# 4/19/2016

Elements Of Power System Engineering
EE 432
Transmission Lines
Line Capacitance & Line Model
Prof. A.M. Gaouda
Electrical Engineering Department
American University of The Middle East (AUM)

19-Apr-16 Dr. Gaouda 1

Transmission Line Capacitance:

The four basic transmission line parameters are resistance,
inductance, capacitance, and conductance. In this section we
discuss the transmission line capacitance.

+q D
The Capacitance between conductors in a medium with -q
ra rb
constant permittivity can be obtained by determining the AM Gaouda
ELEC 472
UAEU 2006
following: Conductor (a) Conductor (b)

E the electric field strength electric
field
magnetic magnetic
field field

V the Potential Difference between the two conductors
Q the magnitude of the charge on a conductor
conductor

Then, the capacitance from a charge per unit volt is defined as:
D
AM Gaouda
Q
C
ELEC 472
…… Eq. 1 UAEU

V r r
C ab
Dr. A.M. Gaouda , 19-Apr-16 2

1

we have the Electric Potential difference is: x D2 D2 V12  D E dx AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 1 Therefore. AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 Gauss’s Law: Gaussian Surface The net electric flux Φ through any closed guassian surface E x is equal to the net charge inside the surface divided by εo. 19-Apr-16 3 q E … Eq. 5.M. qin  E   E . 4 2  o x D1 From Eq. A. 3 o AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 qin E  dA   o 1 m E qin Gaussian Surface E A AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 dA o dA AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 qin E E ( 2 x )  o Dr. Gaouda . A.M. 2. 4/19/2016 Electric Potential Difference between points 1 and 2 is: D2  D1 V12  E dx …… Eq. 2 x D1 D2 The Electric Field E can be computed by utilizing Gauss’s Law. the potential difference between the two conductors is: Due to conductor “a” only: +q D -q q D ra rb Vab( q 1 )  ln 2  o ra Conductor (a) Conductor (b) Dr. Gaouda . 19-Apr-16 4 2 . D2 q V12   2  o x dx D1 q D2 V12  ln …… Eq.d A  …… Eq. 5 2  o D1 Using Eq.

19-Apr-16 If the two-wire line is supplied by a transformer with a D grounded center tap. Gaouda . 6 2  o ra rb The line-to-line capacitance between conductors a and b is: D AM Gaouda q q C ab   ELEC 472 UAEU Vab q D2 r r [ ln ] OR 2  ra rb C ab C ab   o F/m ra  rb  r ln( D / r ) 5 Dr. the Capacitance between one conductor and the grounded neutral point is: r r AM Gaouda 2  o ELEC 472 AM Gaouda C ab UAEU C an  C bn  2C ab  ELEC 472 F/m UAEU ln( D / r ) D EXAMPLE: C an  C bn AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU n 1. Then. A. between the conductors a and b UAEU ELEC 472 Length UAEU 10kM 2.1042 μF ln( D / r ) Dr. 4/19/2016 Due to conductor “b” only: q D q rb Vba ( q 2 )  ln OR Vba ( q 2 )  ln 2  o rb 2  o D The potential difference between conductors a and b is: Vab  Vab( q 1 )  Vab( q 2 )  Vab( q 1 )  Vba ( q 2 ) +q D -q 1 D D Vab  [ q ln  ( q ln ) ] …… Eq.85  10 12 πε o C ab   0.25 m C an C bn Conductor Conductor a b Find the capacitance of the C an * C bn C2 Diameter Diameter single phase circuit: C ab   an C an  C bn 2C an 25 mm 1. A.0521 μF ln( D / r ) 2πε o C an   2C ab  0. between one conductor and the grounded neutral point.213 cm AM Gaouda ELEC 472 AM Gaouda 1. 19-Apr-16 6 3 . Gaouda . 5 ra rb 2πε o ra rb Conductor (a) Conductor (b) q D2 Vab  [ ln ] …… Eq. SOLUTION:  o  8.M.M.

