You are on page 1of 27

# Mohr Circle and Strength Testing

Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11
MOHR CIRCLE, FAILURE THEORIES, AND STRENGTH
TESTING OF SOIL AND ROCKS
11-1. Given an element with stresses as indicated in the figure, find: (a) The major and minor
principal stresses and the planes on which they act. (b) The stresses on a plane inclined at 30°
from the horizontal. (c) The max. shear stress and the inclination of the plane on which it acts.

SOLUTION:
60

49.69, 52.14

60, 53.15

50

pole

40

20, 35
30

Shear stress (kPa

20
10
0

6.85

113.15

-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Normal stress (kPa)

90

100 110 120

solution continued on
next page

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Mohr Circle and Strength Testing

Chapter 11

11-1 continued

Solve using Mohr's circle and the pole method (see plot on next page).
 x  20 kPa,  y  100 kPa, xy  35 kPa
center 

x  y
2

20  100
 60 kPa
2
2

2
 x  y 
 20  100 
2
 (35)2  53.15 kPa
   xy  

2
2

(a) 1  center  radius  60  53.15  113.15 kPa

3  center  radius  60  53.15  6.85 kPa
 y  x 
1
cos1 

2
 2R 
1
 100  20 
o
  cos1 
  20.59 measured cw from the x-axis at 1.
2
2

53.15

y  x y  x
(b)  x1 

cos 2   xy sin 2
2
2
100  20 100  20
 x1 

cos(2  30)  (35) sin(2  30)  49.69 kPa
2
2
y  x
100  20
 x1y1 
sin 2   xy cos 2 
sin(2  30)  (35) cos(2  30)  52.14 kPa
2
2
(c) max  radius  53.15 kPa

Pr incipal angle, p1 

Orientation of max shear stress, s 
s 

 x  y
1
tan1 
 2xy
2

1
 20  100 
o
tan1 
  24.41 measured ccw from horizontal
2
2

35

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

53. NJ 07458. photocopying. recording. or likewise.3. 52 60. Pearson Education.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-2 continued 60 pole 70. Upper Saddle River. 16 10 0 6.. . storage in a retrieval system. Inc.85 113.15 50 40 Shear stress (kPa 30 20 9. mechanical. NJ. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic.15 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. All rights reserved.. Upper Saddle River. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For information regarding permission(s).

1 rotated 40° clockwise from the horizontal. xy  35 kPa center  x  y 2  20  100  60 kPa 2 2 2  x  y   20  100  2 2    radius   xy    (35)  53. electronic.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-3. For information regarding permission(s). Inc. Inc. find the magnitude and direction of the stresses on the vertical plane. 35 30 Shear stress (kPa 20 10 0 6.  x  20 kPa.15 kPa  2 2     1  center  radius  60  53.  y  100 kPa. NJ 07458. Pearson Education.15 -10 -20 -30 20. photocopying. SOLUTION: Solve using Mohr's circle and the pole method (see plot on next page). All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. 3  center  radius  60  53. With the element of Problem 11. or likewise.. NJ.15  113. -35 on vertical plane: (98. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. storage in a retrieval system.85 kPa From the Mohr circle: pole  (98. 37) 60 50 pole (98.37) stresses on a vertical plane  (98.. 37) 40 100. mechanical.15  6.15 kPa.85 113. . Upper Saddle River. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means. recording. -37) -40 -50 -60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.

storage in a retrieval system. mechanical.. -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. NJ 07458.4) 6 5 4 Shear stress (kPa 3 2 6. recording. Upper Saddle River. 5. or transmission in any form or by any means.38 -4. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.38 -1 -2 -4. Upper Saddle River. Inc. All rights reserved. NJ. 2 1 0 6. Pearson Education. or likewise. For information regarding permission(s)..Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-4 continued 9 8 7 pole (0. . photocopying. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.6. electronic.

