

K=

max

170 MPa

=

nom 116.7 MPa

K = 1.456

D 120 mm

=

=2

d

60 mm

Thus, from chart in Appendix H, corresponding to K = 1.456, we can find

r

= 0.44

d

r = 0.44 (60 mm)

r = 26.4 mm J

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Problem 7.131

F4

b

F3

a

F2

F2 = 6 kN, F3 = 11 kN, and F4 = 20 kN. Determine the maximum stress in the bar. The plate widths are a = 40 mm and

b = 25 mm, the thickness is t = 3 mm, and the fillet radius is

r = 8 mm.

F1

t

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.1 in Appendix H. But we need to use the internal force corresponding to

the cross-section of fillet.

F1 = 3 kN

F2 = 6 kN

F3 = 11 kN

F4 = 20 kN

Note that the internal force at the cross-section of the fillet is:

P = F4 F3 = 9 kN

8 mm

r

=

= 0.32

d 25 mm

D 40 mm

= 1.6

=

d

25 mm

From chart H.1 of Appendix H, K = 1.52

(

) = 182.4 MPa

(25 mm)(3 mm) 106

9000 N

The maximum stress could also occur in the narrow portion of the bar, where the internal force is

F4 = 20 kN, but with no stress concentration. There,

=

20000 N

(

) = 267 MPa

(25 mm)(3 mm) 106

Therefore, the maximum stress is not at the fillet, but where the internal force is greatest.

max = 267 MPa J

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Problem 7.132

r2

The maximum stress in the bar shown must not exceed 80 MPa.

The widths are a = 60 mm, b = 120 mm, and c = 80 mm, and

the thickness is t = 4 mm. The fillet radii are r1 = 40 mm and

r2 = 30 mm. Determine the maximum allowable axial force that

can be applied to the bar. Assume that the stress concentrations

due to the two steps can be analyzed independently.

P

c

r1

b

a

P

t

SOLUTION

Problem has two fillets and two stress concentrations, both corresponding to chart H.1 in Appendix H.

max = 80 MPa

For the left fillet (section 1)

D

=2

d

From Appendix H, K = 1.33.

Thus,

max = 1.33

r 40 mm 2

=

=

d 60 mm 3

and

) = 80 MPa

(

(60 mm)(4 mm) 106

P1 = 14440

D

= 1.5

d

From Appendix H, K = 1.45.

Thus,

max = 1.45

and

r 30 mm

=

= 0.375

d 80 mm

(

) = 80 MPa

(80 mm)(4 mm) 106

P2 = 17660

Since we want the maximum stress at neither fillet to exceed 80 MPa, Pmax would be P1

Pmax = 14440 N J

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Problem 7.133

r

widths of a = 3 in. and c = 1 in., and a thickness of t = 0.2 in.

The diameter of the hole is b = 1.5 in., and the fillet radius is

r = 0.25 in. Assuming that the stress concentrations due to the

hole and the fillet can be analyzed independently, determine the

maximum stress in the bar.

P

c

b

a

P

SOLUTION

Problem has two stress concentrations, one corresponding to a fillet (chart H.1), and the other corresponding to a hole.

Stress concentration at hole

r

0.75 in.

= 0.25

=

D

3 in.

From chart H.2 in Appendix H, K = 2.38

= Knom

2000 lb

= 2.38

(3 in. 1.5 in.)(0.2 in.)

= 15870 psi

Stress concentration at fillet

D 3 in.

=

=3

d

1 in.

and

r 0.25 in.

= 0.25

=

d

1 in.

[

= Knom

2000 lb

= 1.7

(1 in.)(0.2 in.)

= 17000 psi

Max stress occurs in the fillet where

= 17000 psi J

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Problem 7.134

r2

are a = 100 mm, b = 120 mm, and c = 90 mm, and the thickness

is t = 3 mm. The fillet radius is r2 = 20 mm. Determine the

radius of fillet r1 so that there is an equal likelihood of failure at

the two fillets.

P

r1

c

b

a

P

t

SOLUTION

Problem has two fillets and two stress concentrations, both corresponding to chart H.1 in Appendix H.

Left fillet (section 1)

D 120 mm

=

= 1.2

d

100 mm

r

20 mm

=

= 0.2

d 100 mm

From Appendix H, K = 1.53

max = 1.53

(

) = 5.1 103 P

6

(100 mm)(3 mm) 10

D 120 mm

=

= 1.33

d

90 mm

To find Kright , we equate the maximum stresses

max = Kright

(

) = 5.1 103 P

6

(90 mm)(3 mm) 10

Kright = 1.38

r

d

r = 0.37 (90 mm)

r = 33 mm J

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Problem 7.135

L1

L2

is a fillet of radius r1 = 3 mm at the step. Determine the

maximum stress in the shaft. (L1 = 400 mm, L2 = 300 mm,

d1 = 30 mm, and d2 = 50 mm.)

