Wireless power

ing capacitive coupling between electrodes.[5][8] Applications of this type are electric toothbrush chargers, RFID
tags, smartcards, and chargers for implantable medical
devices like artificial cardiac pacemakers, and inductive
powering or charging of electric vehicles like trains or
buses.[9][11] A current focus is to develop wireless systems to charge mobile and handheld computing devices
such as cellphones, digital music player and portable computers without being tethered to a wall plug. In radiative
or far-field techniques, also called power beaming, power
is transmitted by beams of electromagnetic radiation, like
microwaves or laser beams. These techniques can transport energy longer distances but must be aimed at the
receiver. Proposed applications for this type are solar
power satellites, and wireless powered drone aircraft.[9]
An important issue associated with all wireless power systems is limiting the exposure of people and other living
things to potentially injurious electromagnetic fields (see
Electromagnetic radiation and health).[9]

1 Overview
Antennas or
Coupling Devices

Inductive charging pad for LG smartphone, using the Qi (pronounced 'Chi') system, an example of near-field wireless transfer. When the phone is set on the pad, a coil in the pad creates
a magnetic field which induces a current in another coil, in the
phone, charging its battery.






Wireless power transfer (WPT) or wireless energy
transmission is the transmission of electrical power from
a power source to a consuming device without using
solid wires or conductors.[2][3][4][5] It is a generic term
that refers to a number of different power transmission technologies that use time-varying electromagnetic
fields.[1][5][6][7] Wireless transmission is useful to power
electrical devices in cases where interconnecting wires
are inconvenient, hazardous, or are not possible. In wireless power transfer, a transmitter device connected to
a power source, such as the mains power line, transmits power by electromagnetic fields across an intervening space to one or more receiver devices, where it is converted back to electric power and utilized.[1]

Generic block diagram of a wireless power system

“Wireless power transmission” is a collective term that
refers to a number of different technologies for transmitting power by means of time-varying electromagnetic
fields.[1][5][8] The technologies, listed in the table below,
differ in the distance over which they can transmit power
efficiently, whether the transmitter must be aimed (directed) at the receiver, and in the type of electromagnetic
energy they use: time varying electric fields, magnetic
fields, radio waves, microwaves, or infrared or visible
light waves.[8]
In general a wireless power system consists of a “transmitter” device connected to a source of power such as mains
power lines, which converts the power to a time-varying
electromagnetic field, and one or more “receiver” devices
which receive the power and convert it back to DC or
AC electric power which is consumed by an electrical

Wireless power techniques fall into two categories, nonradiative and radiative.[1][6][8][9][10] In near-field or nonradiative techniques, power is transferred over short distances by magnetic fields using inductive coupling between coils of wire or in a few devices by electric fields us1