) SOLUTION: Solve using Mohr's circle and the pole method (see plot on next page).5  3. Determine by means of the Mohr circle the normal stress and shear stress on a plane inclined at 20° to the plane on which the minor principal stress acts. Inc.21 MPa 2 2   6 5 4 (7.33.5 8. 0) 0 -1. NJ. electronic. Inc.5 MPa. 0) 1  3 1  3 8. Pole = (-1. NJ 07458.5 8. 3 = 1500 kN/m2 tension.5  1.5 cos 2  cos(2  20)  7. Casagrande. Upper Saddle River.5. mechanical. Check the results analytically.33 MPa   2 2 2 2   3 8. storage in a retrieval system.. or transmission in any form or by any means.21) Shear stress (Mpa 3 2 1 pole (-1. Upper Saddle River.5  1.5 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Normal stress (MPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.5   1 sin 2  sin(2  20)  3. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. xy  0 center  x  y 2  8..5. (After A.5 MPa 2 2 2  x  y   8.5  2 2 radius      xy    (2)  5 MPa  2 2     Assuming 3 acts in the horizontal direction on a vertical plane. 1  8.5 MPa. photocopying.5  1. or likewise. The state of plane stress in a body is described by the following stresses: 1 = 8500 kN/m2 compression.5  1. 3. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. . For information regarding permission(s).Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-6.5  1. 3  1. All rights reserved. Pearson Education. recording.

Inc.5) -40 -60 -80 Normal stress (MPa) © 2011 Pearson Education. mechanical. Find the stresses acting on the principal planes and the orientation of principal planes with the horizontal.5)  65. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.56  8.56  123. or likewise. 1948. photocopying. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved.  y  0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ 07458.56 MPa 2     1  center  radius  57. xy  31.  x  115 MPa.06 MPa p 1  76o (rotated ccw from x-axis) and p  2  14o (rotated cw from x-axis) 80 60 40 Shear stress (Mpa (115. . storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-7. on a vertical plane the compressive stress is 115 MPa and the shearing stress is 31. NJ.5 MPa 2 2 2  x  y   115  0  2 2    radius    xy  2   (31.5  65. 31.1 MPa 3  center  radius  57. or transmission in any form or by any means.5 MPa.5) 20 -8. recording. (After Taylor. There is no normal stress on the longitudinal (horizontal) plane. Pearson Education. Inc.5 MPa center  x  y 2  115  0  57. 31. electronic.1 123 0 -10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 -20 pole (115. For information regarding permission(s)..) SOLUTION: Solve using Mohr's circle and the pole method (see plot below).. At a certain critical point in a steel beam.5  65.

mechanical.1 -1 (5. NJ. the stresses are (13. For information regarding permission(s). photocopying. center = (9. and construct a perpendicular bisector. Pearson Education.3 9 7 5 (13.8. -2). . Plot given points (13. while on plane 2.8. Inc. Find the major and minor principal stresses. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River. On plane 1. All rights reserved. The perpendicular bisector crosses the x-axis at the center of the circle. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. the stresses are (5.8. Upper Saddle River. 4) 3 1 9. A soil sample is under a biaxial state of stress.. -2) -3 -5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 © 2011 Pearson Education. 1  15. or transmission in any form or by any means.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-8. or likewise.1 and 3  5. electronic. 4). -2).. Inc. 4) and (5. storage in a retrieval system.8.8 5.3 15. SOLUTION: Solve using Mohr's circle and the pole method (see plot below). recording. 0) Draw the circle and graphically determine the principal stresses.

All rights reserved.3 (on horizontal plane) (c) max  3. For the element shown in the figure: (a) Find the magnitude of the unknown stresses h and h on the horizontal plane. Inc. For information regarding permission(s). or transmission in any form or by any means. -3. 0).4.3 0 Pole = (7.4 1. (c) Show the orientation of the planes of maximum as well as minimum shear. NJ 07458. and 3  1. NJ. storage in a retrieval system.. 3) 3 Shear stress 2 1 4. . Pearson Education. (a) h  1. Radius = 3. (b) Find the orientation of the principal stresses.1) (5. Inc.1 on a plane oriented 45o ccw from the horizontal 4 (4. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Upper Saddle River. electronic.5.3 and h  0 acting on a horizontal plane (b) Principal stresses: 1  7..5 (on vertical plane). clearly indicate their orientation in a small sketch. and construct a perpendicular bisector.4. The perpendicular bisector crosses the x-axis at the center of the circle. Center = (4.0) -1 -2 (2.1) -4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Normal stress © 2011 Pearson Education. 0).5. recording. mechanical.1 Draw the circle and graphically determine the pole at (7. -2) -3 (4. 3). photocopying. Upper Saddle River. SOLUTION: Solve using Mohr's circle and the pole method using the given stresses. -2) and (5.1 on a plane oriented 45o cw from the horizontal min  3. 3. Plot (2.4. or likewise.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-9.

