RF transmission based on Microwave UWB
By VinodQuilon B.Tech Electronics & Communication Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering Pappanamcode, Thiruvananthapuram Kerala, India. 25/07/2010 firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü UWB with narrowband UWB simple transceiver Filter technologies UWB antenna UWB modulation schemes Wireless networking with UWB Spectral encoding multiple access DS-UWB, MB-OFDM transceiver UWB radars UWB in Biotelemetry UWB-MIMO Wireless USB UWB network extension UWB transceiver examples Related technologies Challenges to UWB References
(long range) WMAN
Services like AM,FM,TV,Cellular- WCDMA,CDMA2000
Bluetooth lEEE 802.15.1,IR -infrared, WLAN Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11b, ZigBee, UWB (4 to 20 m range,110 Mbps - 1.6Gbps)
HOW DOES UWB FIT IN THE WIRELESS MIX?
UWB Vs. Narrow-Band
Shot Noises. Spread spectrum.
Fractional (relative) Bandwidth %BW
UWB is a device with the fractional bandwidth (f.b) greater than or equal to 0.25
<1% of centre frequency
FM/AM radio, Telephone
Coexistence of UWB with narrowband systems.
Bluetooth, 802.11b Cordless Phones Microwave Ovens s-band Home RF Narrowband (30 KHz) Wideband CDMA (5 MHz)
Emitted Signal Power
EIRP Emission Level (dBm)
802.11a WLAN HyperLAN (20 MHz) U-NII
Spread-Spectrum 802.11b (80 MHz)
“Part 15 Limit” Noise floor
MW band UWB Spectrum
1.6 1.9 2.4 3.1 5
PCS- Personal Communication Services (Cellular Phones, Cordless Phones) ISM- Industry Scientific Medical U-NII- Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
So why is UWB so Interesting?
• 7.5 Ghz of “free spectrum” .(Avoids expensive licensing fees.) • no interference with the existing wireless systems. (immunity to detection and intercept) Low transmit power.(share frequency spectrum) LPD-Low Probability of Detection. Secure. • Very high data rates possible according to Shannon theorem (Large channel capacity) • inherent robustness to multi-path fading (very short duration of UWB pulses) • flexibility of operation
• Resistance to Jamming (no jammer can jam every frequency in the UWB spectrum at once). That is high processing gain for UWB signals. • Ability to work with low SNR(Offers high performance in noisy environments) • excellent range resolution capabilities • low cost of implementation • Superior penetration properties(The low frequencies included in the broad range of the UWB frequency spectrum have long wavelengths) • low-power consumption.(simple transceiver architecture) Smaller form factor CMOS chipset implementation. Small antennas.
Typical block diagram of a low power-consuming ultrawideband transmitter
Impulse(chaotic/ a periodic ) Modulation for Carrier-less /free transmission. Pulsed/dutycycled Modulation.
UWB transmitter Fractal signals
Typical block diagram of a low power-consuming ultrawdeband receiver
Coherent & Noncoherent architecture
For coherent architecture, the template signal is generated according to transmitted pulse shape. Recover both polarity(amplitude) and position(phase) of channel /UWB pulse. For non-coherent the template signal can be generated through an accurate delay line. The energy(envelope) detection is performed by a mixer used as a square-law device. Recover only the position information by collecting the energy of the UWB pulses. Avoiding the use of use of a bank of correlators and pulse matched filter. Timing or frame acquisition in the coherent receiver is very accurate (accurate ranging).
The layout of the UWB transceiver.
Two technology choices are RFCMOS or SiGe HBT BiCMOS.
UWB bandpass filter is a key component of UWB system. It must have an ultra wide passband, but also needs high selectivity to reject signals from existing systems such as 1.6 GHz global positioning systems (GPS) and 2.4 GHz Bluetooth systems. In addition, in some cases, the UWB bandpass filter needs to introduce steeply notched frequency bands in order to reduce interference from existing NB radio systems located within the UWB pass-band.
These requirements increase the challenges for the UWB filter designer. However, since conventional filter theory is based on the narrowband assumption and cannot be used to design UWB bandpass filters , novel techniques and technologies need to be developed for UWB bandpass filter design.
Ultra wide passband with high selectivity
Ultra wide pass band with steeply notched frequency bands
UWB filter using electronic-band-gaploaded optimum-short-circuited stubs
microstrip filter- microstrip filters ony become practical above 300MHz. It is a size issue. the inductance and capacitance of the the microstrip line PCB traces to form the filter, rather then discrete inductors and capacitors.
