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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

REST HOURS
Applicable to officer in charge of a watch and ratings forming part of a watch.

A minimum ten hours rest in any twenty four hours period.

Rest hours may be divided in not more than two parts.

One part should be at least six hours in length.

Minimum ten hours period may be reduced to not less than six consecutive hours period
provided that:
Such reduction does not extend beyond two days.
Not less than seventy hours of rest are provided in each seven days period.
Required rest hours need not to be maintained:
In the event of emergency.
Drills
Any other urgent condition.

Calling master as per STCW-95


If restricted visibility is encountered or expected.
If traffic conditions or movements of other ships are causing concern.
If difficulty is experienced in maintaining course.
On failure to sight land, a navigation mark or obtain soundings by the expected time.
If, unexpectedly, land or a navigation mark is sighted or change in sounding occurs.
On the breakdown of the engines, steering gear, or any essential navigational
equipment.
In heavy weather, if in any doubt about the possibility of weather damage.
If the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or derelicts.
In any other emergency or situation in which the OOW is in any doubt.

STCW-95 for chief officer


Chief officer has the responsibility for

Familiarization training
Basic training
Watch arrangement and
Rest hours for watch keeping officers and crews.

To conduct familiarization training for new joining crew before being assigned to duties
to familiar with shipboard equipment, operating procedures of various equipments.

To conduct basic training for watch keeping, safety and environment protection,
emergency procedures.

To prepare onboard training programs for crew, cadet including junior officers. Example:

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

Rigging pilot ladder.


Understanding helm orders.
Duties while berthing and unberthing.
Basic knowledge of deck maintenance and tools used on deck.

To monitor on their progress and skills and documented in training record books.

To maintain rest hours for watch officers and crews forming part of watch as per STCW-
95.

To maintain the ship and equipment properly and ready for port state control inspection.

MSA OVERVIEW CH-2


CH-2 -II
Regulation-2:
a) Fire safety objectives
Prevent the occurrence of fire and explosion.
Reduce the risk of life caused by fire.
Reduce the risk of damage caused by fire to the ship, its cargo and the environment.
Contain, control and suppress fire and explosion in the compartment of origin.
Provide adequate and readily accessible means of escape for passengers and crews.

b) Functional requirements
View requirements

Regulation-3:
Definitions

A-Class division:
Divisions formed by bulkheads and decks which comply following regulations:

Constructed of steel or other equivalent material.


Suitably stiffened.
Insulated with approved non-combustible materials such as The average temperature of the
unexposed side will not rise more than 140ºC above the original temperature
The temperature at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 180ºC above the original
temperature.
Within the time period:

Class A-60 60 min


Class A-30 30 min

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Class A-15 15 min


Class A-0 0 min.

Constructed as to be capable of preventing the passage of smoke and flame to the end of the one
hour standard fire test.
A test is required as per FTP code.

Main vertical zone:


Sections into which the hull, superstructure and deckhouses are divided by A-class divisions.
Mean length and width of which on any deck does not in general exceed 40m.

Regulation-10:

International shore connection:


Required for ships 500GT and upwards.
At least one.
Specifications as per FSS code.
Can be used on either side of the ship.

Fire pumps:
Ships shall be provided with independently driven fire pimps. Passenger ships: 4000GT and
upwards: at least three.
Others: at least two.

Cargo ships: 1000Gt and upwards: At least two.


Others: At least two (one independent).

An emergency fire pump for cargo ships and passenger ships less than 1000GT, if fire in any
compartment cause all the pumps inoperative.

Fire hoses and nozzles:


Non perishable material.
At least 10m length.
Not more than 15m in machinery space.
Not more than 20m in other spaces and open decks.
Not more than 25m for open decks for ships with max breadth more than 30m.
Complete interchangeability of hose, couplings and nozzles, unless one hose and nozzle for each
hydrant is provided.
For cargo ships 1000GT and upwards, 1 for every 30m and 1 spare (not less than 5).
This no. does not include E/R or boiler room.
Nozzle size: 12mm, 16mm and 19mm or as near as thereto.
Dual purpose type (jet and spray).

Portable fire extinguishers:


Comply with FSS code.

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Of appropriate type and sufficient number.


For ships of 1000GT and upwards: carry at least 5 extinguishers.
Near entrance of an space.
Carbon di oxide shall not be placed in accommodation spaces.
Non-conductive extinguishing medium for control spaces and electrical spaces.
Ready for use and placed at easily visible places.
Spare charges: 100% for first 10 and 50% of remainder.
Additional fire extinguishers, which cannot be recharged.

Fire fighter's outfit:


Comply with FSS code.
Ships to carry at least two.
Passenger ships: additional 1 for every 80m and part thereof, of the aggregate of all passenger
spaces and service spaces.
If carrying more than 36 passengers, 2 additional outfit for each main vertical zone.
Tankers: two additional.
Two spare charges for each breathing apparatus.

Regulation-15:
The crews shall have necessary knowledge and skills to handle fire.
Crew members shall receive instructions regarding fire safety, duties.
Parties for fire fighting to be organized.
Crew members shall be trained regarding fire fighting.
Their performance to be evaluated.