35 -1 -2 8.3). NJ. Radius = 3.3 0 2. (a) H  2. Upper Saddle River.05 (on a plane oriented 2. 0).. For information regarding permission(s)..65. photocopying. storage in a retrieval system.35.3 8. 3 3 Shear stress 2 1 Pole: 8. electronic.65.3 on the horizontal plane (b) Principal stresses: 1  8.3 2.65 (on a plane oriented 87.6o ccw from the horizontal) 5 4 4. 0. Center = (5. Plot (4.05 5. mechanical.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-10. (b) Find the magnitude and direction of 1 and 3.65.4o cw from the horizontal) 3  2. Upper Saddle River.05. NJ 07458. recording. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 0. 3) and (8. or likewise. Inc. Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Given the element with stresses as shown in the figure: (a) Find the magnitude and direction of H and H. 0. The perpendicular bisector crosses the x-axis at the center of the circle.3 Draw the circle and graphically determine the pole at (8.05 and H  0. Inc. 0. -2 -3 -4 -5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Normal stress © 2011 Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. . -2). or transmission in any form or by any means. and construct a perpendicular bisector. SOLUTION: Solve using Mohr's circle and the pole method using the given stresses.

2.83 3.  y  4 kPa. or likewise.83 kPa   (on the horizontal plane) (on a plane rotated 45o ccw from the major principle plane ) 5 4 6. (a) Find the magnitude of the stresses on the horizontal plane. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ.. Upper Saddle River.17 0 -1 -2 8. NJ 07458. electronic. center  2  x  y  2 radius      xy  2   (a) h  8 kPa. photocopying.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-11. (b) Find the maximum shear stress. Pearson Education. recording. Inc.83 kPa x  y 2  84  6 kPa 2 2 84 2  2   (2)  2. Inc. storage in a retrieval system. 2 1 8. Upper Saddle River.  x  8 kPa. h  2 kPa (b) max  2. All rights reserved. xy  2 kPa. 2) Shear stress (kPa 2 8. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.83 3 pole (4. and determine the angle between the plane on which it acts and the major principal plane. SOLUTION: Solve using Mohr's circle and the pole method (see plot below).5. Given the data of Example 11.. For information regarding permission(s). or transmission in any form or by any means. . mechanical. -2 -3 -4 -5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.

mechanical.12. or transmission in any form or by any means. 6.1 6 Shear stress (kPa 4 2 23. Given the vertical and horizontal normal stresses of Problem 11.. 6. Assume the angle of internal friction for the sand is 32°. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Inc. Upper Saddle River. recording. 12 10 8 10.1 21. Inc. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458.29 0 -2 -4 -6 10. All rights reserved. Pearson Education. Find the maximum values of shear stress on the horizontal and vertical planes to cause failure in a medium dense sand. planes will result in a failure condition.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-13. -6. photocopying.71 7. a value of  = 6. . write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or likewise. and horz. electronic. SOLUTION: As shown in the Mohr circle diagram. NJ. For information regarding permission(s). storage in a retrieval system.1 kPa on the vert..1 -8 -10 -12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.

Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. and from it scale the normal and shearing stresses and the obliquity angles on planes at 35°. Construct the Mohr diagram. mechanical. Upper Saddle River. 1948. storage in a retrieval system.) SOLUTION: Angle (deg) Normal stress (MN/m2) Shear Stress (MN/m2) 35 8.30 2.89 65 7. and 4 Mn/m2.. Inc. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means.75 2. 6. Upper Saddle River. recording.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-15. NJ.. Inc. respectively.00 6 80 deg 65 deg 5 50 deg 4 35 deg Shear stress (Mn/m^2 3 2 1 0 Pole: (4. and minor principal stresses are 10. or likewise. All rights reserved.5 2. 0) -1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 -5 -6 Normal stress (MN/m^2) © 2011 Pearson Education. NJ 07458. electronic.60 50 7. .05 3. intermediate. At a given point within a sand deposit the major. (After Taylor. 65°. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.97 80 7. and 80° from the major principal plane. 50°.