Filter Topology and Fabrication Technology- Single layer PCB Notched-Band and Rejection Level - NO
Filter with Notched-Band and Rejection
wideband input impedance matching
The main challenge in UWB designs is to extend matching to the wide frequency range of 3.1-10.6 GHz. The LNA has to exhibit good input impedance.
common gate amplifier Resistive termination resistive shunt-feedback amplifier
UWB Antenna Configurations
Antennas are particularly challenging aspect of UWB. If an impulse is fed to an antenna, it tends to ring, severely distorting the pulse and spreading it out in time. Poor matching and large reflections.
Conventional wideband antennas such as the log-periodic and the spiral are wideband in amplitude, but not in phase; they distort the UWB signal.
The best antennas for UWB are arrays of TEM horns. The higher the frequency the antennas can be equally small.
THE COMPARISON OF DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR UWB ANTENNAS
•wide impedance bandwidth •constant gain at directions of interest •constant desired polarization •high radiation efficiency •small size / low profile/embeddable /easy-integrated for portable devices •compact but robust especially for fixed devices •low cost
Typical designs which have been used in various UWB systems
Printed Bow-Tie Antenna
NB Interference suppression
A tunable center frequency RF “roofing filter” applied to the UWB NB interference mitigation problem. This filter will introduce significant group delay distortion in the passband, and so spectral shaping of the transmitted waveform out of the interference band will also be required to minimize the resulting degradation in system performance. In the second case, an accurate estimation of the frequency, phase, and amplitude of the jammer is required to significantly reduce the interference level.
UWB shows significant throughput potential at short range
Although UWB technology is old, its application for communication is relatively new, thanks to FCC.
Impulse waveforms in nature
• Dolphins: 1-100KHz, f.b. 200% • Bats: 10-150KHz, f.b. 175% • Swiftlets: 1-5.5KHz, f.b. 140%
UWB Modulation Schemes
• 1. PPM (Pulse Position Modulation) • 2. OOK (On Off Keying) • 3. BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying)
UWB modulates an impulse-like waveform (WAVELET) with Data. A typical baseband UWB pulse, also called monopulse, such as the Gaussian first derivative pulse can be used.
The development of laser-actuated semiconductor fast-acting switches that can produce impulses or short duration waveforms of one or several cycles has been of interest for UWB. The traveling wave tube (TWT) can be used. It can be excited with a narrow impulse, but its energy is limited by the peak power of the TWT.
Drift Step Recovery Diode –DSRD Drift Step Recovery Transistor -DSRT
Pulse position modulation
ON OFF Keying
Binary Phase Shift Keying
Simulation Results with different Modulations and Gaussian first derivative Pulse for UWB System
WIRELESS NETWORKING WITH UWB
• IEEE 802.15.3a HDR WPAN • IEEE 802.15.4a LDR WSN • IEEE 802.15.6 LDR WBAN
MESH STAR TREE
RFD- reduced-function device FFD- full-function device A piconet is an ad hoc data communications system. As long as the piconets are needed at anytime, the piconets are formed without pre-planning.
Intercommunications system (ICS)
Audio at High rate. 39
AWICS UWB mobile transceiver with headset
UWB AP (Access Point)
To identify whether a particular slot in parking area has been occupied. Sensors produce LDR pulses to indicate slot occupancy. Pulses are guided to Master AP at security cabin, through Slave APs. Master AP will display exact vacant slot, thus security person can guide the incoming vehicles to the correct direction. 41
UWB Medical Service Centre for measurement of physiological parameters of a person Fixed AP @ Patient’s Room
UWB Spectral Encoding multiple access schemes
• DS Impulse Radio (DS-IR-UWB) • FH Multiband OFDM (FH-MB-OFDM)
Spectral Encoding helps to spread spectrum. Multiple access schemes implemented to cover large number of nodes in wireless network scenario.
3.1-to 5-GHz range band plan
6-to 10.6-GHz range band plan
13 4.8 Band plan
528 MHz Bandwidth for each band
IR-UWB Modulation Scheme Spreading Data Rate Support Market Power Consumption Transceiver Architecture Robustness to Fading Sampling Rate Channel estimation accuracy Synchronization LNA linearity Primary domain Other names BPSK DS LDR UWB Forum Handheld consumer market Steady Rake YES Very High > 2 Gbps Mandatory Time Lower Analog Impulse Radio, Pulse based
MC-OFDM QPSK FH HDR WiMedia Alliance PC market Depends on data rate Complex NO Reasonable Mandatory Frequency, Phase, Time Higher Digital Multi Band- MB Multi Carrier- MC
Integration of MultiBand and cognitive radio (CR)
Cognitive Radio(CR) is an emerging approach for a more flexible usage of the precious radio spectrum resources. By investigations on the radio spectrum usage, it has been observed that some frequency bands are largely unoccupied most of the time, some other frequency bands are only partially occupied, and the remaining frequency bands are heavily used.