[18][20][22] This is the range over which ordinary nonresonant capacitive or inductive coupling can transfer practical amounts of power. it may be a coil of wire which generates a magnetic the area within about 1 wavelength (λ) of the field. or via magnetic fields by inductive couof waves is the frequency f in hertz of the oscillations. The above fields cannot carry power because they are static. or light waves. in wireless power.Beyond about 1 wavelength (λ) of the antenna. an antenna. such as resonant inductive amount of power received is the important thing. no power leaves the transmitter. The fields. the Resonance.[20][21][22][23] This is the range over which resonant capacitive or inductive coupling can transfer practical amounts of power. the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other and propagate as an electromagnetic wave. create time-varying electric and magnetic fields in the space around them. where c is meaning the energy stays within a short distance the velocity of light. A similar antenna or coupling device in the be transferred via electric fields by capacitive coureceiver converts the oscillating fields to an electric curpling (electrostatic induction) between metal elecrent. which mitted without wires by electromagnetic fields. radio and television broadcasting.[1][4][9] This part of the energy is radiative. The word “antenna” is used loosely • Near-field or nonradiative region . so if the distance between the two information. and WiFi. These represent alternating current which can be used to power a load. tion technologies generally only tiny amounts of power reach the receiver. and thus cellphones. Therefore these techniques cannot be used be received intelligibly.[1][8] In the transmitter the input power is converted technologies are used for transmitting power: to an oscillating electromagnetic field by some type of "antenna" device.[18] If there is no receiving device or absorbing material within their limited range Wireless power uses much of the same fields and waves [6][12] to “couple” to. • Far-field or radiative region .up to about one antenna diameter: Dᵣₐ ₑ ≤ Dₐ . The oscillating electric and magnetic fields surrounding moving electric charges in an antenna device can be divided into two regions. or a laser which genand magnetic fields are separate[6] and power can erates light.2 2 FIELD REGIONS load. but time-varying fields can. still decrease exponentially. A steady current of charges (direct current. These fields can exert oscillating forces on the electrons in a receiving “antenna”. so the amount of power reaching the re“antennas” Dᵣₐ ₑ is much larger than the diameter ceiver is unimportant as long as it is enough that the signal of the “antennas” Dₐ very little power will be reto noise ratio is high enough that the information can [5][6][12] ceived.This means here. can increase the coupling beefficiency (fraction of transmitted power that is received) tween the antennas greatly. causing them to move back and forth. the power transmitted. microwaves.[5][6][8][9] These fields are not radiative.up to 10 times the antenna diameter: Dᵣₐ ₑ ≤ 10 Dₐ . used in are usually coils of wire. examples are radio waves.[16] Accelerating electric charges. An important parameter which determines the type trodes.[8] The fields have different characteristics in these regions. decrease exponentially with In radio communication the goal is the transmission of [4][17][19] distance. A stationary charge creates an electrostatic field in the space around it. • Mid-range . anThe range of these fields is short. depending on distance Dᵣₐ ₑ from the antenna. such as are found in an alternating current (AC) of electrons in a wire.[10] waves which carry the energy across the gap.[1][4][6][8][9][10][17] The boundary between the regions is somewhat vaguely defined.[18] as wireless communication devices like radio.[1][4][10] In this region the oscillating electric antenna which radiates radio waves. so the coupling. a metal plate which generates an electric field. allowing efis the more significant parameter. DC) creates a static magnetic field around it.[24] which is determined by the frequency: . of the transmitter.[5] For this reason wireficient transmission at somewhat greater less power technologies are more limited by distance than distances. These fields contain energy.[10] meaning it leaves the antenna whether or not there is a receiver to absorb it. Therefore the These are the different wireless power range of near-field devices is conventionally [1][8][9][13][14] technologies: devided into two categories: 2 Field regions Electric and magnetic fields are created by charged particles in matter such as electrons. In wireless communicafor long distance power transmission. and different • Short range . The portion of energy which does not strike the receiving antenna is dissipated and lost to the system. The amount of power emitted as electromagnetic waves by an antenna depends on the ratio of the antenna’s size Dₐ to the wavelength of the waves λ. and depends on other familiar technology which involves power transthe size and shape of the “antenna” devices. pling (electromagnetic induction) between coils of The frequency determines the wavelength λ = c/f of the wire. By contrast.[1][4][6][9][20][21] although the fields wireless communication technologies.

