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Advanced Artificial Lift for Production Solutions and

Optimization Engineers
Presented by Jeff Kain

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Introduction to Nodal Analysis

Objectives

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Understand the components of Inflow


performance
Understand the components of vertical lift
performance
Understand combining inflow and vertical
lift performance
Describe the Pressure versus depth
relationship for different lift methods

Pressure Losses
Pwh

Separator

Surface
Choke

Psep

Pdsc
Pdsv
Pusv

Bottom
Hole
Restriction

Pdr
Pur

Pwf

DP1 = Pr - Pwfs
DP2 = Pwfs - Pwf
DP3 = Pur - Pdr
DP4 = Pusv - Pdsv
DP5 = Pwh - Pdsc
DP6 = Pdsc - Psep

= Loss in Porous Medium


= Loss across Completion
= Loss across Restriction
= Loss across Safety Valve
= Loss across Surface Choke
= Loss in Flowline

DP7 = Pwf - Pwh = Total Loss in Tubing


DP8 = Pwh - Psep = Total Loss in Flowline

Pwfs

_
Pr

Pe

Possible Pressure Losses in Complete Production System

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Safety
Valve

SURFACE PRESSURE

PRODUCED FLUID

INJECTION GAS

BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE AS A FUNCTION OF FLOWRATE

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WELL OUTFLOW
RELATIONSHIP
(VLP) or (TPC)

PRODUCTION POTENTIAL AS A FUNCTION OF PRODUCTION RATE

RESERVOIR
PRESSURE

SANDFACE
PRESSURE
BHFP

WELL
INFLOW (IPR)

Pwh

Separator

Surface
Choke

Psep

Pdsc
Pdsv
Pusv

Bottom
Hole
Restriction

Pdr
Pur

Pwf

DP1 = Pr - Pwfs
DP2 = Pwfs - Pwf
DP3 = Pur - Pdr
DP4 = Pusv - Pdsv
DP5 = Pwh - Pdsc
DP6 = Pdsc - Psep

= Loss in Porous Medium


= Loss across Completion
= Loss across Restriction
= Loss across Safety Valve
= Loss across Surface Choke
= Loss in Flowline

DP7 = Pwf - Pwh = Total Loss in Tubing


DP8 = Pwh - Psep = Total Loss in Flowline

Pwfs

_
Pr

Pe

Possible Pressure Losses in Complete Production System

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Safety
Valve

Inflow Performance Curve


3500

3000

2500

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Flowing bottomhole pressure, psi

Inflow (Reservoir) Curve

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Production rate, STB/D

3500

4000

4500

Tubing Curve
3500

Tubing Curve

2500

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Flowing bottomhole pressure, psi

3000

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Production rate, STB/D

3500

4000

4500

System Graph
3500

Inflow (Reservoir) Curve


Tubing Curve

2500

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Flowing bottomhole pressure, psi

3000

1957.1 psi
2000

1500

1000

500

2111 STB/D

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Production rate, STB/D

3500

4000

4500

INFLOW PERFORMANCE
RADIAL FLOW

r
re
Pwf
Pr
Pe

Pe = boundary pressure
Pwf = well flowing pressure
Pr = pressure at r
re = drainage radius
rw = wellbore radius

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dr

INFLOW PERFORMANCE
SEMI (PSEUDO) STEADY STATE INFLOW (using
average reservoir pressure)

where: P = pressure (psi)


k = permeability (md)
h = height (ft)
re = drainage radius (ft)
rw = wellbore radius (ft)
O = fluid viscosity (cP)
Bo = formation volume factor (bbls/stb)

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kh(Pav - Pwf)
qo = ----------------------------------141.2 oBo.[ln(re/rw) - 3/4]

IDEAL FLOW ASSUMPTIONS


Ideal well
Purely radial flow
Infinite reservoir
Uniform thickness
Stabilized flow
Single phase
Above bubble point
Homogeneous & isotropic reservoir
Perforations penetrate throughout reservoir
Reservoir shape
Proximity of wellbore
Wellbore clean / uncased
No skin
Darcys law

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NON IDEAL FLOW


Departures from Darcys law
Effects at boundaries
Position of well
Non homogeneous reservoir
Perforation positions
High velocities
Fluid type / high GOR
Transient behavior
Relative permeability effects - oil/water/gas near the
wellbore
Depletion if reservoir
Flow restrictions (skin)

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INFLOW PERFORMANCE
SKIN

Restricted flow into the wellbore

The total skin factor may be calculated from well test


data

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Ideal flow conditions rarely exist

INFLOW PERFORMANCE
PRINCIPLE ORIGINS OF SKIN
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Formation damage (+ve)


Perforations (+ve)
Partial completions/limited entry (+ve)
Gravel packs (+ve)
Non-Darcy flow (+ve)
Multiphase flow (+ve)
Natural fractures (-ve)
Hydraulic fractures (-ve)
Deviated/horizontal wells (-ve)

INFLOW PERFORMANCE
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX

q = J(Pws - Pwf) or

q
J = -----------------Pws - Pwf

kh(Pav - Pwf)
qo = ----------------------------------141.2 oBo.[ln(re/rw) - 3/4]

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The relationship between well inflow rate and pressure


drawdown can be expressed in the form of a Productivity
Index, denoted PI or J, where:

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW PERFORMANCE


( Successful design depends upon prediction of flow rate)

FACTORS AFFECTING PI

Bubble point pressure


Dew point pressure

2. Relative permeability behaviour


Ratio of effective permeability to a particular fluid (oil, gas or
water) to the absolute permeability of the rock

3. Oil viscosity
Viscosity decreases with pressure decrease to Pb
Viscosity increases as gas comes out of solution

4. Oil formation volume factor (bo)


As pressure is decreased the liquid will expand
As gas comes out of solution oil will shrink