Training manuals:
Training manuals to be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room or in each crew's
cabin.
To be written in working language of the ship.
Will contain instructions easily understood and illustrated wherever possible.
Training manuals should explain followings in details: General fire safety practice and precautions.
General instructions on fire fighting activities and procedures including procedures of notification.
Meanings of the ship's alarms.
Operation and use of fire fighting systems and appliances.
Operation and use of fire doors.
Operation and use of fire smoke dampers.
Escape systems and appliances.

Fire control plans:


General arrangement plans shall be permanently exhibited for the guidance of ship's officers.
GA plans will show for each deck: The control stations
Various fire sections enclosed by A and B class divisions
Particulars of fire detection and fire alarm systems.
Sprinkler installations
Fire extinguishing appliances.
Means of access
Decks

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Ventilating systems including fan control positions.


Position of dampers

The details may be may be set out in a booklet, if approved by director. A copy shall be supplied to
each officer.
One copy shall be available onboard in accessible position.

Plans and booklets to be kept updated.


Alterations to be recorded as soon as possible.
Descriptions in these booklets to be in language(s) required by the authority.
Duplicate set of fire control plans shall be permanently stored in a prominently marked
weathertight enclosure outside the deckhouse for shore side fire fighting personnel.

Regulation-19:
Carriage of dangerous goods

Additional requirement for construction and equipment for safe carriage of dangerous goods
regarding:

Water supplies.
Source of ignition.
Detection system.
Ventilation.
Bilge pumping.
Personnel protection.
Portable fire extinguishers.
Insulation of machinery space boundaries.
Water spray system.
Separation of ro-ro spaces.

Document of compliance
An appropriate document issued by the director on an authorized organization.
Evidence of compliance of construction and equipment with the requirements of this regulation.
Shall be carried onboard.

IAMSAR
Definitions:

SC (SAR Coordinator):
Country's top SAR manager.
Develops SAR and SAR training policies.
Establishes RCCs and Rescue Sub Centers.
Provides for, arranges and manages SAR facilities of the country.

SMC (SAR Mission Coordinator):

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Appointed for and oversees each SAR each SAR operation under guidance of SC(SAR
Coordinator).
Normally this duty is undertaken by the head of RCC.

Duties of SMC
Obtain all data on emergency.
Ascertain type of emergency equipment carried by distress craft.
Obtain update on weather /sea conditions.
Locate shipping in search areas.
Plot search areas and methods.
Maintain radio listening watch.
Allocate radio frequencies.
Designate OSC and CSS.
Dispatch delivery of survival supplies to survivors.
Maintain record of events.
Record results of searched areas.
Monitor SAR units engaged eg. helicopter flying hours, etc.

OSC (On scene coordinator):


Person coordinates SAR facilities working at the scene.
Designated by SMC.
The person in charge of the first facility to arrive on scene normally assume OSC function unless
SMC arranges relief.

Who can be an OSC:

When two or more SAR facilities conduct operations together, the SMC should designate an OSC.

If this is not practicable, facilities involved should designate, by mutual agreement, an OSC.

This should be done as early as practicable and preferably before arrival within the search area.
Until an OSC has been designated, the first facility arriving at the scene should assume the duties
of an OSC.

When deciding how much responsibility to delegate to the OSC, the SMC normally considers the
communications and personnel capabilities of the facilities involved.

Duties of OSC

Co-ordinate operations of all SAR facilities on-scene.


Obtains the search action plan from the SMC.
Plan the search or rescue operation, if no plan is otherwise available.
Modify the search action or rescue action plan as the situation on- scene dictates, keeping the SMC
advised.
Co-ordinate on-scene communications.
Monitor the performance of other participating facilities.

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Ensure operations are conducted safely, paying particular attention to maintaining safe separations
among all facilities, both surface and air.
Make periodic situation reports (SITREPs) to the SMC.
Maintain a detailed record of the operation: On-scene arrival and departure times of SAR facilities,
other vessels and aircraft engaged in operation
Areas searched
Track spacing used
Sightings and leads reported
Actions taken
Result obtained.

Advise the SMC to release facilities no longer required.


Report the number and names of survivors to the SMC.
Provide the SMC with the names and designations of facilities with survivors aboard.
Report which survivors are each facility.
Request additional SMC assistance when necessary (for example, medical evacuation of seriously
injured survivors).

SITREP (SAR Situation report)

The standard SITREP format may be found in IAMSAR Vol-3, appendix D.


SITREP should include but not be limited to: Weather and sea conditions
The results of search to date
Any actions taken
Any future plans or recommendations.

Search patterns
Search pattern will depend on the followings:
Size of area to be searched.
Type of distressed craft.
Size of distressed craft.
Meteorological visibility.
Cloud ceiling.
Type of sea conditions.
Time of day.
Arrival time of datum.
Normally three basic search patterns are used. Namely:
Parallel sweep search
Expanding square search
Sector search

Parallel sweep search (PS)


Used to search a large area when survivor's location is uncertain.
May be used with single or multiple vessels.

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Commence search point (CSP) is one of the corners of the search area.
CSP may be a corner of a sub area if a large area is to search.
It is ½ track space inside the rectangle from each of the two sides forming the rectangle.
Orientation is generally in the estimated direction of drift of the search object.

Parallel sweep search by one ship:

Parallel sweep search by two ships:

Expanding square search (SS)


Most effective when location of object is known to be within close limit.
CSP (Commence search point) is always datum.
First leg usually oriented into the wind.
Suitable for use by a single vessel or boat.
Used when searching for persons in water.
Search object with no leeway.