write to: Rights and Permissions Department. mechanical. 0) 0 200. There is no shear stress on any face.) SOLUTION: 1  200 kPa.98 kPa R  (kPa)  (kPa)  (deg) Major principal plane 200 0 0 Intermediate principal plane 100 0 90 Minor principal plane 60 0 90 Plane of maximum shearing stress 130.3. or likewise.0 kPa  max    xy    2 2     R sin  '    '  32.  ff  C  x R x cos(90  32. and 60 kPa on the other pair of vertical faces. 70 92. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. ff  70  sin(90  32. photocopying.0 kPa 2 2 2  x  y   200  60  2 Radius    (0)2  70. storage in a retrieval system. Inc.. or transmission in any form or by any means. x  y 2  3  60 kPa 200  60  130.  ff  92.3 58.3 kPa 70  sin(90   ')  ff . A 1-m cube within a mass of stressed soil has a stress of 200 kPa on its top and bottom faces. Fill in the following table.58)   x  37. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River.58)  58. Pearson Education. . 100 kPa on one pair of vertical faces.98 60 Shear stress (kPa 40 20 Pole:(60. NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Center  2  100 kPa. 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.98 32.0 70. 58.0 45 Plane of maximum obliquity 92. NJ.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-16.693. Inc.58 100 80 130. (After Taylor.58o C x cos(90   ')  .. electronic. Upper Saddle River. 1948. recording.

0) 0 200. recording.. Inc. mechanical. or likewise. storage in a retrieval system. All rights reserved. For information regarding permission(s).98 60 Shear stress (kPa 40 20 Pole:(60.3. 70 92.0 kPa  max    xy    2 2     R sin  '    '  32.. Inc. assuming c = 0? SOLUTION: 1  200 kPa. . NJ 07458. or transmission in any form or by any means. x  y 2  3  60 kPa 200  60  130. photocopying.0 kPa 2 2 2  x  y   200  60  2 Radius    (0)2  70.58o C 100 80 130. electronic. Upper Saddle River. 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education. 58. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ.16 what is . In Problem 11. Upper Saddle River.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-17. Center  2  100 kPa. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Education.

This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ 07458.00. 13. mechanical. (a) Draw the Mohr circle for this point. 10 Circle 11-19a values in psi 44. Center = (30. 1  44. 3  15. showing the pole location. 0).05 psi (see Mohr circle 11-19b) on the horizontal plane 20 34. (b) What are the stresses acting on a horizontal plane passing through this point? (c) The cohesion intercept for this soil is and the friction angle is If the major principal stress remains the same. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 13.5) 20.14 psi (a) Draw the circle (see circle 11-19a) and graphically determine the pole at (26. Inc. Pearson Education.14.5 10 Pole (26.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-19. electronic. 10). 0 0 40.9 psi (b) H  34. 10) and (20. . Upper Saddle River. or likewise. recording. For information regarding permission(s).. and construct a perpendicular bisector.1psi. Inc. storage in a retrieval system. 10 15. NJ. Radius = 14. 13.5 psi (c) 3  2. 0 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 20 10 Circle 11-19b values in psi 44. 0 30. All rights reserved. 0 0 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 © 2011 Pearson Education..5).1psi and H  13. photocopying.1. 0 11.2.14. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River.86.2. what would the minor principal stress have to be to cause failure? SOLUTION: Plot (40. The perpendicular bisector crosses the x-axis at the center of the circle.