T1

d2

d1

T1

r

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.

nom =

T R 2 (300 mm)

=

Ip

R3

2 (300 mm)

= 56.6 MPa

(0.015)3

D 50 mm

r

3 mm

= 1.67

and

= 0.1

=

=

d

30 mm

d 30 mm

From Appendix H, K = 1.39

max = Knom

nom =

max = 78.7 MPa J

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Problem 7.136

The shaft is driven by a motor and has a step and fillet at B. The

motor delivers 8 hp at 1000 rpm. The gear at C delivers 60%

of the power and the gear at D delivers 40%. From A to B, the

diameter is 1.5 in., from B to D the shaft is 0.75 in. The fillet

radius is r = 0.1 in. Determine the maximum shear stress in the

shaft.

SOLUTION

Motor delivers 8 hp at 1000 rpm.

The maximum internal torque occurs in ABC at the fillet.

Power

(

)(

)

lb-ft 12 in.

lb-in.

P = 8 hp = 8 hp 550

= 5.28 104

s

ft

s

The power can also be expressed as

(

)(

)

(

rev ) 2 rad 1 min

P = T = T 1000

= T (104.72 Hz)

min

rev

60 s

Setting these two expressions equal to each other gives:

T = 504.2 lb-in.

Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.

D

1.5

=

= 2 and

d

0.75

using the table in Appendix H for these values,

r

0.1

=

= 0.1333

d 0.75

K = 1.35

2T

= 6087 psi

R3

max = Knom

nom =

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Problem 7.137

L2

L1

r

d2

A

d1

B

C

fixed at A. A torque is applied at C that produces a rotation at C

of 1 . Determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft. The rotation must account for the diering radii of the two segments of the

shaft. While the step and fillet produce a stress concentration, assume they have negligible eect on the rotation. (L1 = 350 mm,

L2 = 250 mm, d1 = 20 mm, and d2 = 25 mm.)

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.

Define applied torque at C to be T 0

( )

L2

T 0 L1

=

= 4 + 4 = 1

G

180

d

d

32 2

32 1

D 25 mm

=

d

20 mm

From Appendix H, K = 1.9

and

T 0 = 18.82 N-m

4 mm

r

=

and

= 0.2

d 20 mm

max = Knom

(1)

2T 0 2 (18.82 N-m)

=

R3

(4 mm)3

nom = 11.98 MPa

nom =

max = 1.9 (11.98 MPa)

max = 14.26 MPa

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Problem 7.138

d1

subjected to the torques T 1 = 600 lb-in., T 2 = 550 lb-in.,

T 3 = 60 lb-in., and T 4 = 10 lb-in. Determine the maximum shear

stress in the shaft. (d1 = 0.4 in. and d2 = 0.8 in.)

T4

r

T3

T2

T1

d2

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.

Max shear stress can occur in one of the following places:

1) Between T 1 and T 2 , internal torque is 600 lb-in., there is no fillet.

2) Between T 2 and T 3 , internal torque is 50 lb-in., there is no fillet.

In case (1), between T 1 and T 2

2 (600 lb-in.)

=

(

)3 = 5970 psi

0.8

in.

2

In case (2), between T 2 and T 3

D 0.8 in.

=

=2

d

0.4 in.

and

nom =

r 0.06 in.

=

= 0.15

d

0.4 in.

2 (50 lb-in.)

(

)3 = 3980 psi

0.42in.

The max shear is:

max = 5970 psi (occurring between T 1 and T 2 ) J

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recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.139

r

d2

d1

T1

T2

T3

T4

T 1 = 60 N-m, T 2 = 30 N-m, T 3 = 80 N-m, and T 4 = 10 N-m.

If the maximum shear stress is not to exceed 70 MPa, determine the minimum acceptable fillet radius r. (d1 = 20 mm and

d2 = 50 mm.)

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.

The max shear occurs at the fillet, where the internal force = 90 N-m

nom =

2 (90 N-m)

(0.01 mm)3

max < 70 MPa

max = Knom

Thus

K<

70 MPa

= 1.22

57.3 MPa

From Appendix H

D 5 mm

= 2.5

=

d

2 mm

r

= 0.23

d

r = 0.23 (20 mm)

r = 4.6 mm J

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.140

L1

L2

L3

r

d2

TC

TD

A

d1

B

C

D. The torque applied at D has a known value T D = 300 lb-in.

The step has a fillet with radius r = 0.1 in. If the maximum shear

stress of 7 ksi is not to be exceeded, determine the maximum

value for the torque TC . (L1 = 10 in., L2 = 2 in., L3 = 8 in.,

d1 = 0.8 in., and d2 = 1 in.)

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.3 in Appendix H.

D

1 in.

=

= 1.25

d

0.8 in.

r 0.1 in.

=

= 0.125

d 0.8 in.

From Appendix H, K = 1.275.