Sector search (VS)


Most effective when location of search object is accurately known.
Search area to be small.
Used to search a circular area.
Center is datum position.
Datum may be marked by dropping a suitable marker, such as a life buoy.
Search radius is normally 2 - 5 n. miles for vessels.
Each turn is 120°, normally to starboard.
Second search leg is 30º off from the first leg.
CSP (Commence search point) is one side of the circular search area.

INTERNATIONAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT CODE


OUTLINE

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The International Safety Management (ISM) Code means the International Management Code for
the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention adopted by the International Maritime
Organization by resolution A.741 (18).

The ISM Code is the standard for establishing a system for the safe management and operation of
vessels and for pollution prevention.

It sets rules for the organization of the owner or company management in relation to safety and
pollution prevention, and for the implementation of a Safety Management System (SMS).

The system will have to be approved by the flag Administration, or an organization recognized by
it (normally Classification Societies), then a Certificate is issued.

An owner can manage his own ship or appoint a management company, but for the first time, the
owner or company ashore (the office – not just the ship) has to be approved and have a Certificate
(DOC).

TO WHOM IT APPLIES

Chapter IX of SOLAS requires compliance to the ISM Code.

It is mandatory for cargo ships over 500 Gross Tons, passenger ships, tankers, high-speed craft
over 500GT and larger ships.

Implemented in 1st July, 1998. Full force from 1st July 2002.

The management company or owner ashore and the ship must comply with the requirements of the
ISM Code, and the ship must be operated by a person or company holding a Document of
Compliance.

OBJECTIVES

It improves safety standards on board, so making a safer working environment.

Prevents human injury and loss of life.

It promotes environmental pollution prevention, particularly pollution of marine environment..

It defines tasks and responsibilities.

ISM Code contains general guidelines on which the SMS should be based, and owners and masters
should have no problem in developing a SMS which is practical and which relates exactly to the
particular vessel.

The following quote from the Code serves to illustrate the general broad terms of wording of the
ISM Code:

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Recognizing that no two shipping companies or shipowners are the same, and that ships operate
under a wide range of different conditions, the Code is based on general principals.

The Code is expressed in broad terms so that it can have a widespread application. Clearly,
different levels of management, whether shore based or at sea, will require varying levels of
knowledge and awareness of the items outlined.

THE DETAILS.

The ISM Code is divided into 13 sections, as follows:

GENERAL

SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION POLICY.

COMPANY RESPONSIBILITIES AND AUTHORITY.

DESIGNATED PERSONS.

MASTERS RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY.

RESOURCES AND PERSONNEL

DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS FOR SHIPBOARD OPERATIONS

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS.

REPORTS AND ANALYSIS OF NON-CONFORMITIES, ACCIDENTS AND HAZARDOUS


OCCURRENCES.

MAINTENANCE OF THE SHIP AND EQUIPMENT.

DOCUMENTATION.

COMPANY VERIFICATION, REVIEW AND EVALUATION.

CERTIFICATION, VERIFICATION AND CONTROL.

Certification:

The Companies DOC is valid for 5 years, and subject to annual verification.

The Safety Management Certificate is valid for 5 years, and subject to at least one intermediate
verification and the validity of the Companies DOC.

1. GENERAL.

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As a general object, the SMS should ensure compliance with mandatory rules and regulations, and
that applicable codes, guidelines and standards recommended by the IMO, Flag Administrations,
Classification Societies and Maritime Industry Organizations are taken into account.

The responsibilities of the owner or manager, and the masters, are documented, and there is
absolutely no room for conflict between the ‘office’ and the ship.

The SMS will normally be drawn up so as to best suit the particular type of operation of the yacht
and the owners or managers. It must be straightforward, based on normal ways of working, and it
must be practical – it must work and be shown to work.

The SMS to be a written description and details which covers the normal operating procedures
adopted for the running of the vessel, the identifying of possible risk areas and procedures to be
adopted to eliminate risk, and procedures to be used in the case of emergency.

Based on the SMS, shore based staff at the owners or management company office will fulfill the
roles assigned to them, and the SMS should provide for a self-assessment of the success of the
operation of the system. The logging of the exchanges of information between ship and office will
be a valuable part of this self-assessment.

The functional requirements of the SMS are:

A safety and environmental protection policy.

Instructions and procedures to ensure safe operation of ships and protection of the environment in
compliance with relevant International and Flag State legislation.

Defined levels of authority and lines of communication between, and amongst, shore and shipboard
personnel.

Procedures for reporting accidents and non-conformities with the provisions of the Code.

Procedures to prepare for and respond to emergency situations.

Procedures for internal audits and management reviews.

2. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION POLICY.

The owner or his appointed shore-based managers (the ‘Company’) should establish a safety and
environmental protection policy which describes how the objectives given above will be achieved.

The Company should ensure that the policy is implemented and maintained at all levels, on board
and ashore.

3. COMPANY RESPONSIBILITIES AND AUTHORITY.

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If the entity who is responsible for the operation of the yacht is other than the owner, the owner
must report the full name and details of such entity to the Flag State Administration.

The Company has to define and document who does what – responsibilities and authority - (ashore
and on board), and make sure that enough resources are available to enable the persons responsible
to carry out their tasks.

