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Baghaskara Surendra 1506710922

Raisya Afifah 1606862841
Muhammad Ivan Farhan 1606862854
Dian Ratri Cahyani 1606896981




DEPOK 2016
I. Introduction

II. Theory


Carbon is the chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6 (contains
6 protons in its nucleus). As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and
tetravalentmaking four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. The most
common isotope of carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, and has an atomic mass of 12.0107
amu. Its ground state electron configuration is 1s22s22p2. Its oxidation state ranges from 4 to
-4, and it has an electronegativity value of 2.55 on the Pauling scale. It is a solid, and
sublimes at 3,642 C (it has the highest sublimation point of all the elements).

Carbon Allotropes

Carbon has several allotropes, or different forms in which it exists. Interestingly, carbon
allotropes span a wide range of physical properties: diamond is the hardest naturally
occurring substance, and graphite is one of the softest known substances. Diamond is
transparent, the ultimate abrasive, and can be an electrical insulator and thermal conductor.
Conversely, graphite is opaque, a very good lubricant, a good conductor of electricity, and a
thermal insulator. Allotropes of carbon are not limited to diamond and graphite, but also
include buckyballs (fullerenes), amorphous carbon, glassy carbon, carbon nanofoam,
nanotubes, and others.
Allotropes of Carbon

Some allotropes of carbon: a) diamond, b) graphite, c) lonsdaleite, df) fullerenes (C60,

C540, C70); g) amorphous carbon, h) carbon nanotube.

Chemical Reactivity of Carbon

Carbon compounds form the basis of all known life on Earth, and the carbon-nitrogen cycle
provides some energy produced by the sun and other stars. Carbon has an affinity for bonding
with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, via the formation of stable, covalent
bonds. Despite the fact that it is present in a vast number of compounds, carbon is weakly
reactive compared to other elements under normal conditions. At
standard temperature and pressure, it resists oxidation; it does not react with sulfuric acid,
hydrochloric acid, chlorine, or any alkali metals. At higher temperatures, carbon will react
with oxygen to give carbon oxides, and metals to give metal carbides.

Carbon has the ability to form very long chains of strong and stable interconnecting C-C
bonds. This property allows carbon to form an almost infinite number of compounds; in fact,
there are more known carbon-containing compounds than all the compounds of the other
chemical elements combined, except those of hydrogen (because almost all organic
compounds contain hydrogen as well).
Carbon Isotopes

Carbon has two stable, naturally occurring isotopes: carbon-12 and carbon-13. Carbon-12
makes 98.93% and carbon-13 forms the remaining 1.07%. The concentration of 12C is
further increased in biological materials because biochemical reactions discriminate
against 13C. Identification of carbon in NMR experiments is done with the isotope 13C. 14C
is a radioactive isotope of carbon with a half-life of 5730 years. It has a very low natural
abundance (0.0000000001%), and decays to 14N through beta decay. It is used in radiometric
dating to determine the age of carbonaceous samples (of physical or biological origin) up to
about 60,000 years old.

In total, there are 15 known isotopes of carbon and the shortest-lived of these is 8C, which
decays through proton emission and alpha decay, and has a half-life of 1.98739 x
1021 seconds. The exotic 19C exhibits a nuclear halo, which means its radius is appreciably
larger than would be expected if the nucleus were a sphere of constant density.

Carbon bonds

A carbon atom can form covalent bonds with other carbon atoms or with the atoms of
other elements. Carbon often forms bonds with hydrogen. Compounds that contain only
carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Methane (CH4), which is modeled in
the Figure below, is an example of a hydrocarbon. In methane, a single carbon atom forms
covalent bonds with four hydrogen atoms. The diagram on the left in the Figure below shows
all the shared valence electrons. The diagram on the right in the Figure below, called a
structural formula, represents each pair of shared electrons with a dash ().
Carbon-Carbon Bonds

Carbon can form single, double, or even triple bonds with other carbon atoms. In a single
bond, two carbon atoms share one pair of electrons. In a double bond, they share two pairs of
electrons, and in a triple bond they share three pairs of electrons. Examples of compounds
with these types of bonds are represented by the structural formulas in the Figure below.