By using a high-gain antenna or optical system which concentrates the radiation into a narrow beam aimed at the receiver. corresponding to frequencies above 1 GHz. with the secondary in close proximity to the primary.[36] Resonance is used in both the wireless charging pad (the transmitter circuit) and the receiver module (embedded in the load) to maximize energy transfer efficiency. to produce the narrow beams necessary to focus a significant amount of the energy on a distant receiver. Battery-powered devices fitted with a special receiver module can then be charged simply by placing them on a wireless charging pad. are examples of how this principle is used. At low frequencies f where the antenna is much smaller than the size of the waves.1 3 B Vs Power Oscillator L1 Source L2 Rectifier Load Generic block diagram of an inductive wireless power system.[20][25] From the Rayleigh criterion. very little power is radiated. it can be used for long range power transmission. As the distance from the primary is increased. more and more of the primary’s magnetic field misses the secondary.[26][27] Practical beam power devices require wavelengths in the centimeter region or below.[10][20] Therefore these can be used for short range. This technology is also used for powering devices with very low energy requirements. Principal functions are stepping the primary voltage either up or down and electrical isolation. electromagnetic radiation can be focused by reflection or refraction into beams. The primary coil and secondary coil of a transformer are not directly connected. only a small amount of the radiation will hit it.[17] Since power is proportional to the square of the field strength. Mobile phone and electric toothbrush battery chargers. Instead of relying on each of the many thousands or millions of RFID patches or smartcards to contain a working battery. wasting much of the transmitted energy. Even over a relatively short range the inductive coupling is grossly inefficient.2 Capacitive coupling coupling The electrodynamic induction wireless transmission Main article: Capacitive coupling technique relies on the use of a magnetic field generated . Inductive coupling Main articles: Inductive coupling and Resonant inductive 3.[6][19][28][29] or 60 dB per decade. This effect occurs in the electromagnetic near field. The main drawback to this basic form of wireless transmission is short range. 3.[30] This action of an electrical transformer is the simplest form of wireless power transmission. Common uses of resonance-enhanced electrodynamic induction[31] are charging the batteries of portable devices such as laptop computers and cell phones. the power transferred decreases with the sixth power of the distance (Dᵣₐ ₑ/Dₐ )−6 . by an electric current to induce a current in a second conductor. Energy transfer takes place through a process known as mutual induction. unlike fields. It has been adopted as part of the Qi wireless charging standard. an antenna must be much larger than the wavelength of the waves used: Dₐ >> λ = c/f. inefficient power transmission but not for long range transmission. Antennas about the same size as the wavelength Dₐ ≈ λ such as monopole or dipole antennas. Induction cookers use this method.[1] 3 Near-field or non-radiative techniques Main article: Coupling (electronics) The near-field components of electric and magnetic fields die out quickly beyond a distance of about one diameter of the antenna (Dₐ ). doubling the distance between transmitter and receiver causes the power received to decrease by a factor of 26 = 64. The receiver must be directly adjacent to the transmitter or induction unit in order to efficiently couple with it. but the electromagnetic waves are radiated in all directions (omnidirectionally).[32][33][34] A localized charging technique[35] selects the appropriate transmitting coil in a multilayer winding array structure. In other words. so if the receiving antenna is far away. Therefore the near-field devices above. electrodynamic induction can provide power only when the devices are needed. each coil is part of a separate circuit. which use lower frequencies. Dₐ << λ. in the microwave range or above. radiate almost none of their energy as electromagnetic radiation.3. such as RFID patches and contactless smartcards. radiate power efficiently.[25] However.2 Capacitive coupling λ = c/f. Outside very close ranges the field strength and coupling is roughly proportional to (Dᵣₐ ₑ/Dₐ )−3 . medical implants and electric vehicles.

[13] The receiver armature produces power to drive the load. used in standard radio frequency antenna design. Ultimately. in contrast to magnetic fields.[5] which causes an alternating current to flow in the load circuit. coupled together by a magnetic field generated by permanent magnets on the armatures. Then the power levels are calculated by combining the . the larger the transmitter antenna or laser aperture compared to the wavelength of radiation. the wavelength and the Rayleigh criterion or diffraction limit. so. however. The maximum directivity for antennas is physically limited by diffraction. 3.[5][6][37] Capacitive coupling has recently been applied to charging battery powered portable devices[39] and is being considered as a means of transferring power between substrate layers in integrated circuits. for example. often multiple kilometer ranges. which rotate synchronously. Smaller antennae also suffer from excessive losses due to side lobes. the dual of inductive coupling. reducing interference. visible light (from lasers) and microwaves (from purpose-designed antennas) are the forms of electromagnetic radiation best suited to energy transfer. A prototype system charging electric vehicles has been in operation at University of British Columbia since 2012. alignment requirements between the transmitter and receiver are less critical.3 Magnetodynamic coupling In this method. The field is largely confined between the capacitor plates. Other researchers.[40] Far field methods achieve longer ranges. which in inductive coupling requires heavy ferrite “flux confinement” cores. one in the transmitter and one in the receiver.[13] The transmitter armature is turned either by or as the rotor of an electric motor.[13] It is claimed that this technique can transfer power over distances of 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 inches) with high efficiency. and its magnetic field exerts torque on the receiver armature.[6] However capacitive coupling has a few advantages over inductive. Electromagnetic radiation experiences less diffraction at shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies). the tighter the beam and the less it will spread as a function of distance (and vice versa). and is less prone to atmospheric attenuation caused by dust or water vapor. Airy’s diffraction limit is also frequently used to determine an approximate spot size at an arbitrary distance from the aperture. in the case of humans possibly causing excessive electromagnetic field exposure. which also applies to lasers. a laser aperture much larger than the wavelength induces multi-moded radiation and mostly collimators are used before emitted radiation couples into a fiber or into space. The magnetic field acts like a mechanical coupling between the armatures. However. power is transmitted by electric fields[5] between electrodes such as metal plates.[13] Capacitive coupling has only been used practically in a few low power applications. Typically.[5] by the rotating magnets produce less electromagnetic interference to nearby electronic devices than the high frequency magnetic fields produced by inductive coupling systems.4 4 FAR-FIELD OR RADIATIVE TECHNIQUES In capacitive coupling (electrostatic induction). which is proportional to the area of the smaller plate and (for short distances) inversely proportional to the separation. a blue laser is diffracted less than a red one. and the oscillating electric field induces an alternating potential on the receiver plate by electrostatic induction. including the human body. microwave or laser beam will spread and become weaker and diffuse over distance. The Rayleigh criterion dictates that any radio wave.[5][6][9][37][38] An alternating voltage generated by the transmitter is applied to the transmitting plate. This device has been proposed as an alternative to inductive power transfer for noncontact charging of electric vehicles. In addition. over 90%. The dimensions of the components may be dictated by the distance from transmitter to receiver. because the very high voltages on the electrodes required to transmit significant power can be hazardous. claim that the two energy conversions (electrical to mechanical to electrical again) make the system less efficient than electrical systems like inductive coupling. beamwidth is physically determined by diffraction due to the dish size in relation to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation used to make the beam.[6][9] and can cause unpleasant side effects such as noxious ozone production.[13] A rotating armature embedded in a garage floor or curb would turn a receiver armature in the underside of the vehicle to charge its batteries. with the intervening space as the dielectric. either by turning an electric generator or by using the receiver armature as the rotor in an induction generator . where the distance is much greater than the diameter of the device(s). power is transmitted between two rotating armatures. due to dielectric polarization.[20] electric fields interact strongly with most materials. Microwave power beaming can be more efficient than lasers. The main reason for longer ranges with radio wave and optical devices is the fact that electromagnetic radiation in the far-field can be made to match the shape of the receiving area (using high directivity antennas or well-collimated laser beams).[38] Intervening materials between or near the electrodes can absorb the energy.[13] Also. The amount of power transferred increases with the frequency[37] and the capacitance between the plates. turning it.[5][38] Also. the low frequency stray magnetic fields produced 4 Far-field or radiative techniques In general. the concept of laser aperture considerably differs from an antenna. The transmitter and receiver electrodes form a capacitor.