4. DESIGNATED PERSONS.

The designated person(s) should be suitably qualified and experienced in the safety and pollution
control aspects of yacht operations.

The Company should designate a person or persons ashore having direct access to the highest
levels of management for the followings:

To ensure the safe operation of each vessel

To provide a link between the Company and those on board,

To monitor the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of the vessel.

To ensure that adequate resources and shore based support are applied, as required.

To conduct safety audit and provide/ monitor corrective actions.

5. MASTERS RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY.

The Company should clearly define and document the Master’s responsibility with regards to
implementing the Companies safety and environmental-protection policy, and the SMS should
include a clear statement emphasizing the Master’s authority.

Any system of checks used by the Company should allow for and take account of the Master’s
overriding authority to take whatever action he considers to be in the best interests of persons on
board, the yacht and the marine environment.

Master's responsibility and authorities are defined in the following aspects:

Implementing the safety and environmental protection policy of the company.

Motivating the crews in the observation of the policy.

Issuing appropriate orders and instruction in clear and simple manner.

Verifying the specified requirements are being observed.

Reviewing the SMS and reporting its deficiencies to the shore based management.

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6. RESOURCES AND PERSONNEL

The Company should ensure:

The Master and crews are fit and properly qualified.

Everyone involved with the implementation of the SMS understands it.

Relevant rules, regulations and guidelines are understood by shipboard personnel,

Identify and provide any training which may be required in support of the SMS.

7. DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS FOR SHIPBOARD OPERATIONS

The Company should establish procedures for the preparation of plans and instructions for key
operations on board concerning the safety of the ship and the prevention of pollution.

Instructions and agreed procedures for operation to be produced and documented in clear
language(s) so as to readily available and understood to everyone concerned with the operation of
the vessel.

8. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS.

The Company should establish procedures to identify, describe and respond to potential emergency
shipboard situations, and establish programs for drills and exercises to prepare for emergency
actions.

The SMS should provide for measures ensuring that the Companies organization can respond at
any time to hazards, accidents and emergency situations involving its ships.

9. REPORTS AND ANALYSIS OF NON-CONFORMITIES,


ACCIDENTS AND HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES.

The SMS should include procedures for the above to be reported to the Company.

Procedures should be established for the implementation of corrective action.

10. MAINTENANCE OF THE SHIP AND EQUIPMENT.

The Company should establish procedures to ensure that the vessel is maintained in conformity
with the provisions of the relevant rules and regulations and with any additional requirements which
may be established by the Company.

The SMS should identify critical equipment and systems, the failure of which may result in
hazardous situations.

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Stand-by arrangements to be tested regularly.

11. DOCUMENTATION.

The Company to establish and maintain procedures to control all documents and data which are
relevant to the SMS.

The documents used to describe and implement the SMS may be referred to as the ‘Safety
Management Manual’.

All relevant documentation to be carried on board.

12. COMPANY VERIFICATION, REVIEW AND EVALUATION.

The company to carry out internal checks (audits) to verify whether safety and pollution prevention
activities comply with the SMS.

13. CERTIFICATION, VERIFICATION AND CONTROL.

The vessel should be operated by a Company which is issued with a Document of Compliance
(DOC) relevant to that vessel.

A copy to be placed on board.

The vessel to be issued with a safe management certificate.

The International Safety Management Code


IMO Assembly Resolution A.741(18) - 1993

THE ASSEMBLY,
RECALLING Article 15(j) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization
concerning the functions of the Assembly in relation to regulations and guidelines
concerning maritime safety and the prevention and control of marine pollution from
ships,
RECALLING ALSO resolution A.680(17), by which it invited Member Governments to
encourage those responsible for the management and operation of ships to take
appropriate steps to develop, implement and assess safety and pollution prevention
management in accordance with the IMO Guidelines on management for the safe
operation of ships and for pollution prevention,
RECALLING ALSO resolution A.596(15), by which it requested the Maritime Safety
Committee to develop, as a matter of urgency, guidelines, wherever relevant,
concerning shipboard and shore-based management and its decision to include in the
work programme of the Maritime Safety Committee and the Marine Environment