The CH bond in general is very strong, so it is relatively unreactive. In several compound

classes, collectively called carbon acids, the CH bond can be sufficiently acidic for proton
removal. Unactivated CH bonds are found in alkanes and are not adjacent to
a heteroatom (O, N, Si, etc.). Such bonds usually only participate in radical substitution.
Many enzymes are known, however, to affect these reactions.

Although the CH bond is one of the strongest, it varies over 30% in magnitude for fairly
stable organic compounds, even in the absence of heteroatoms.

Hydrocarbon Bond dissociation energy Molar bond

radical (kcal/mol) dissociation energy

CH3H Methyl 104 440 kJ

C2H5H Ethyl 98 410 kJ

(CH3)2HCH Isopropyl 95 400 kJ

(CH3)3CH tert-Butyl 93 390 kJ

CH2=CHH vinyl 112 470 kJ

HCCH ethynyl 133 560 kJ

C6H5H phenyl 110 460 kJ

Allyl 88 370 kJ

C6H5CH2H Benzyl 85 360 kJ

OC4H7H tetrahydrofuranyl 92 380 kJ

acetonyl 96 400 kJ

Monomer & Polymers


The word monomer comes from mono- (one) and -mer (part). Monomers are small
molecules which may be joined together in a repeating fashion to form more complex
molecules called polymers. Monomers form polymers by forming chemical bonds or binding
supramolecularly through a process called polymerization. Sometimes polymers are made
from bound groups of monomer subunits (up to a few dozen monomers) called oligomers. A
related term is "monomeric protein", which is a protein which bonds to make a multiprotein
complex. Monomers are not just building blocks of polymers, but are important molecules in
their own right, which do not necessarily form polymers unless the conditions are right.

Examples of Monomers

Examples of monomers include vinyl chloride (polymerizes into polyvinyl chloride or PVC),
glucose (polymerizes into starch, cellulose, laminarin, and glucans), and amino acids (which
polymerize into peptides, polypeptides, and proteins).


The word polymer comes from poly- (many) and -mer (part). A polymer may be a natural or
synthetic macromolecule comprised of repeating units of a smaller molecule (monomers).
While many people use the term 'polymer' and 'plastic' interchangeably, polymers are a much
larger class of molecules which includes plastics, plus many other materials, such as as
cellulose, amber, and natural rubber.
Lower molecular weight compounds may be distinguished by the number of monomeric
subunits they contain. The terms dimer, trimer, tetramer, pentamer, hexamer, heptamer,
octamer, nonamer, decamer, dodecamer, eicosamer reflects molecules containing 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 20 monomer units.

Examples of Polymers

Examples of polymers include plastics such as polyethylene, silicones such as silly putty,
biopolymers such as cellulose and DNA, natural polymers such as rubber and shellac,
and many other important macromolecules.

Intramolecular and Intermolecular Forces

There are two kinds of forces, or attractions, that operate in a molecule

intramolecular and intermolecular. Let's try to understand this difference through the
following example.

Figure of towels sewn and Velcroed representing bonds between hydrogen and chlorine atoms

We have six towelsthree are purple in color, labeled hydrogen and three are pink in color,
labeled chlorine. We are given a sewing needle and black thread to sew one hydrogen towel
to one chlorine towel. After sewing, we now have three pairs of towels: hydrogen sewed to
chlorine. The next step is to attach these three pairs of towels to each other. For this we use
Velcro as shown above.

So, the result of this exercise is that we have six towels attached to each other through thread
and Velcro. Now if I ask you to pull this assembly from both ends, what do you think will
happen? The Velcro junctions will fall apart while the sewed junctions will stay as is. The
attachment created by Velcro is much weaker than the attachment created by the thread that
we used to sew the pairs of towels together. A slight force applied to either end of the towels
can easily bring apart the Velcro junctions without tearing apart the sewed junctions.