A CR terminal can sense its environment and location and then adapt some of its features allowing to dynamically reuse valuable spectrum. This could lead to a multidimensional reuse (dynamical usage) of spectrum in space, frequency and time, exceeding the severe limitations in the spectrum and bandwidth allocations.
UWB Trans-ceiver Architecture
DS-UWB System Architecture
ADC at chip rate
Mixer I & Q
Gain- 15dB Bandwidth- up to 7 GHz NF- 3 dB Bandwidth- up to 7 GHz
PLL Freq Synthesizer
Single fixed freq.
Power Amplifier (PA)
Power levels -41.3 dDBm/MHz
RAKE RECEIVER FOR UWB
The RAKE receiver, a preferred structure for collecting multi-path energy is a good choice to build IR UWB system. Rake receiver consists of multiple correlators (fingers) where each of the fingers can detect/extract the signal from one of the multipath components (MPC) provided by the channel. The outputs of the fingers are appropriately weighted and combined (using maximal-ratio combining (MRC)) to reap the benefits of multipath diversity. Rake receivers, which are based on either partial combining (called PRake) or selective combining (called SRake). The first is suboptimum and combines the first arriving multipath components, while the second combines the strongest multipath components. A standard “ideal” Rake receiver that combines all of the resolvable multipath component is called All-Rake (ARake). The RAKE with a LMS adaptive equalizer and the RAKE with a LMS adaptive combiner perform better than the traditional N-selective MRC RAKE structure in the ISI environment. A reduced complexity combining technique that does not require the estimates of the fading amplitudes is equal gain combining (EGC), where all the multipath components are weighted equally. 54
RAKE with an adaptive equalizer
TR-UWB autocorrelation RxR
The mixer of the standard FSR-UWB scheme has been replaced by a delay element D.
non-coherent differential receiver
As an alternative to TH-IR,TR-IR ﬁrst transmits a reference pulse of known polarity (or position), followed by a data pulse whose polarity (position) is determined by the information bit. At the receiver, we then only have to multiply the received signal with a delayed version of itself, resulting in an extremely simple receiver structure.
Robust-to-Timing TR (RTTR) considerably improves performance of the original TR in the presence of timing offsets or residual timing acquisition errors.
TR-IR - 6-8 dB degradation compared to coherent receiver Spectral efficiency divided by 2
UWB Transmitted-reference (TR) and frequency-shifted reference (FSR) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems employ pairs of reference and data signals, which are shifted in the time and frequency domains, respectively, to facilitate low-to-medium data rate communications without the need for complex channel estimation and template signal generation. On the other hand, the recently proposed coded-reference (CR) UWB systems provide orthogonalization of the reference and data signals in the code domain, which has advantages in terms of performance and/or implementation complexity.
Input Data To channel
Signal is multiplied by a spreading sequence in the frequency domain. As a result, the signal spreads in time. As an alternative to TH-IR, direct-sequence CDMA , a technique well-known from cellular radio, can be used. A large bandwidth is obtained by employing a 59 very high chip rate.
MB-OFDM System Architecture
dual-loop architecture with single-sideband mixing of a fast hopping
Fast frequency hopping changes the carrier frequency several times during the transmission of one symbol; in other words, the transmission of each separate symbol is spread over a large bandwidth. Slow frequency hopping transmits one or several symbols on each frequency.
Frequency hopping has a multiple access capability. Different users are distinguished by different hopping sequences, so that they transmit on different frequencies at any given time.
Mixer I & Q PLL Freq Synthesizer Power Amplifier (PA)
Gain- 15dB Bandwidth- 528 MHz/band NF- 3 dB Bandwidth- 528 MHz/band Multiple freq. Power levels -41.3 dDBm/MHz
UWB Outdoor peer-to-peer network (OPPN)
Downloading of video movie purchase or rental, for example, is a very data-intensive activity that could be enabled by UWB.