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Protection Committee an item on shipboard and shore-based management for the safe
operation of ships and for the prevention of marine pollution, respectively,
RECALLING FURTHER resolution A.441(XI), by which it invited every State to take the
necessary steps to ensure that the owner of a ship which flies the flag of that State
provides such State with the current information necessary to enable it to identify and
contact the person contracted or otherwise entrusted by the owner to discharge his
responsibilities for that ship in regard to matters relating to maritime safety and the
protection of the marine environment,
FURTHER RECALLING resolution A.443(XI), by which it invited Governments to take the
necessary steps to safeguard the shipmaster in the proper discharge of his
responsibilities in regard to maritime safety and the protection of the marine
environment,
RECOGNIZING the need for appropriate organization of management to enable it to
respond to the need of those on board ships to achieve and maintain high standards of
safety and environmental protection,
RECOGNIZING ALSO that the most important means of preventing maritime casualties
and pollution of the sea from ships is to design, construct, equip and maintain ships and
to operate them with properly trained crews in compliance with international
conventions and standards relating to maritime safety and pollution prevention,
NOTING that the Maritime Safety Committee is developing requirements for adoption by
Contracting Governments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea
(SOLAS) 1974, which will make compliance with the Code referred to in operative
paragraph 1 mandatory,
CONSIDERING that the early implementation of that Code would greatly assist in
improving safety at sea and protection of the marine environment,
NOTING FURTHER that the Maritime Safety Committee and the Marine Environment
Protection Committee have reviewed resolution A.680(17) and the Guidelines annexed
thereto in developing the Code,
HAVING CONSIDERED the recommendations made by the Maritime Safety Committee at
its sixty-second session and by the Marine Environment Protection Committee at its
thirty-fourth session,
1. ADOPTS the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and
for Pollution Prevention, (International Safety Management (ISM) Code), set out in
the Annex to the present resolution;
2. STRONGLY URGES Governments to implement the ISM Code on a national basis,
giving priority to passenger ships, tankers, gas carriers, bulk carriers and mobile
offshore units, which are flying their flags, as soon as possible but not later than 1
June 1998, pending development of the mandatory applications of the Code;
3. REQUESTS GOVERNMENTS to inform the Maritime Safety Committee and the
Marine Environment Protection Committee of the action they have taken in
implementing the ISM Code;
4. REQUESTS the Maritime Safety Committee and the Marine Environment Protection
Committee to develop Guidelines for the implementation of the ISM Code;
5. REQUESTS ALSO the Maritime Safety Committee and the Marine Environment
Protection Committee to keep the Code and its associated Guidelines, under
review and to amend them, as necessary;
6. REVOKES resolution A.680(17).

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The International Safety Management (ISM) Code


Annex to IMO Assembly Resolution A.741(18) - 1993
PREAMBLE
1. The purpose of this Code is to provide an international standard for the safe
management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention.
2. The Assembly adopted resolution A.443(XI) by which it invited all Governments to
take the necessary steps to safeguard the shipmaster in the proper discharge of
his responsibilities with regard to maritime safety and the protection of the
marine environment.
3. The Assembly also adopted resolution A.680(17) by which it further recognized
the need for appropriate organization of management to enable it to respond to
the need of those on board ships to achieve and maintain high standards of safety
and environmental protection.
4. Recognizing that no two shipping companies or shipowners are the same, and that
ships operate under a wide range of different conditions, the Code is based on
general principles and objectives.
5. The Code is expressed in broad terms so that it can have a widespread
application. Clearly, different levels of management, whether shore-based or at
sea, will require varying levels of knowledge and awareness of the items outlined.
6. The cornerstone of good safety management is commitment from the top. In
matters of safety and pollution prevention it is the commitment, competence,
attitudes and motivation of individuals at all levels that determines the end
result.
1. GENERAL
1.1 Definitions
1.1.1 "International Safety Management (ISM) Code" means the International
Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention as
adopted by the Assembly, as may be amended by the Organization.
1.1.2 "Company" means the Owner of the ship or any other organization or person such
as the Manager, or the Bareboat Charterer, who has assumed the responsibility for
operation of the ship from the Shipowner and who on assuming such responsibility has
agreed to take over all the duties and responsibility imposed by the Code.
1.1.3 "Administration" means the Government of the State whose flag the ship is
entitled to fly.
1.2 Objectives
1.2.1 The objectives of the Code are to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury
or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, in particular, to the marine
environment, and to property.
1.2.2 Safety management objectives of the Company should, inter alia:
provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working environment;

establish safeguards against all identified risks; and

continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and aboard ships,
including preparing for emergencies related both to safety and environmental
protection.

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1.2.3 The safety and management system should ensure:


compliance with mandatory rules and regulations; and

that applicable codes, guidelines and standards recommended by the Organization,


Administrations, classification societies and maritime industry organizations are taken
into account.
1.3 Application
The requirements of this Code may be applied to all ships.
1.4 Functional requirements for a Safety Management System (SMS)
Every Company should develop, implement and maintain a Safety Management System
(SMS) which includes the following functional requirements:
a safety and environmental protection policy;

instructions and procedures to ensure safe operation of ships and protection of the
environment in compliance with relevant international and flag State legislation;

defined levels of authority and lines of communication between, and amongst, shore
and shipboard personnel;

procedures for reporting accidents and non-conformities with the provisions of this
Code;

procedures to prepare for and respond to emergency situations; and

procedures for internal audits and management reviews.


2. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION POLICY
2.1 The Company should establish a safety and environmental protection policy which
describes how the objectives, given in paragraph 1.2, will be achieved.
2.2 The Company should ensure that the policy is implemented and maintained at all
levels of the organization both ship based as well as shore based.
3. COMPANY RESPONSIBILITIES AND AUTHORITY
3.1 If the entity who is responsible for the operation of the ship is other than the
owner, the owner must report the full name and details of such entity to the
Administration.
3.2 The Company should define and document the responsibility, authority and
interrelation of all personnel who manage, perform and verify work relating to and
affecting safety and pollution prevention.
3.3 The Company is responsible for ensuring that adequate resources and shore based
support are provided to enable the designated person or persons to carry out their
functions.
4. DESIGNATED PERSON(S)
To ensure the safe operation of each ship and to provide a link between the company
and those on board, every company, as appropriate, should designate a person or
persons ashore having direct access to the highest level of management. The
responsibility and authority of the designated person or persons should include
monitoring the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of each ship and
to ensure that adequate resources and shore based support are applied, as required.