the idea of using microwaves to transmit power was researched. In February 1926.[45] Japanese researcher Hidetsugu Yagi also investigated wireless energy transmission using a directional array an4.[50] These methods achieve distances on the order of a kilometer.1 Microwaves tenna that he designed. although short wavelengths may have difficulties with atmospheric absorption and beam blockage by rain or water droplets. Power beaming using mi. i. very high quantum efficiencies using negative resistance with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. Yagi and his colleague Shintaro Uda published their first paper on the Main article: Microwave power transmission Power transmission via radio waves can be made more tuned high-gain directional array now known as the Yagi antenna. which saw the development of high-power microwave emitters known as cavity magnetrons. Gunn or IMPATT diodes and this would be viable typically in the microwave range.45 GHz. An artist’s depiction of a solar satellite that could send electric energy by microwaves to a space vessel or planetary surface. a lightweight model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. For example.2 Lasers crowaves has been proposed for the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power satellites to Earth and the beaming of power to spacecraft leaving orbit has been considered.4. 5 Following World War II. For earthbound applications a large area 10 km diameter receiving array allows large total power levels to be used while operating at the low power density suggested for human electromagnetic exposure safety. the 1978 NASA Study of solar power satellites required a 1-km diameter transmitting antenna.[42][43] Power beaming by microwaves has the difficulty that for most space applications the required aperture sizes are very large due to diffraction limiting antenna directionality. In the case of electromagnetic radiation closer to the visible region of the spectrum (tens of micrometers to tens of nanometres).2 Lasers above parameters together. This is the power level found in many modern electric power plants. allowing longer distance power beaming. and a 10 km diameter receiving rectenna. this beam antenna has been widely adopted throughout the broadcasting and wireless telecommunications industries due to its excellent performance characteristics. power can be transmitted by converting . a miniature helicopter propelled by microwave power had been demonstrated. for a microwave beam at 2. A human safe power density of 1 mW/cm2 distributed across a 10 km diameter area corresponds to 750 megawatts total power level.” it is not possible to make a narrower beam by combining the beams of several smaller satellites. Under experimental conditions microwave conversion efficiency was measured to be around 54%. With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells. and adding in the gains and losses due to the antenna characteristics and the transparency and dispersion of the medium through which the radiation passes. That process is known as calculating a link budget. Rectenna conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized.[51] More recently a change to 24 GHz has been suggested as microwave emitters similar to LEDs have been made with directional. While it did not prove to be particularly useful for power transmission. By 1964.[41] A rectenna may for short range links. Because of the "thinned array curse.4. be used to convert the microwave energy back into electricity.[44] These sizes can be somewhat decreased by using shorter wavelengths.[46] Wireless high power transmission using microwaves is well proven. Experiments in the tens of kilowatts have been performed at Goldstone in California in 1975[47][48][49] and more recently (1997) at Grand Bassin on Reunion Island.e.