Short-range radar (SRR)
The wide bandwidth of UWB signals implies a fine time resolution that gives them a potential for high-resolution positioning applications /Localization and tracking (LT)/ranging, provided that the multipaths are dealt with. Sensor, positioning, and identification network (SPIN) As of Short Pulse Width we can Resolve Multipath Components . precision asset location system(PALS) Positioning and RFID
UWB radar over NB radar
• Higher range resolution and accuracy .Ultra High Range Resolution (UHRR) • • • • • • • enhanced target recognition immunity to passive “interference” immunity to co-located radar transmissions signals scattered by separate target elements do not interfere operational security because of the extremely large spectral spreading ability to detect very slowly moving or stationary targets Multiple targets can be resolved
With a long pulse NB radar waveform, changes in the target aspect cause a change only in the amplitude of the echo signal. With UWB signals, however, the shape of the echo signal will change, which makes efficient signal processing.
NB signal processing in radar almost always utilizes the envelope. With UWB waveforms, either the envelope or the RF signal can be used.
In indoor and dense urban environments the GPS signal is typically unavailable.
Components of UWB Radar
• • • SMALL SCALE ENVIRONMENT(PICONET) UW B TAG /MO BILE DEVICE ( MD) /SENSO R –T X U W B S L AV E A C C E S S P O I N T ( A P ) / S TAT I O N A R Y UNIT/RFD –TX_RX DIG ITAL PRO CESSING UNIT /MAST ER AP/F F D PC AS SECONDARY PROCESSING UNIT
ceiling mounted UWB AP Master AP (Hub)
THE MEASURING METHOD OF UWB RADAR
The time-digitizer converter (TDC) estimate signal parameters,such as Angle-ofArrival(AOA), Time of Arrival (TOA), Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), RTD (Round Trip Delay) and/or Received Signal Strength(RSS).
Then,in the second step,the Microprocessor-Controlled unit(MC) directs the work of the radar on given algorithms, based on the signal parameters obtained from the first step and provides data output for further digital processing in the computer(secondary processing). Fast Fourier transform, and digital filtration are software-programmable at the computer.
Display results to the display of a personal computer is made.
Three Principles of Positioning
• TOA (Time of Arrival) & RTD (Round Trip Delay) • TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) • AOA (Angle of arrival)
known nodes (anchors)
TOA one-way-ranging (TOA-OWR) and TOA two-way ranging (TOATWR). The former requires perfect synchronization between TX and RX, while the latter does not require synchronization between TX and RX.
UWB radar Detection of people in an open area
OPEN AREA PICONET PEOPLE AS UW B TAG/SENSOR AP -RX DIGITAL PROCESSING UNIT/MASTER AP W ITH PC
output data at pc display
Detection of two persons moving at a distance of 50 meters
UWB radar monitoring of the level of a liquid
This radar provides measurements of a liquid's level in tankage which can have a depth from I to 20 meters. Accuracy of measurements is 5mm. • • TANK PICONET LIQUID AS UW B TAG/SENSOR AP -RX DIGITAL PROCESSING UNIT/MASTER AP W ITH PC 78
In an automotive environment, the localization of a wireless key, inside or outside a car and its distance from the car, could be estimated by UWB radar technique.
detection of on-board items inside vehicles. Precision Asset Location (PAL)System
Indoor Mapping System
Short-pulse RF emissions from the tags are subsequently received by receivers and processed by the central hub CPU. A typical tag emission consists of a short burst, which includes synchronization preamble, tag identification (ID), optional data field (e.g., tag battery indicator), and FEC bits. Time differences of arrival (TDOA) of the tag burst at the various receiver sites are measured and sent back to the central processing hub for processing. Calibration is performed at system startup by monitoring data from a reference tag, which has been placed at a known location.
UWB Radars in Medicine
UWB radar monitor
Discrete pulses emitted from the UWB transmitter travel to the human body and incidence it. The pulses comprising the information reflected from the human body travel back to the UWB receiver and then the result is recorded. Signal processing is performed through obtaining the pulses response with the shape and electrical properties of pulse.
UWB Radar emits (W tc) a short packet of electromagnetic waves whose echoes (W echo) are sampled using “conventional” UWB receiver.
UWB radar emissions are safe and the UWB electromagnetic signal is not influenced by clothes or blankets, and the useful range is in the order of a few meters.