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5. MASTER'S RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY


5.1 The Company should clearly define and document the master's responsibility with
regard to:

implementing the safety and environmental protection policy of the Company;

motivating the crew in the observation of that policy;

issuing appropriate orders and instructions in a clear and simple manner;

verifying that specified requirements are observed; and

reviewing the SMS and reporting its deficiencies to the shore based management.

5.2 The Company should ensure that the SMS operating on board the ship contains a
clear statement emphasizing the Master's authority. The Company should establish in the
SMS that the master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions
with respect to safety and pollution prevention and to request the Company's assistance
as may be necessary.
6. RESOURCES AND PERSONNEL
6.1 The Company should ensure that the master is:

properly qualified for command;


fully conversant with the Company's SMS; and
given the necessary support so that the Master's duties can be safely performed.

6.2 The Company should ensure that each ship is manned with qualified, certificated and
medically fit seafarers in accordance with national and international requirements.
6.3 The Company should establish procedures to ensure that new personnel and
personnel transferred to new assignments related to safety and protection of the
environment are given proper familiarization with their duties. Instructions which are
essential to be provided prior to sailing should be identified, documented and given.
6.4 The Company should ensure that all personnel involved in the Company's SMS have an
adequate understanding of relevant rules, regulations, codes and guidelines.
6.5 The Company should establish and maintain procedures for identifying any training
which may be required in support of the SMS and ensure that such training is provided
for all personnel concerned.
6.6 The Company should establish procedures by which the ship's personnel receive
relevant information on the SMS in a working language or languages understood by them.
6.7 The Company should ensure that the ship's personnel are able to communicate
effectively in the execution of their duties related to the SMS.
7. DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS FOR SHIPBOARD OPERATIONS
The Company should establish procedures for the preparation of plans and
instructions for key shipboard operations concerning the safety of the ship and the
prevention of pollution. The various tasks involved should be defined and assigned to
qualified personnel.
8. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

8.1 The Company should establish procedures to identify, describe and respond to
potential emergency shipboard situations.
8.2 The Company should establish programmes for drills and exercises to prepare for
emergency actions.
8.3 The SMS should provide for measures ensuring that the Company's organization can
respond at any time to hazards, accidents and emergency situations involving its
ships.
9. REPORTS AND ANALYSIS OF NON-CONFORMITIES, ACCIDENTS AND HAZARDOUS
OCCURRENCES
9.1 The SMS should include procedures ensuring that non-conformities, accidents and
hazardous situations are reported to the Company, investigated and analyzed with the
objective of improving safety and pollution prevention.
9.2 The Company should establish procedures for the implementation of corrective
action.
10. MAINTENANCE OF THE SHIP AND EQUIPMENT
10.1 The Company should establish procedures to ensure that the ship is maintained
in conformity with the provisions of the relevant rules and regulations and with any
additional requirements which may be established by the Company.
10.2 In meeting these requirements the Company should ensure that:

inspections are held at appropriate intervals;


any non-conformity is reported with its possible cause, if known;
appropriate corrective action is taken; and
records of these activities are maintained.

10.3 The Company should establish procedures in SMS to identify equipment and
technical systems the sudden operational failure of which may result in hazardous
situations. The SMS should provide for specific measures aimed at promoting the
reliability of such equipment or systems. These measures should include the regular
testing of stand-by arrangements and equipment or technical systems that are not in
continuous use.
10.4 The inspections mentioned in 10.2 as well as the measures referred to 10.3 should
be integrated in the ship's operational maintenance routine.
11. DOCUMENTATION
11.1 The Company should establish and maintain procedures to control all documents
and data which are relevant to the SMS.
11.2 The Company should ensure that:

valid documents are available at all relevant locations;


changes to documents are reviewed and approved by authorized personnel; and
obsolete documents are promptly removed.

11.3 The documents used to describe and implement the SMS may be referred to as the
"Safety Management Manual". Documentation should be kept in a form that the Company
considers most effective. Each ship should carry on board all documentation relevant to
that ship.
12. COMPANY VERIFICATION, REVIEW AND EVALUATION

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

12.1 The Company should carry out internal safety audits to verify whether safety and
pollution prevention activities comply with the SMS.
12.2 The Company should periodically evaluate the efficiency and when needed
review the SMS in accordance with procedures established by the Company.
12.3 The audits and possible corrective actions should be carried out in accordance
with documented procedures.
12.4 Personnel carrying out audits should be independent of the areas being audited
unless this is impracticable due to the size and the nature of the Company.
12.5 The results of the audits and reviews should be brought to the attention of all
personnel having responsibility in the area involved.
12.6 The management personnel responsible for the area involved should take timely
corrective action on deficiencies found.
13. CERTIFICATION, VERIFICATION AND CONTROL
13.1 The ship should be operated by a Company which is issued a document of
compliance relevant to that ship.
13.2 A document of compliance should be issued for every Company complying with
the requirements of the ISM Code by the Administration, by an organization
recognized by the Administration or by the Government of the country, acting on
behalf of the Administration in which the Company has chosen to conduct its business.
This document should be accepted as evidence that the Company is capable of
complying with the requirements of the Code.
13.3 A copy of such a document should be placed on board in order that the Master, if
so asked, may produce it for the verification of the Administration or organizations
recognized by it.
13.4 A Certificate, called a Safety Management Certificate, should be issued to a ship
by the Administration or organization recognized by the Administration. The
Administration should, when issuing a certificate, verify that the Company and its
shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved SMS.
13.5 The Administration or an organization recognized by the Administration should
periodically verify the proper functioning of the ship's SMS as approved.