HISTORY In the context of wireless power.[69] it can be adequate to run or recharge small micropower wireless devices such as remote sensors.[73] He found he could increase the distance by using a receiv- . Poynting’s theorem and the Poynting vector. High power levels In 1826 André-Marie Ampère developed Ampère’s circan kill through localized spot heating. coils. which generated high AC voltages on elevated capacitive terminals.[69] The ambient energy may come from stray electric or magnetic fields or radio waves from nearby electrical equipment. cuital law showing that electric current produces a mag• Conversion between electricity and light is ineffi.netic field. magnetism and optics into a consistent theory.[71][73] and may have done more NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center demonstrated a to popularize the idea than any other individual.[61] Geoffrey Landis[62][63][64] is one of the pioneers of solar power satellites[65] and laser-based transfer of energy es. The demand for safe and frequent space missions has resulted in propos. covered radio waves. Drawbacks include: 6 History • Laser radiation is hazardous.6. confirming the prediction of elecOther details include propagation.[14][71] In 1888 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz dissafety requirements standardized under IEC 60825.6 6 electricity into a laser beam that is then pointed at a photovoltaic cell. In the lightweight unmanned model plane powered by a laser period 1891 to 1904 he experimented with spark-excited beam. or kinetic energy such as vibration or motion of the device. light.[68] This proof-of-concept demonstrates the feasiradio frequency resonant transformers.[66][67] turn of the 20th century. and absorption and scat. • Compact size: solid state lasers fit into small products. allowing them to operate completely autonomously.[71][73][74] With these he was able to transmit power for short distances without wires.[69] This new technology is being developed to eliminate the need for battery replacement or charging of such wireless devices. ential equations forms the basis for modern electromagnetics. This set of partial differlosses. • No radio-frequency interference to existing radio communication such as Wi-Fi and cell phones. causes up to 100% deriving Maxwell’s equations. In 1862 James Clerk Maxwell synthesized these and matic light than with solar panels). thermal energy (heat).[70] Michael Faraday developed Faraday’s law cient.[72] and the range limitation problem.tricity. energy harvesting.1 Tesla’s experiments pecially for space and lunar missions..[69] Although the efficiency of conversion is usually low and the power gathered often minuscule (milliwatts or microwatts). In 5 Energy harvesting demonstrations before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers[74] and at the 1893 Columbian Exposition Main article: Energy harvesting in Chicago he lit light bulbs from across a stage. energy.tromagnetic waves in his 1873 A Treatise on Electricity [72] In 1884 John Henry Poynting develplored in military weapons[55][56][57] and aerospace[58][59] and Magnetism.[14][71] Maxwell predicted the existence of elecLaser “powerbeaming” technology has been mostly ex. Wireless energy transfer sys.Serbian-born American inventor Nikola Tesla performed the first experiments in wireless power transmission at the als for a laser-powered space elevator. other observations. mainly to power small autonomous wireless electronic devices. is the conversion of ambient energy from the environment to electric power. Photovoltaic cells achieve only 40%–50% of induction in 1831. which are proliferating in many fields.[60] and the coherence tromagnetic waves by Maxwell. tems using lasers for consumer space have to satisfy laser which are used in the analysis of wireless energy transfer systems. now called Tesla bility of periodic recharging using the laser beam system.force induced in a conductor by a time-varying magnetic flux.netic field. also called power harvesting or energy scavenging. oped equations for the flow of power in an electromagapplications and is now being developed for commercial and consumer electronics. rain. Low power levels can blind humans and other animals.[54] (Efficiency is higher with monochro. • Access control: only receivers hit by the laser receive power. including the wireless transmission of electrical • Requires a direct line of sight with the target. tering by clouds. experiments and equations of elec• Atmospheric absorption. etc. fog. describing the electromagnetic efficiency. Compared to other wireless methods:[53] • Collimated monochromatic wavefront propagation allows narrow beam cross-section area for transmission over large distances.[52] This mechanism is generally known as “power beaming” because the power is beamed at a receiver that can convert it to electrical energy.