Exactly the same situation exists in molecules. Just imagine the towels to be real atoms, such
as hydrogen and chlorine. These two atoms are bound to each other through a polar covalent
bondanalogous to the thread. Each hydrogen chloride molecule in turn is bonded to the
neighboring hydrogen chloride molecule through a dipole-dipole attractionanalogous to
Velcro. Well talk about dipole-dipole interactions in detail a bit later. The polar covalent
bond is much stronger in strength than the dipole-dipole interaction. The former is termed
an intramolecular attraction while the latter is termed anintermolecular attraction.

Figure of towels sewn and Velcroed representing bonds between hydrogen and chlorine
atoms, illustrating intermolar and intramolar attractions

So now we can define the two forces:

Intramolecular forces are the forces that hold atoms together within a
molecule. Intermolecular forces are forces that exist between molecules.
Figure of intermolecular attraction between two H-Cl molecules and intramolecular attraction
within H-Cl molecule

Types of intramolecular forces of attraction

1. Ionic bond: This bond is formed by the complete transfer of valence electron(s)
between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions. In
ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the
nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion.

Figure of ionic bond forming between Na and Cl

2. Covalent bond: This bond is formed between atoms that have similar
electronegativitiesthe affinity or desire for electrons. Because both atoms have similar
affinity for electrons and neither has a tendency to donate them, they share electrons in order
to achieve octet configuration and become more stable.

A nonpolar covalent bond is formed between same atoms or atoms with very similar
electronegativitiesthe difference in electronegativity between bonded atoms is less than
Figure of covalent bond forming between two Cl molecules

A polar covalent bond is formed when atoms of slightly different electronegativities share
electrons. The difference in electronegativity between bonded atoms is between 0.5 and 1.9.

Figure of polar covalent bond forming between H and Cl

3. Metallic bonding: This type of covalent bonding specifically occurs between atoms
of metals, in which the valence electrons are free to move through the lattice. This bond is
formed via the attraction of the mobile electronsreferred to as sea of electronsand the
fixed positively charged metal ions. Metallic bonds are present in samples of pure elemental
metals, such as gold or aluminum, or alloys, like brass or bronze.

Figure of metal with positively charged atoms and mobile valence electrons
The freely moving electrons in metals are responsible for their a reflecting propertyfreely
moving electrons oscillate and give off photons of lightand their ability to effectively
conduct heat and electricity.

Relative strength of the intramolecular forces

Intramolecular force Basis of formation strength
Metallic bond Metal cations to delocalized electrons 1, strongest
Ionic bond Cations to anions 2
Partially charged cation to partially charged
Polar covalent bond anion 3
Nonpolar covalent
bond Nuclei to shared electrons 4, weakest
Intermolecular forces of attraction
Now lets talk about the intermolecular forces that exist between molecules. Intermolecular
forces are much weaker than the intramolecular forces of attraction but are important because
they determine the physical properties of molecules like their boiling point, melting point,
density, and enthalpies of fusion and vaporization.

Types of intermolecular forces that exist between molecules

1. Dipole-dipole interactions: These forces occur when the partially positively charged
part of a molecule interacts with the partially negatively charged part of the neighboring
molecule. The prerequisite for this type of attraction to exist is partially charged ionsfor
example, the case of polar covalent bonds such as hydrogen chloride, \text{HCl}HClH, C, l.
Dipole-dipole interactions are the strongest intermolecular force of attraction.

Figure of H-Cl to H-Cl dipole-dipole attraction

2. Hydrogen bonding: This is a special kind of dipole-dipole interaction that occurs
specifically between a hydrogen atom bonded to either an oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine atom.
The partially positive end of hydrogen is attracted to the partially negative end of the oxygen,
nitrogen, or fluorine of another molecule. Hydrogen bonding is a relatively strong force of
attraction between molecules, and considerable energy is required to break hydrogen bonds.
This explains the exceptionally high boiling points and melting points of compounds like
water, and hydrogen fluoride. Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in biology; for
example, hydrogen bonds are responsible for holding nucleotide bases together in DNA and

Figure of intramolecular polar covalent bonding within H20 molecules and hydrogen bonding
between O and H atoms.