UWB radar-based exploration of arteries
OPTICAL UWB RADAR
Instead of emitting a short electromagnetic pulse, a short train-wave of light (electromagnetic energy as well) is emitted (IR laser diode is used as the antenna) and the echoes detected by a very fast PIN photodiode (UWB receiver equipped with a PIN photodiode). Resulting biomedical applications are quite interesting.
through-wall detection UWB radar
GPR- Ground Penetrating Radar
Radar cross section (RCS)
1GHz R3 R1 1m
Here strongest clutter signal occurs by reflection from a wall and the weakest expected reflection from a target at the maximal range. As key functional requirements to the radar we select the separation of a breathing target from a stationary clutter.
GPR was deployed as a backup sensor for a large mining vehicle
GPR system block diagram
vehicular collision avoidance
In this application, an approaching car is detected by using SRR as well as delivery of warning messages by wireless communication from the approaching car.
Smart highways- UWB devices placed inside the vehicles enable them to communicate and, thus, provide real time local intelligence in order to avoid accidents.
The 2006 Mercedes S-Class uses 24 GHz short range UWB radar as part of its driver assistant systems. Elapsed time of pulsed signals is used to detect objects within 0.2 to 30 m. It can detect and track up to 10 objects with a range accuracy of 7.5 cm.
guarding of objects
The output signals of the guarding sensors
QUick response Perimeter Intrusion Detection –QUPID used to protect a perimeter from unauthorized intruders.
UWB in Biotelemetry
LDR UWB ECG Monitoring System
patient in ICU
PC @ Doctor’s cabin
non-coherent energy detector.
ECG signals recovered
real-time diagnosis with high resolution images.
A wireless endoscope system is comprised of a capsule endoscope for image capturing, an external unit for data recoding, analysis and diagnosis of syndrome in the gastrointestinal tract. The capsule endoscope is compose of a miniaturized camera, light-emitting diodes, CMOS imager, system controller, radio transceiver and battery. And implemented in 0.18µm digital CMOS. High data transmission afforded by UWB.
Virtual-MIMO system for cellular network
MIMO (multiple-input multiple Output) techniques provide better spatial diversity and higher system capacity. With the development of mobile communication, MIMO techniques will be widely applied into B3G or 4G mobile communications in the future.
But, most of mobile terminalsÿ MTsÿ still utilize single antenna/antenna arrays, so the advantages of MIMO systems can’t be fully exhibited.
To exhibit MIMO, MT with multiple-antenna needed.For that, UWB-based Virtual-MIMO system for cellular network is proposed.
Each AP has a total 9 antennas/antenna arrays and servers the same area of 9 traditional cells. There are 3 Group Cells connected with AP1, which are
GT1 consisting of MT1 and MT2 antenna arrays connect with each other by UWB GT2 consisting of MT3 and MT4 one or multiple antennas connect with each other by UWB GT3 consisting of MT5 and MT6 hybrid antennas composed by antennas/antenna arrays connect with each other by UWB
One MT can directly communicate with some other MTs nearby without AP’s relaying. Each MT in GT is able to not only directly communicate with AP, but also connect with AP by sharing the antennas of other MTs in the same GT.
Ultra-wide-band (UWB) technology combined with multiple transmit and receive antennas (MIMO) is a viable way to achieve data rates of more than 1 Gb/s for wireless communications. MIMO systems allow for a substantial increase of spectral efficiency by exploiting the inherent array gain and spatial multiplexing gain of the systems. It is shown that the spectral efficiency is increased logarithmically and linearly, respectively, for single transmit and multiple receive antennas (SIMO) and MIMO systems. For multiple transmit and single receive antenna (MISO) systems, a threshold for the data transmission rate exists such that the spatial multiplexing gain can be obtained if the data rate is lower than this threshold. Two STC (Space Time Coding) schemes for UWB-MIMO are 1S/2A and 2S/2A.
Under the WiMedia umbrella, industry incorporated UWB as the technology to achieve high data rates up to 480 Mbps for Wireless USB.
To replace the USB cable by providing secure high speed, short range communications, like USB but without the cables.
”plug and play” Wireless Ethernet interface link (WEIL)
Belkin CableFree USB Certified Wireless USB Affordable commercial UWB hardware has become readily available in the form of WUSB dongles as of 2011.
The UWB signals can be overlaid on the existing narrowband spectrum. This is expected to contribute to increasing spectrum efficiency of the satellite systems.
UWB signals for Ku-band downlink with 500 MHz bandwidth. UWB signals are radiated from satellites to the earth by which new satellite applications can be developed.