[14][97] In landmark 1975 high power experiments.[79][80][81][82] The proposal suggested that receiving stations would consist of terminals suspended in the air at above 30.100 m) in altitude.[14][71] In 1964 Brown invented the rectenna which could efficiently convert microwaves to DC power. electricity could be sent at high voltages (millions of volts) over long distances. a rocket experiment to test transmission of high power microwaves through the ionosphere.[71][87] Conceived in 1968 by Peter Glaser.[14][71][75][76][85][86][87][88][89] perhaps 300 feet (91 m). New York.[14][98] The incident-RF to DC conversion efficiency of the rectenna was 80%.[14] In recent years a focus of research has been the development of wireless-powered drone aircraft. and he and Robert Dickinson at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory transmitted 30 kW DC output power across 1.[90][91] It originated in 1944 from Tesla’s first biographer. that in 1899 he wirelessly lit 200 light bulbs at a distance of 26 miles (42 km).[81][83] Although Tesla claimed his ideas were proven.[14][81] Tesla demonstrating wireless power transmission in a lecture at Columbia College. the Wardenclyffe Tower at Shoreham.[73][76][86][88] and the scientific consensus is his World Wireless system would not have worked. and in 1964 demonstrated it with the first wireless-powered aircraft. New York. Tesla began construction of a large highvoltage coil facility. this would harvest energy from sunlight using solar cells and beam it down to Earth as microwaves to huge rectennas. efficient transmission required transmitters that could generate higher-frequency microwaves. little progress was made in wireless power transmission. by using voltages of the order of 20 megavolts generated by an enormous coil. Brown.38 GHz microwaves from a 26 m dish to a 7. which applies a high radio frequency oscillating voltage.[73] so it is not able to transmit power over long distances. but couldn't be used for power transmission due to the fact that the relatively low-frequency radio waves spread out in all directions and little energy reached the receiver.2 Microwaves 7 firmation of this putative demonstration.[86] and it does not appear in his meticulous laboratory notes. The two metal sheets are connected to his Tesla coil oscillator. where the pressure is lower than at sea level.2 Microwaves Before World War 2. efforts using similar equipment have failed to achieve long distance power transmission.[92] In the 110 years since Tesla’s experiments. he had a history of failing to confirm his ideas by experiment.. ing LC circuit tuned to resonance with the transmitter’s LC circuit.3 x 3. which would convert it to electrical energy on the electric power grid.[14][98] In 1983 Japan launched MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Nonlinear Interation Experiment).[14][71][75][81][86][93][94][95][96] Tesla’s world power transmission scheme remains today what it was in Tesla’s time. a fascinating dream.[76][86] There is no independent con- 6. John J.[76][86][90] Tesla did not mention it. For power transmission. he was able to light three incandescent lamps by resonant inductive coupling at a distance of about 100 feet (30 m).[73][78] As mentioned above it is a "near-field" effect. intended as a prototype transmitter for a "World Wireless System" that was to transmit power worldwide.[75] At his Colorado Springs laboratory during 1899-1900. Brown demonstrated short range transmission of 475 W of microwaves at 54% DC to DC efficiency. O'Neill. similar to neon lights. The only report of long-distance transmission by Tesla is a claim. in 1891.[14][71][87][94] The development of microwave technology during World War 2. a model helicopter powered by microwaves beamed from the ground. causing them to glow by fluorescence. Tesla claimed. an amplifier intensifies a weak signal using energy from another source. and the first long-distance wireless power transmission was achieved in the 1960s by William C..[14][71][87] In radio communication. However.5 km with 2. and is currently of interest again as a means of short-range wireless power transmission.[87] Radio was developed for communication uses. which can be focused in narrow beams towards a receiver.[79] At this altitude. of Defense’s RAMP (Raytheon Airborne Microwave Platform) project[87] which sponsored .6.[76] who said he pieced it together from “fragmentary material. The oscillating electric field between the sheets ionizes the low pressure gas in the two long Geissler tubes he is holding. such as the klystron and magnetron tubes and parabolic antennas[87] made radiative (far-field) methods practical for the first time. using a method that involved conduction through the Earth and atmosphere.5 m rectenna array.000 feet (9. Tesla claimed to be able to transmit power on a worldwide scale. in a number of publications”.[84][85] and there seems to be no evidence that he ever transmitted significant power beyond the short-range demonstrations above.[76][77] Coupling between resonant circuits by electric or magnetic fields is now a familiar technology used throughout electronics. In 1901. but he lost funding by 1904 and the facility was never completed.[14][87] A major motivation for microwave research in the 1970s and 80s was to develop a solar power satellite. which began in 1959 with the Dept. at the receiver. not found in reliable sources.