3. London dispersion forces, under the category of van der Waal forces:These are
the weakest of the intermolecular forces and exist between all types of molecules, whether
ionic or covalentpolar or nonpolar. The more electrons a molecule has, the stronger the
London dispersion forces are. For example, bromine, Br2, has more electrons than
chlorine, Cl2, l, start subscript, 2, end subscript, so bromine will have stronger London
dispersion forces than chlorine, resulting in a higher boiling point for bromine, 59C,
compared to chlorine, 35 . Also, the breaking of London dispersion forces doesnt require
that much energy, which explains why nonpolar covalent compounds like methane oxygen,
and nitrogenwhich only have London dispersion forces of attraction between the molecules
freeze at very low temperatures.
Figure of intramolecular nonpolar covalent bonding between Cl atoms and Long dispersion
forces between Cl-Cl molecules

Relative strength of intermolecular forces of attraction

Intermolecular force Occurs between Relative strength

Partially oppositely charged
Dipole-dipole attraction ions Strongest
H atom and O, N/ or F As strong as dipole-dipole
Hydrogen bonding atom attraction
London dispersion Temporary or induced
attraction dipoles Weakest
How forces of attraction affect properties of compounds
Polar covalent compoundslike hydrogen chloride, HCl, and hydrogen iodide, HIhave
dipole-dipole interactions between partially charged ionsand London dispersion forces
between molecules. Nonpolar covalent compoundslike methane and nitrogen gas)
only have London dispersion forces between molecules. The rule of thumb is that the stronger
the intermolecular forces of attraction, the more energy is required to break those forces. This
translates into ionic and polar covalent compounds having higher boiling and melting points,
higher enthalpy of fusion, and higher vaporization than covalent compounds.

Boiling and melting points of compounds depend on the type and strength of the
intermolecular forces present, as tabulated below:

Relative order of
boiling and
Type of compound Intermolecular forces present melting points
Ionic compounds Ion to ion attraction between ions, 1, highest)
Relative order of
boiling and
Type of compound Intermolecular forces present melting points
London dispersion forces
Covalent compounds
containing hydrogen Hydrogen bonds, London dispersion
bonds forces 2
Dipole-dipole attraction between dipoles
Polar covalent created by partially charged ions, London
compounds dispersion forces 3
Nonpolar covalent
compounds London dispersion forces 4, lowest

Vapor Pressure

Molecules can escape from the surface of a liquid into the gas phase by evaporation. Suppose
we place a quantity of ethanol 1 CH3 CH2 OH2 in an evacuated, closed container, as in
Figure 11.23 . The ethanol quickly begins to evaporate. As a result, the pressure exerted by
the vapor in the space above the liquid increases. After a short time the pressure of the vapor
attains a constant value, which we call the vapor pressure.
Natural Gases

Natural gas occurs deep beneath the earth's surface. Natural gas consists mainly of methane, a
compound with one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. Natural gas also contains small
amounts of hydrocarbon gas liquids and non-hydrocarbon gases. We use natural gas as a fuel
and to make materials and chemicals.

Natural gas is one of the world's favourite fuels, but in its usual piped form we can't use it just
anywhere. We can't use it for our daily activity. To make the gas usable, we can convert to
LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) which is a super-pressurized gas stored in liquid form in a
tank, canister, or bottle.


LPG consist of group of a flammable hydrocarbons gases that are liquefied through
pressurisation and commonly used as fuel.

Chemically, LPG is a mixture of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). While isobutane has
the same component like the butane, but in a slightly different way.

Maximum Pressure
Propane pressure is directly related to the temperature. At -44C the pressure is zero. As the
temperature increases, the pressure will increase. At 0C you have a little over 60psi and at
21C about 130psi. At 43C the pressure is 220psi.

Cylinders have pressure relief valve settings of 375psi and tanks are set at 250psi with the
exception of tanks mounted in vehicle trunks for motor fuel which are set at 312psi. There are
still some very old storage tanks out there that might have 200psi relief valves, but these are
getting rarer to find. So these values would be the maximum "working" pressure for practical

Ideal Gas Law

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good
approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions

The ideal gas law first stated by Emile Clapeyton in 1834 as a result of a combination of
between empirical Boyles, Charles, Avogadros Law

Often written in: p.V = n.R.T

We can conclude, volume of the gas is directly proportional with the amount of gas and
directly proportional with temperature in Kelvin also inversely proportional with pressure.
This conclusion can be concluded by combining three laws.