MARPOL
Annexes:
There are six annexes at present:
Annex-I : Regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil.
Annex-II : Regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk.
Annex-III : Regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances in
packaged form.
Annex-IV : Regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships.
Annex-V : Regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships.
Annex-VI : Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships.
In process:
Annex-VII : Regulations for the prevention of pollution from ballast water.
Annex-VIII: Regulations for the prevention of pollution from tin based paint.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

Special areas as per MARPOL 73/78


Annex-I
As per regulation 10, followings are the special areas:
Mediterranean seas
Baltic seas
Black seas
Red seas
Gulf area (Persian gulf)
Gulf of Aden
North-west European waters
Antarctic areas

Annex-V
As per regulation 5, followings are the special areas.
Mediterranean seas
Baltic seas
Black seas
Red seas
Gulf area (Persian gulf)
North seas
Antarctic areas
Wider Caribbean regions

In special areas, only food waste can be disposed off in seas greater 12 n.m. from
shores.
In wider Caribbean regions only food waste comminuted to 25mm can be discharged in
seas more than 3miles from the coast.

Annex-VI
Baltic seas.

Garbage
Disposal of garbage
Covered by regulation-3.
Disposal of plastic or similar products are prohibited.
Food waste, paper, crockery etc may be discharged at sea, at a distance of more than
12miles from the nearest land.
Comminuted food waste to 25mm may be discharged at a distance greater than 3miles
from the nearest land.
Dunnage, lining, packing material which may float can be discharged at a distance more

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

than 25niles from the nearest land.

Special areas:
Special disposal regulation in special areas, as per regulation-10.
In special areas, only food waste can be disposed at a distance more than 12miles from
land.
In wider Caribbean regions only comminuted food waste to 25mm may be disposed off
at a distance more than 3miles from the nearest land.

Garbage management:
Covered by regulation 9.
Every ship 12m or more shall display placards.
Every ship 400GT or above and passenger ships carrying 15 or more passengers shall
have onboard a garbage management plan.
Ship's crews to follow the garbage management plan.
Every ships 400GT or above an ships carrying 15 or more persons engaged in voyages
shall carry a garbage record book.

Special areas as per MARPOL 73/78


Annex-I
As per regulation 10, followings are the special areas:
Mediterranean seas
Baltic seas
Black seas
Red seas
Gulf area (Persian gulf)
Gulf of Aden
North-west European waters
Antarctic areas

Annex-V
As per regulation 5, followings are the special areas.
Mediterranean seas
Baltic seas
Black seas
Red seas
Gulf area (Persian gulf)
North seas
Antarctic areas
Wider Caribbean regions

In special areas, only food waste can be disposed off in seas greater 12 n.m. from
shores.
In wider Caribbean regions only food waste comminuted to 25mm can be discharged in

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

seas more than 3miles from the coast.

Annex-VI
Baltic seas.

Discharge Engine Room bilge


Discharge as per MARPOL regulations.
Ship is not in special areas.
Ship is en route (making way).
Distance is more than 12miles from nearest coast.
ODME is operational.
Bilge is passed through oily water separator and ODME.
Oil content in water is less than 15ppm.
I will consider these and advise the engineer accordingly.

Discharge of oil as per Annex-1


Cargo ships of less 400GT to discharge when the content of the oil or oily water mixture
without dilution is not more than 15ppm.

Processed bilge water generated from machinery spaces of tankers (150 GT and
above) and cargo ships (400GT and above) are allowed to discharge if following
conditions are met:

Ship is not in special areas.


Not generated in pumproom.
No oil residue mixed.
Ship in en-route.
Oil content not more than 15ppm.
Ship has operational oil filtering equipment.
Automatic stopping device fitted to ensure not more than 15ppm oil discharge.

Oil tankers, tank cleaning bilges can be discharged if:

Ship is not within special areas.


Ship is en route.
Distance is more than 50 miles from the nearest land.
Discharge rate is not more than 30Liters/Mile.
Total quantity of oil is not more than 1/15,000 for old tankers and 1/30,000 for new
tankers from cargo residue.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

Annex VI : Prevention of Air Pollution


from Ships
Introduction:
The Protocol was adopted at a Conference held from 15 to 26 September 1997 and
adds a new Annex VI on Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships to
the Convention.

Entry into force: 12 months after being ratified by 15 States whose combined fleets of
merchant shipping constitute at least 50% of the world fleet.

The requirements of the IMO Protocol are in accordance with the Montreal Protocol of
1987, as amended in London in 1990. The Montreal Protocol is an international
environmental treaty, drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations, under which
nations agreed to cut CFC consumption and production in order to protect the ozone
layer.
Features:
Set limits on sulphur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from ship
exhausts and prohibit deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances.

Includes a global cap of 4.5% m/m on the sulphur content of fuel oil and calls on IMO to
monitor the worldwide average sulphur content of fuel once the Protocol comes into
force.