Engineering text . Naoki (2014). Induction heating has been used for 100 years.6 inches). In 1892 Maurice Hutin and Maurice Leblanc patented a wireless method of powering railroad trains using resonant coils inductively coupled to a track wire at 3 kHz. • Agbinya. Powered by a rectenna. pled tuned circuits made of a 25 cm resonant coil at 10 Comprehensive. Wireless Power In 2007.8 8 FURTHER READING Brown’s research. while a control system kept the laser pointed at the plane. ISBN 8792329233.[101] (1975) and by the 1990s were being used in proximity cards and contactless smartcards.[103] The wireless device is placed on a flat charger plate (which could be embedded in table tops Books and Articles at cafes. it could fly at 13 miles (21 km) altitude and stay aloft for months. • Energy harvesting • Fermi gas • Free electron model • Friis transmission equation • Microwave power transmission • Multidimensional systems • Resonant inductive coupling • Surface plasmon • Surface plasmon polariton • Surface wave • Thinned array curse The proliferation of portable wireless communication de• Transmission medium vices such as cellphones. a team led by Marin Soljačić at MIT used couTransfer. John Wiley & Sons. In 1987 Canada’s Communications Research Center developed a small prototype airplane called Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform (SHARP) to relay telecommunication data between points on earth similar to a communication satellite. The small model plane’s motor was powered by electricity generated by photocells from a beam of infrared light from a ground based laser. published in August 2009 enables charging and powering of portable devices of up to 5 watts over distances of 4 8 Further reading cm (1. Ed. Wireless Power Transters (6. Johnson I. theoretical engineering text MHz to transfer 60 W of power over a distance of 2 me• Shinohara. tablet..[73][104] This technology is being commercialized as WiTricity. 7 See also • Beam-powered propulsion • Beam Power Challenge – one of the NASA Centennial Challenges • Differential capacitance • Dispersion relation • Distributed generation • Electricity distribution • Electric power transmission • Electromagnetic compatibility • Electromagnetic radiation and health 6. existing since the transformer was developed in the 1800s. for example) and power is transferred from a flat coil in the charger to a similar one in the device. One field to which inductive transfer has been applied is to power electric vehicles. (2012). In 1992 a team at Kyoto University built a more advanced craft called MILAX (MIcrowave Lifted Airplane eXperiment). River Publishers. 1118862961. ISBN efficiency.[102] The Wireless Power Consortium was • Zenneck wave established in 2008 to develop interoperable standards [102] Its Qi inductive power standard across manufacturers. and laptop computers in recent decades is currently driving the development of • Wardenclyffe Tower wireless powering and charging technology to eliminate • Wave vector the need for these devices to be tethered to wall plugs during charging. In 2003 NASA flew the first laser powered aircraft. inductive charging stands were developed for appliances used in wet environments like electric toothbrushes and electric razors to reduce the hazard of electric shock.3 Near-field technologies Inductive power transfer between nearby coils of wire is an old technology. With the advent of cordless appliances.6 ft) (8 times the coil diameter) at around 40% fer via Radiowaves.[99] The first passive RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technologies were invented by Mario Cardullo[100] (1973) and Koelle et al.