Boyles Law

Boyle's law () is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to
increase as the volume of the container decreases.

The absolute pressure exerted by a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to
the volume it occupies if the temperature and amount of gas remain unchanged within
a closed systemReferences

Can be mathematically stated by:

P.V= k

where P is the pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the gas, and k is a constant.
The equation states that product of pressure and volume is a constant for a given mass of
confined gas as long as the temperature is constant.

P1V1 = P2V2

Avogadros Law

Avogadro's law (sometimes referred to as Avogadro's hypothesis or Avogadro's principle) is

an experimental gas law relating volume of a gas to the amount of substance of gas present. A
modern statement of Avogadro's law is:

Avogadro's law states that, "equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure,
have the same number of molecules".[2]

For a given mass of an ideal gas, the volume and amount (moles) of the gas are directly
proportional if the temperature and pressure are constant.

Can be mathematically expressed by:

V/n = K

This law describes how, under the same condition of temperature and pressure,
equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules. For comparing the same
substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be usefully expressed as follows:

V1/n1 = V2/n2

The equation shows that, as the number of moles of gas increases, the volume of the gas also
increases in proportion. Similarly, if the number of moles of gas is decreased, then the
volume also decreases. Thus, the number of molecules or atoms in a specific volume of
ideal gas is independent of their size or the molar mass of the gas.

Henrys Law

Henry's law is one of the gas laws formulated by William Henry in 1803 and states: "At a
constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of
liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that
An equivalent way of stating the law is that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly
proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid:

The formula is:

C = K Pgas


C is the solubility of a gas at a fixed temperature in a particular solvent (in units of M or mL


K is Henry's law constant (often in units of M/atm)

Pgas is the partial pressure of the gas (often in units of Atm)

Charles Law

Charles's law (also known as the law of volumes) is an experimental gas law that describes
how gases tend to expand when heated. A modern statement of Charles's law is:

When the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the
volume will be directly related.

V/T = K


V is the volume of the gas

T is the temperature of the gas (measured in Kelvin).

k is a constant.

Example of Ideal Gas Law Calculation

The density of ethane is 1.264 g dm-3 at 20C and 1 atmosphere. Calculate the relative
formula mass of ethane?

The density value means that 1 dm3 of ethane weighs 1.264 g.

Again, before we do anything else, get the awkward units sorted out.

A pressure of 1 atmosphere is 101325 Pa.

The volume of 1 dm3 has to be converted to cubic metres, by dividing by 1000. We have a
volume of 0.001 m3.

The temperature is 293 K.

III. Assignments

1. What do you know about carbon and its bond with caron atoms and with other
element? Gives the example of compound for C-h bonds and c-c bonds!
The most common type of ond formed by carbon is a covallent bond. This is because
carbon typically bonds with elements. Which have a similar electronegativity.
Single bond
Sharing a single pair of e-
Double bond
Triple bond

Hydrocarbon (C-H)


Carboxylic acid

2. How the electrons of carbon are representes in the orbitals

C= 2,8,2

3. If diamond and graphite are made only of carbons, what give them different
Both diamond and graphite are made entirely out of carbon:
a. Diamond: the carbon atoms are arranged tetrahedrallt. It is stronf, rigid three
dimensional structure that result in an infinite network of atoms
b. Graphite: also aranges in an infinite structure, but they are layered. These planar
arrays are held together by weaker force known as stacking interactions