Since max = 7000 psi, we find nom

max = Knom

7000 psi = 1.275nom

nom = 5490 psi

Torque

(

)( )

(1 in.)3

(T ) = 5490 psi

2

T = 552 lb-in.

TC = 552 lb-in. 300 lb-in.

TC = 252 lb-in. J

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.141

M

r

b

M

moment M = 200 N-m. The plate widths are a = 50 mm and

b = 150 mm, the thickness is t = 5 mm, and the fillet radius is

r = 20 mm.

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.4 in Appendix H.

D 150 mm

=

=3

d

50 mm

and

r 20 mm

=

= 0.4

d 50 mm

nom =

My 6M

6 (200 N-m)

= 2 =

= 96 MPa

I

ta

(0.005 m)(0.050 m)2

max = Knom

max = 1.29 (96 MPa)

max = 123.8 MPa J

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.142

M

r

b

a

moment M = 900 lb-in. The plate widths are a = 3 in. and

b = 2 in., the thickness is t = 0.25 in., and the fillet radius is

r = 0.8 in.

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.4 in Appendix H.

D 3 in.

=

= 1.5

d

2 in.

and

r 0.8 in.

=

= 0.4

d

2 in.

nom =

6 (900 lb-in.)

My 6M

= 5400 psi

= 2 =

I

tb

(0.25 in.) (2 in.)2

max = Knom

(

)

max = 1.26 5400 psi

max = 6800 psi J

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.143

M

r

b

a

the maximum allowable bending moment M. The plate widths

are a = 6 in. and b = 2 in., the thickness is t = 0.3 in., and the

fillet radius is r = 1.2 in.

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.4 in Appendix H.

D 6 in.

=

=3

d

2 in.

From Appendix H, K = 1.2.

and

r 1.2 in.

=

= 0.6

d

2 in.

max = Knom

1400 psi = 1.2nom

nom = 11670 psi

To find moment

My 6M

= 2

I

tb

2

tb

M=

nom

6

(0.3 in.) (2 in.)2 (

)

M=

11670 psi

6

nom =

M = 2330 lb-in. J

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.144

M

r

b

M

If the maximum stress in the bar is not to exceed 100 MPa, determine the maximum allowable bending moment M. The plate

widths are a = 40 mm and b = 50 mm, the thickness is t = 3 mm,

and the fillet radius is r = 12 mm.

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.4 in Appendix H.

D 50 mm

=

= 1.25

d

40 mm

From Appendix H, K = 1.3.

and

r 12 mm

=

= 0.3

d 40 mm

max = Knom

max = 100 MPa = 1.3 (nom )

nom = 76.9 MPa

and

nom =

So

My 6M

= 2

I

ta

ta2

nom

6

(3 mm) (40 mm)2

(76.9 MPa)

M=

6

M=

M = 61.5 N-m J

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.145

M

semi-circular notch. The bending moment M = 300 N-m. The

plate width is a = 150 mm, the thickness is t = 5 mm, and the

notch radius is r = 25mm.

a

M

r

t

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.5 in Appendix H.

For semicircular notch of bar

b

=1

r

And

r

25 mm

=

= 0.25

d 100 mm

From Appendix H, K = 1.43

max = Knom

and

6M

th2

My

6 (300 N-m)

=

=

I

(0.005 m) (0.1 m)2

nom = 36 MPa

nom =

nom

Thus,

max = (36 MPa)(1.43)

max = 51.5 MPa J

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.146

M

remain below 12 ksi. Determine the maximum allowable bending moment M. The plate width is a = 2.5 in., the thickness is

t = 0.125 in., and the notch radius is r = 0.175 in.

r

t

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.5 in Appendix H.

For semicircular notch of bar

max < 12 ksi

b

=1

r

and

r 0.175 mm

= 0.081

=

d

2.15 mm

From Appendix H, K = 2

max = Knom

nom < 6 ksi

and

My 6M

= 2

I

th

2

t(a 2r)

M<

nom

6

(0.125 in.)(2.15 in.)2 (

)

M<

6000 psi

6

nom =

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problem 7.147

P

b

P

A notch bend test on a plate with a semi-circular notch is conducted on the specimen shown. Determine the maximum stress

when the load P = 600 lb. The specimen dimensions are

a = 1.5 in., b = 1 in., L = 6 in., and t = 0.2 in., and the notch

radius is r = 0.175 in.

a

r

t

SOLUTION

Problem corresponds to chart H.5 in Appendix H.

The maximum bending moment can be found from the loading by

(

)

6

1

M = P in. in.

2

2

M = 600 (2.5 in.)

M = 1500 lb-in.

For semicircular notch

r 0.175 in.

=

= 0.152

d

1.15 in.

nom =

6M

6 (1500 lb-in.)

=

t(a 2r)2 (0.2 in.)(1.15 in.)2

nom = 34000 psi J

the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

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