Bluetooth over Ultra Wideband (BToUWB)
BToUWB is modeled by channeling an existing compliant Bluetooth connection’s data over a software implemented UWB Medium Access Control (MAC) and simulated Physical (PHY) layer radio channel.
The simulated UWB link may closely resemble a real life UWB connection. Utilizing the UWB physical layer may provide even more advantages in terms of connection setup speed and device power saving.
UWB NETWORK EXTENSION
The network is extended to cover wider area. IEEE 1394 can operate over both copper and fiber single cable. IEEE 1394 is an international standard for high performance serial bus that will enable simple, low-cost, and high-bandwidth isochronous/asynchronous data interfacing between UWB buses.
UROOF (UWB Radio Over Optical Fiber)
Another technique for UWB Network extension.
LD- laser diode PC- polarization controller PD- photo detector
To recover the information that is carried by the optical phase, we have to convert a phase-modulated signal to an intensity-modulated signal (PM-IM). A dispersive Device (single-mode ﬁber (SMF)) is used to change the phase relationship between the two ﬁrst-order sidebands from out of phase to partially or fully in phase. The electrical signal is obtained at the output of a PD, which is ready to radiate to the space via an UWB antenna.
Multiplexing (sharing) between different piconets
– not attractive
– require coordination and do not scale well to higher aggregate data rates. The CSMA mechanism is unsuitable
– good match for UWB
UWB TRANSCEIVER EXAMPLES
•DRACO UWB Network Transceiver •ORIONUWB Network and Ground Wave Non-LOS Transceiver
multi-band inter/intra team radio (MBITR)
A DRACO transceiver node can be operated as an unattended communications relay, originating sensor (e.g., video, seismic, acoustic, etc.) communications node, reach back satellite packet node, or destination 113 terminal.
ORION L-band UWB radio transceivers.
FPGA contains Burst (De)Interleaver, FEC, Bit Stream Processing, etc.
Standard IEEE spec. Frequency band Max. signal rate Nominal range Number of RF channels Channel bandwidth Modulation type Spreading Coexistence mechanism Basic cell
Bluetooth 802.15.1 2.4 GHz 1 Mb/s 10 m 79 1 MHz GFSK FHSS OFDM-Adaptive Piconet
Wi-Fi 802.11a/b/g 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz 54 Mb/s 100 m 14 (2.4 GHz) 22 MHz BPSK,QPSK DSS OFDM-Dynamic BSS ESS 2007 15-20 dBm
UWB 802.15.3a 3.1-10.6 GHz 110 Mb/s 10 m 1-15 500MHz-7.5 GHz BPSK,QPSK DSS,FH OFDM-Adaptive Piconet P2P 8 -41.3 dBm/MHz
Extension of basic Scatternet cell Maximum number 8 of cell nodes Nominal Tx power 0-10 dBm
UWB AND THE COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES
CHALLENGES TO UWB
• • • suspicious about the NB interference extreme antenna bandwidth requirements very accurate timing synchronization need for correlator -based receiver • Complex RAKE-type receiver to cope with significant amount of energy in the multipath • • • filter matching accuracy timely approval from the regulatory bodies lack of an universal standard
ØUWB Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks- Zhang, Sahinoglu- IEEE Proceedings ØWhy UWB? A Review of Ultra wideband Technology- Miller – DARPA ØSemiconductor Technology Choices for Ultrawide-Band (UWB) Systems- Harame- IEEE ØUWB Radars in Medicine -Staderini -IEEE AESS Systems Magazine ØPhotonic Generation of Ultra wideband Signals- Yao-Journal of Lightwave Technology ØUWB Localization Techniques for Precision Automobile Parking System –Mary-IEEE ØUWB Communications Systems :An Overview- Tommy- IEEE ØOverview of Research and Development Activities in NICT UWB Consortium- Kohno ØComparative Evaluation of Different Modulation Schemes in UWB - Sharda Mungale ØAn introduction to UWB communication systems- Rakesh- IEEE ØUWB Filter technologies- Hao-IEEE Microwave magazine ØRecent System Applications of Short-Pulse Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Technology-Fontana ØPerformance of Coherent and Non-coherent Receivers of UWB Communication – IEEE ØPractical Applications of UWB Technology- Immoreev- IEEE A&E Systems Magazine ØIntroduction to Ultra-Wideband Communications- Nekoogar ØEssentials of UWB- Wood, Aiello- Cambridge ØUWB Radio technology- Siwiak- Wiley Øhttp://www.timedomain.com/
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