Provisions allowing for special "SOx Emission Control Areas" to be established with
more stringent control on sulphur emissions. In these areas, the sulphur content of fuel
oil used on board ships must not exceed 1.5% m/m.

Ships must fit an exhaust gas cleaning system or use any other technological method to
limit SOx emissions.

The Baltic Sea is designated as a SOx Emission Control area.

Prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances, which include halons and
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

New installations containing ozone-depleting substances are prohibited on all ships.

New installations containing hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are permitted until 1


January 2020.

Sets limits on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engines. A mandatory
NOx Technical Code, developed by IMO, defines how this is to be done.

Also prohibits the incineration on board ship of certain products, such as contaminated

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

packaging materials and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).


Format of Annex VI
Annex VI consists of three Chapters and a number of Appendices:

Chapter I - General
Chapter II - Survey, Certification and Means of Control
Chapter III - Requirements for Control of Emissions from Ships

Appendices include:

The form of the International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate;


Criteria and procedures for designation of SOx emission control areas;
Information for inclusion in the bunker delivery note;
Approval and operating limits for shipboard incinerators;
Test cycles and weighting factors for verification of compliance of marine diesel engines
with the NOx limits;
Details of surveys and inspections to be carried out.

Discharge of oil as per Annex-1


Cargo ships of less 400GT to discharge when the content of the oil or oily water mixture
without dilution is not more than 15ppm.

Processed bilge water generated from machinery spaces of tankers (150 GT and
above) and cargo ships (400GT and above) are allowed to discharge if following
conditions are met:

Ship is not in special areas.


Not generated in pumproom.
No oil residue mixed.
Ship in en-route.
Oil content not more than 15ppm.
Ship has operational oil filtering equipment.
Automatic stopping device fitted to ensure not more than 15ppm oil discharge.

Oil tankers, tank cleaning bilges can be discharged if:

Ship is not within special areas.


Ship is en route.
Distance is more than 50 miles from the nearest land.
Discharge rate is not more than 30Liters/Mile.
Total quantity of oil is not more than 1/15,000 for old tankers and 1/30,000 for new
tankers from cargo residue.

OIL RECORD BOOK


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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

Requirement
Required as per regulation-20 of annex-1.
Required for all oil tankers of 150GT and above.
Required for all ships of 400GT and above.

Parts
Oil record books are of two parts.
Part-1: For machinery space operation.
Part-2: For cargo and ballast space operation.

Contents
Contents of part-1
Ballasting or cleaning of fuel oil tanks.
Discharging of dirty ballast and cleaning water.
Disposal of oil residues (sludge).
Discharge overboard / disposal of machinery space bilge.
Contents of part-2
Loading, discharging and internal transfer of cargo.
Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated CBT (clean ballast tank).
Cleaning of cargo tanks including COW (crude oil washing).
Discharge of ballast from COT and CBT. (Not SBT- segregated ballast tank).
Discharge of water from slop tanks.
Closing of valves after slop tanks discharge.
Closing of valves to isolate dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines.
Disposal of residues.

Garbage record book

Required as per regulation-9.


Every ship of 400GT or more and ships carrying 15 or more passengers engaged in voyages shall
carry a garbage record book.
Garbage record book contains record of garbage disposals: Type of garbage disposed off.
Quantity of garbage disposed off.
Date, time and position of the ship.
Signature of responsible person.

SOPEP
SOPEP: Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan.

Requirement
Required as per regulation-26 of annex-1.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

Every ship of 400GT or more to carry SOPEP.


All tankers of 150GT or more to carry SOPEP.
SOPEP should be approved by administration.

Contents
The procedures to be followed by master (over all in charge) to report an oil pollution
incident.
The list of persons or authorities to be contacted in the event of an oil pollution incident.
A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons onboard to
reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incident.
The procedures and point of control on the ship for coordinating shipboard action with
national and local authorities in combating the pollution.
List of oil pollution equipments and their lication.

CARGO RECORD BOOK


Required as per regulation-9 of annex-II.
Required for every ships carrying noxious liquid in bulk.
The contents are similar to oil record book.

OIL RECORD BOOK


Requirement
Required as per regulation-20 of annex-1.
Required for all oil tankers of 150GT and above.
Required for all ships of 400GT and above.

Parts
Oil record books are of two parts.
Part-1: For machinery space operation.
Part-2: For cargo and ballast space operation.

Contents
Contents of part-1
Ballasting or cleaning of fuel oil tanks.
Discharging of dirty ballast and cleaning water.
Disposal of oil residues (sludge).
Discharge overboard / disposal of machinery space bilge.
Contents of part-2
Loading, discharging and internal transfer of cargo.
Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated CBT (clean ballast tank).
Cleaning of cargo tanks including COW (crude oil washing).
Discharge of ballast from COT and CBT. (Not SBT- segregated ballast tank).

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 24 )

Discharge of water from slop tanks.


Closing of valves after slop tanks discharge.
Closing of valves to isolate dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines.
Disposal of residues.

SMPEP
Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan.
Required as per regulation-16 of annex-2.
Came into force on 01st January, 2003.
Every ship of 150GT and above certified to carry noxious liquid substances in bulk must
carry.
It must be approved by appropriate authority.
A ship to which regulation-26 (SOPEP) of annex-1 and regulation-16 (SMPEP) of
annex-2 apply, SOPEP and SMPEP will be combined into one, named SMPEP.

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