(a) Draw the Mohr circle for this point. electronic. or likewise. 3  15. 1  44. Pearson Education. and determine the pole location. 352 631. and for both sand layers the friction angle is 34° and Ko = 0.. 259 Shear stress (psf 200 1008. The figure shows an element of soil at the interface between two dry sand layers on a 28° slope.8.6 psf (a) Draw the circle and graphically determine the pole at (492.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-20. f  259 psf and ff  352 psf (c) 45  FS  ff 352   1. (c) What is the shear stress on the failure plane (f) and what is the shear stress on the failure plane at failure (ff)? Use these values to determine the factor of safety.. and draw the Mohr circle (see below). on the 28° plane). storage in a retrieval system. 0). 0) -200 -400 0 200 400 600 800 Normal stress (psf) 1000 1200 © 2011 Pearson Education. (b) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the soil interface (i. Inc. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means.0 492.  'h  K o 'v  (0. 0.0. All rights reserved. .8.9 psf (b) 28  1008 psf and 28  241 psf at 28o from the horizontal plane ' 34  45   62o draw the failure plane from 3 at 62o from the horizontal 2 2 from the Mohr circle.8 psf Plot (1120.e. SOLUTION:  'v  (112 pcf )(10 ft)  1120 psf. Assume that the shear stress is zero on both the vertical and horizontal planes. Upper Saddle River.8. 0). 0.44. NJ. Radius = 313.. Upper Saddle River. 241 1120. photocopying. NJ 07458. The interface is 10 ft below the ground surface. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 0) and (492. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording.0 0 Pole (492.8.1 psf. Center = (806. 0). For information regarding permission(s).4. mechanical.44)(1120)  492.36 f 259 600 400 631.

Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-26. Upper Saddle River.37 346. For information regarding permission(s).66. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.69o . A normal to the failure envelope crosses the x-axis at the center of the circle. NJ 07458. 0).. All rights reserved.8o cw from the horizontal 3  154.95 kPa at 61. or transmission in any form or by any means.32.32. photocopying.37 kPa at 28. 160) to locate the pole at (453. or likewise. mechanical. SOLUTION Plot (240. Radius = 192. This defines the failure envelope at 33. . Inc. recording.66 538.95 -50 -100 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 -150 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education. (a) Assuming uniform stress distribution within the failure zone and a straight line failure envelope which goes through the origin. storage in a retrieval system. NJ. Pearson Education. 0). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 160 Pole (453. the vertical normal stress on the specimen is 240 kN/m2 and the horizontal shear stress at failure is 160 kN/m2. 160) and (0.29 kPa (a) Draw a horizontal line from (240. In a direct shear test on a specimen of cohesionless sand. 1  538.2o ccw from the horizontal 300 250 200 240. 160). electronic.. Center = (346. Upper Saddle River. 160) 150 Shear stress (kPa 100 50 0 154. Inc. determine by means of the Mohr circle the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses at failure.

5 2.8 Initial condition 1.12. Pole  (1.0 4. mechanical. NJ 07458.96 2.78 Final Circle: Center = (2. Ko = 0.Mohr Circle and Strength Testing Chapter 11 11-27.56 kg cm2 (a) See Mohr circle plot below. 1. what are the stresses and on the sides of the specimen at failure? SOLUTION: h  K ov  (0. electronic.5)(3. Pearson Education.96 kg kg cm2 cm2 .5 At failure: v = 3.0 0. .5 2.3o ccw from horizontal 3  56. (d) What is the orientation of the failure plane? (e) If the shear strain at failure is 10° as shown in the figure.96 kg cm2 at 10o 3.30 -0. or likewise. -1.22.0 2. recording.96 (c) 1  4.56 4.34. . -1.0 1.56. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 0).0 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.30 3  1.56 1. kg cm2 kg cm2 .5 -1..5 1. Inc. s  1.8 -2.0 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. photocopying.56.0 Pole: (1.12 kg/cm2. s  2.0 0.0 5. Radius = 0. 1. -1. Upper Saddle River. A specimen of sand is tested in direct simple shear.0 2.8) 1  33. Upper Saddle River. The stress conditions are shown.22 kg cm2 .8) 1. (b) Show clearly the locations of the poles of these circles.0 1..8 3. (b) Initial Circle: Center = (2.7o cw from horizontal (d) refer to the Mohr circle diagram (e) As shown in the diagram.12 kg/cm2. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.0 3.34.5 -2.56.80 kg/cm2 (a) Draw the Mohr circles for both initial and final stress conditions. Initial conditions: v = 3.5 5. (c) Determine the magnitude and orientation of the principal stresses at failure.56.5 3. For information regarding permission(s).0 -1.0 0. Pole  (1.5 6.5 0.5 Final condition Shear stress (kPa 1. Radius = 1.12)  1. hv = 1.5 -3. NJ. storage in a retrieval system. 0).38 Pole: 1. All rights reserved.5 4. 0) . Inc.