Retrieved December 15. Solid state solar to microwave energy converter system and apparatus. pp. (2014).543. “A Real-Time Location System Using Near-Field Electromagnetic Ranging”. Honolulu. “Wireless power Transmission: Applications and Components”. Retrieved January 3. • Kurs. 2012). 2015. Patent 4.midrange is defined as somewhere between one and ten times the diameter of the transmitting coil. Ltd. Wireless Power Transfer for Medical Microsystems. Retrieved December 15. ISSN 2278-0181.. Carroll C. Implementation and Applications. Materialities and Imaginaries. et al. 1–3. London: Routledge. Stanimir S. Anuradha. Sumedha. How Stuff Works website. ISBN 1118820231. Agbinya.S. pp. E. p. [6] Sazonov. 126-129 9 References [1] Shinohara. “All About Transferring Power Wirelessly”. Johnson I. 1–2.323. Baikova. [11] New Scientist:Wireless charging for electric vehicles hits the road [12] Shinohara 2014 Wireless Power Transfer via Radiowaves. Sunil (July 2012). Springer. ISBN 981287299X. pp. (2014).S. (2012). 2007 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium. [14] Tomar. “White paper: Understanding Wireless Power”. Electrical Engineering (Serbia: University of Niš) 25 (3): 171– 181. BBC website. Tracy V. [22] "Typically. • U. Joshua (December 2009). Hans G. [15] “short”.535. 3792–3795."(p. 2014. John E. British Broadcasting Corp. Retrieved January 16. ISBN 8792329233. Zhihua. pp. ISSN 2278-0181. River Publishers.955. Hadlaw. 253–255. 2015. 4) ". et al. “Efficient wireless non-radiative midrange energy transfer”.2298/FUEE1203171V.) 1 (5): 1–8. Electronics For You E-zine (EFY Enterprises Pvt. Tianjia. [3] “Wireless energy transfer”. Arindam (2014). p. 2) Baarman. The Hong Kong Electronic Industries Association Ltd. 2014.. and “long range” are defined below • U. Retrieved December 15. G. Facta Universitatis Ser. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (ESRSA Publications Pvt. [4] Rajakaruna. Kenneth W. David W. Patent 3. PC Magazine Ziff-Davis. ISBN 1461477026. Schwannecke. 126–154). Herman.D. Dailey (1970). Swiss (Eds. 2014.). Naoki (2014). (1990). of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. (December 2012). [21] Wong. Neuman. Dudley. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology 1 (5). Edward.): 52–56. 27 [13] Ashley. Luis R. (2014). (June 2007). Annals of Physics 323 (1): 34–48. Xie. 2014. 2015. Cambridge University Press. [19] Schantz."(p. Theories of the Mobile Internet. HKPC. A. Inc. 34–36. Retrieved November 9. André.. Wireless Pasts and Wired Futures.S.. Landmark paper on MIT team’s 2007 development of mid-range resonant wireless transmission [10] • Thibault. 5–6. Xiang.1126/science. Farhad. Retrieved January 3. Robert [9] (July 2007). 2015. A. Hawaii. Plug In Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Integration Techniques. pp. [17] Agbinya (2012) Wireless Power Transfer. Shahnia. ISBN 1118862961. Retrieved January 2. Fulton Innovation. “Wireless recharging: Pulling the plug on electric cars”. Wang (2013). (June 2011). Moffatt. Springer Science & Business Media.933. Wearable Sensors: Fundamentals. 2015. Marin (January 2008). “Electromagnetic Field as the Wireless Transporter of Energy”. Ashwin (August 2013).. An Introduction to Radio Frequency Engineerin. p. (pp.562. [5] Gopinath. ISSN 10959203. “midrange”. 118. Christopher (2004). Wireless Power Transfer via Radiowaves. Ltd. Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 317: 83–85. Sunil (July 2012). 2014. Elena N. Retrieved January 3. [20] Karalis. 2014.1143254. . Inst. “Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances”. Gupta. “Seminar: A Review on Technologies for Wireless Electricity”. & T. John Wiley & Sons. A short cultural history of wireless power Patents • U. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved December 10. [8] Sun. InfoSpace LLC. (1976). Encyclopedia of terms. Retrieved January 3. Elvin (2013). Steven (November 20. Valtchev. [2] Bush. Stephen F. doi:10. ISBN 0124186661. “Wireless power Transmission: Applications and Components”. Martin. Ghosh. doi:10. “Understanding Low Frequency Non-radiative Power Transfer”. 2015. J. Fulton Innovation. pp. Smart Grid: CommunicationEnabled Intelligence for the Electric Power Grid. Soljačić. Joannopoulos. ISBN 1139452304. Anuradha. Karalis. Elsevier. Microwave powered aircraft. Microwave power receiving [16] Coleman. Brief survey of state of wireless power and applications [7] Wilson. [18] Umenei. Patent 3. Jorge. ix–xiii. Aristeidis. Aristeidis. “How Wireless Power Works”. Michael R (2014). Gupta. an inductive coupled system can transmit roughly the diameter of the transmitter. In J. antenna. Wireless Power Transfer.9 • Tomar. pp.. USA.

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