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1. Phase behaviour

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW PERFORMANCE


( Successful design depends upon prediction of flow rate)

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AS RATE INCREASES IS NO LONGER STRAIGHT LINE


Increased gas sat. Near wellbore - rel. Perm. Effects
Laminar > turbulent flow
Exceeds critical flow of sandface

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW PERFORMANCE


( Successful design depends upon prediction of flow rate)

INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP


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Vogel
Back pressure/Fetkovich
Lit (Jones, Blount and Glaze)
Normalized pseudo pressure

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW PERFORMANCE


( Successful design depends upon prediction of flow rate)

VOGEL

Q/Qmax = 1 - 0.2(Pwf/Pws) - 0.8(Pwf/Pws)2


where:

Q = the liquid production rate, stb/d


Qmax = the maximum liquid rate for 100% drawdown
Pwf = bottom hole flowing pressure, psi
Pws = the reservoir pressure, psi

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Dimensionless reference curve based on the following


equation:

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WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW PERFORMANCE


( Successful design depends upon prediction of flow rate)

SUMMARY OF FACTORS AFFECTING PREDICTION


OF WELL PRODUCTION

Nature of drive mechanisms


Physical nature of reservoir (non homogeneous)
Availability of stabilized flow
Changes over time & drawdown
Increased gas solution near wellbore
Stabilised flow near wellbore
Flow regime near wellbore
Critical flow at wellbore

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Presence of three phase flow

MULTIPHASE FLOW
OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE
MOVEMENT OF A MIXTURE OF FREE GASES AND LIQUIDS

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Vertical flowing gradients


Horizontal flowing gradients

FACTORS EFFECTING VLP

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VLP is a function of physical properties not inflow


Tubing ID
Wall roughness
Inclination
Liquid / gas density
Liquid / gas viscosity
Liquid / gas velocity
Well depth / line lengths
Surface pressure
Water cut
GOR
Liquid surface tension
Flowrate

PRESSURE LOSS IN WELLBORE


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Complicated expression

P/Z
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System described by a energy balance expression


Mass energy per unit mass in = energy out
(+ - exchange with surroundings)
For wellbore- pressure Calc. for length of pipe
Integrated each section
Pressure can be divided into three terms

PRESSURE LOSS IN WELLBORE


GRAVITY
TERM

FRICTION
TERM

ACCELERATION
TERM

P/Ztotal = g/gccos + fv /2gcd + v/gc[P/Z]

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TOTAL
PRESSURE
DIFFERENCE

GRAVITY
TERM

g/gccos
Correcting weight of fluid
Dominant term
Single phase simple
Multiphase complex

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Pressure loss due to gravity


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Based on fluid densities at element for


conditions Pelement, Telement
Phase volumes = % of pipe occupied by
fluid * density of fluid
Assumes liquid and gas phases at same
velocity
This is the no slip case that will produce
minimum delta P due to gravity

SLIP
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The gas phase moves at a faster velocity than


the liquid phase due to buoyancy forces
Consequence is a change in the areas of each
phase in an element
The slip corrected liquid area is termed LIQUID
HOLDUP
Correction from phase volumes to holdup
volumes through multi-phase correlations
Complex determination characterised in flow
regime maps

Liquid Holdup
Consider an element for Pelement , Telement

% Liquid

LIQUID
Liquid Holdup

GAS

Mixture density = L density * % L + G density * %G

% Gas

GAS
1 - Liquid Holdup

Slip corrected
Mixture density = L density * HL + G density * (1(1-HL)

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LIQUID

FLOW REGIMES

Proportion of phases
Flow velocity
Viscosities
Interfacial tension

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Based on observations
Different flow patterns

FLOW REGIMES

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FRICTION
TERM

fv /2gcd
Increases with rate
Proportional to velocity
Proportional to relative roughness
Laminar vs turbulent flow
Effective viscosity
Effective mixture density
Sensitive to gas volumes

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ACCELERATION
TERM

v/gc[P/Z]
Expansion of fluid as pressure decreases
Smallest term
Often ignored
Need to account in high rate

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Proportion of terms in oil well close to


sandface (no significant GLR)

GRAVITY
FRICTION

Proportion of terms in oil well significant


GLR close to surface

GRAVITY
FRICTION
ACCELERATION

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ACCELERATION

PRESSURE LOSS IN WELLBORE


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Fluid density in every term


Errors would be cumulative
PVT important

CORRELATIONS
Babson (1934)
Gilbert (1939 / 1952)
Poettmann & Carpenter (1952)
Duns & Ros
Hagedorn & Brown
Orkiszewski
Fancher & Brown
Beggs &Brill
Duckler Flannigan
Gray
Mechanistic
Proprietary

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INFLOW AND OUTFLOW


PERFORMANCE
Pressure, psig
0
1000

3000

5200

4000

5000
FBHP, psig

5000
Depth, feet

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2000

6000
7000

4800
4600

8000

4400

9000

4200

10000

1000

2000

Rate, bbls/d

11000
12000
13000
14000
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

3000

Inflow
(IPR)

Outflow

SKIN
10

-1

qo 1/

Flowrate

-3

ln re +S
rw
Note : Log effect

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Pressure at Node

Effect of Skin on IPR

Decreasing reservoir pressure

Inflow

Outflow

Flowrate

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Pressure at Node

Effect of Pressure Depletion


Reservoir with no pressure support
on IPR

Inflow
(IPR)
Outflow
2 3/8
2 7/8

3 1/2

Flowrate (stb/d)

4 1/2

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Pressure at Node

Effect of Tubing Size on Outflow

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Pressure versus Depth for


various Artificial Lift Methods

Natural Flow Pressure vs Depth

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Gas Lift Pressure vs Depth

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Pump Pressure vs Depth

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