There are 5 reason:

a. Its ability to form long carbon-carbon chains

b. It can bind to each other not only in straight chains, but in complex branching

c. It can do single bonds and also double and triple bonds

d. Same collection of atoms can have different geometrical arrangement

4. What is the difference between intramolecular and intermolecular forces?
Intramolecular is forces that hold atoms together within a molecule
Intrmolecular is forces that exist between molecule
5. What types of intermolecular forces exist between molecules? What is the trend?
a. Dipole-dipole
Electronegativity difference, polarity is implified when
electronegativity difference is large and minized when the difference is
bond length, incresasing bond length, decreases dipole
b. Hydrogen Bonding
The more electronegative the atom attracted to H, the Stronger the bond
c. London Dispersion
Strength depends on the polarizability, the higher the polarizability, the stronger
the attraction
6. Why vapor pressure of substances associated with intermolecular forces?
The stronger the intermolecular forces, the stronger the interactions that hold the
substance at the given T, harder it is to vaporize substance.
If the forces are easy to break, it is easier for a substance to evaporate, therefore the vapor
pressure also increasing.
7. Rank the molecules in order of increasing intermolecular force for C4H10O, H2O,
C4H10O : dipole-dipole & london dispersion
H2O : hydrogen & Dipole-dipole
CH3OH : Hydrogen

C4H10O< CH3OH< H2O

8. Based on the intermolecular forces present in these molecules, what are A, B, C

compounds is the vapor pressure plot below

9. Where is natural gas found mostly? How is natural gas naturally created?
Natural gas is produced widely in the world
Millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals (diatoms) decayed and built up in
thick layers, sometimes mixed with sand and silt. Over time, these layers were buried
under sand, silt, and rock. Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into
coal, some into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas. In some places, the natural gas
moved into large cracks and spaces between layers of overlying rock. In other places,
natural gas occurs in the tiny pores (spaces) within some formations of shale, sandstone,
and other types of sedimentary rock where it is referred to as shale gas or tight gas.
Natural gas also occurs in coal deposits and is called coal bed methane.
10. How LPG is prepared? Does the use of lpg impact on enviroment?
LPG is a mixture of two flammable but non toxic gases which is propane and butane.
However, compare to the other energy source suck as coal or oil, gas release less CO2
than coal and oil
11. What is the difference between natural gas, LPG, and SNG?
Natural gas is the gas that placed o top of crude oil deposits, a mixture of methane
and ethane
LPG is a mixture of propane and butane
SNG is a blend of LPG and diluent.
12. What condition causes the explosion of LPG pressure vessels/cylinder? Whta is the
max pressure that can e held by LPG cylinder?
The bigger the pressure is, the easier it is to explode
13. How do you descrie the ideal gas law and other gas laws? Henrys law and boyles
Ideal gas law is defines as one in which all collisions between atoms or molecules
are perfectly elastic and which there are no intermolecular attractive forces.
Henrys Law, at any constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that
dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the
partial pressure
Boyles law, for fixes amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure
and volume are inversely proportional
14. How many grams of CO2 is dissolved in a 1 L ottle of carbonated water if the
manufacturer uses a pressure of 2,4 atm in the bottling process at 25oc? Kh=29,76 at
V = 1L
P = 2,4 atm
T = 25oc
Kh=29,76 M/atm

C = Kh.P
=71,424 M
n =C.V
Grams = 71,4.44=3141,6 grams

15. It is not safe to put LPG cylinder clodes to acampfire, because the pressure inside
the cylinder gets very high and they can explode. If you have reqular 25L cyinder
that holds 25 moles of, and the T arund campfire is 727oC. Whatis the pressure
inside propane gas?

P=82 Pa

16. You have 20 L cylinder contain butenae gas, and the pressure gauge shows pressure
of 4 bar in 25oC. When the value is open, the gas combine with oxygen in air and
burn with flame. How much L of CO2 produced?

V1 = 20L
T1 = 25C
P1 = 4 bar = 3,94 atm = 4 atm

n1= 3,2 mol

2C4H10+13O2 8CO2 + 10H2O

CO2 n2= 8/2 .3,2 =12,8 mol

V 1 n1
V 2 n2
20 3,2
V 2 12,8
V 2=80 L

IV. References

Historyof carbon. University of Kentucky, 2013

Robert. J, Caserio. M(1977) Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry, second edition.
Benjamin. Inc