19-Apr-16 7 NOTES Considering all the three charges: 1 D r Vab  Vac  [ 2qa ln  ( qb  qc ) ln ] ( qb  qc ) ln( r / D ) 2  r D (  qa ) ln( r / D ) 3q a D (  qa ) ln( D / r ) Vab  Vac  ln 2  r Vab  3Van30 o Vab  3Van30 o Vbc  3Van  90 o Vac  Vca   3Van150 o  3Van  30 o Vca  3Van150 o Vab  Vac  3Van Vab  Vac  3Van qa C an  F/m 3q a D 3Van  ln Van 2  r qa D Van  AM Gaouda ln D D ELEC 472 2  UAEU r AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU D qa 2  o Cn   F/m Van ln( D / r ) Dr. A. Gaouda . c AM Gaouda Dkj  ELEC 472 q 1 Vij  k ln i  a UAEU 2πε o k 1 Dki j b  AM Gaouda D ELEC 472 D 1 D D D UAEU Vab  [ qa ln ab  qb ln bb  qc ln cb ] 2  Daa Dba Dca D 1 D r D Vab  [ qa ln  qb ln  qc ln ] 2  r D D 1 D r Vab  [ qa ln  qb ln ] qa 2  r D C an  F/m Van In a similar way 1 D D r Vab  Vac  3Van Vac  [ qa ln  qb ln  qc ln ] 2  r D D n Dkj q 1 1 D r Vij  ln Vac  [ qa ln  qc ln 2  o k ] k 1 Dki 2  r D Assuming balanced three-phase system.M. 19-Apr-16 8 4 . Gaouda . A.M. then: qa  qb  qc  0 OR  qa  qb  qc Dr. b . 4/19/2016 Capacitance of Three Phase Systems Equal Spacing: The voltage between conductors a and b is: n k  a .

a Cond. The conductor radius is 1. unbalance conditions are resulted. c Cond. The capacitance per phase per km. 19-Apr-16 10 5 . The capacitive reactance per phase 3. The total charging Mvar. The charging current NOTE 4.2 Cond. a Capacitance of Three Phase Systems Using Bundled Conductors d Dsb  4 ( Ds  d )2  2 Ds  d The resulting capacitance is: d d 2  o Dsb  9 ( Ds  d  d )  3 Ds  d 3 2 d Cn  b F/m ln( Deq / D S ) d d 2d d Dsb  16 ( Ds  d  d  2 d )4  1. 4/19/2016 Capacitance of Three Phase Systems Unequal Spacing When the conductors of a three-phase line are not spaced Phase a equilaterally. Find: 1. Gaouda . A. Gaouda . Balance of the three phases can be restored by exchanging the positions of the Phase Phase conductors at regular intervals along the line (transposition). b ln( Deq / r ) D12 D12 D12 Pos.09 4 Ds  d 3 d Dr. ------- If the structure of the conductor 12m per phase is 6m 6m as shown a b c Use the GMR Dr. b Cond. 6m and 12m. 19-Apr-16 9 EXAMPLE: A 220kV. 2. c b The resulting capacitance is: 2  o Cn  F/m Pos. b D23 Cond.M.81 cm. a Cond.3 Cond. 50Hz. A. c D23 Cond. c D31 Deq  3 Dab Dac Dbc D23 Pos. 200km long 3 phase transposed line has its conductors spaced as 6m.1 Cond.M.

Gaouda . A. The center to center distance between adjacent phases is 12 m and distance between sub-conductors is 45 cm. two sub- conductors per-phase as shown in the Figure.839  10  6 )  73. 12m 2.08485 m NOTE Use r  for L Deq  Dab Dac Dbc  12 * 12 * 24  15.195  10  3 F / phase / km NOTE Cn  Use r  for L ln( Deq / r ) Use r for C C n  200  9. SOLUTION: Deq  3 Dab Dac Dbc  3 6 * 6 * 12  7. The conductor radius is 1. transposed three phase with bundled conductor line. 19-Apr-16 12 6 . A. The capacitance per phase per km. The charging current a b c 4.839 F / phase NOTE 1. Find: 1. 50Hz.6 m 2  o  9.39 Use the GMR Charging Mvar   27.6 cm.119m 3 3 Use r for C 2  o Cn   0. Gaouda . 200kM long 3 phase transposed line has its conductors spaced as 6m. 50Hz.88 / phase ------- X C  1 / C n  2 ( 50 )1.0107 F / km ln( Deq / D bS ) Dr.6  45  8. 6m and 12m. Find the capacitance per phase per km. 19-Apr-16 10 6 11 EXAMPLE: A 400kV.0  1730. D31 D12 D23 a a’ b b’ c c’ d d d SOLUTION: D bS  r  d  1. The capacitive reactance per phase 6m 6m 3.M.M.485cm  0. The radius of each sub-conductor is 1. 4/19/2016 EXAMPLE: A 220kV.81 cm.839  10 6 If the structure of the conductor per phase is as shown 220  10 3 I C  Vn / X C  ( 2 ( 50 )1. The total charging MVAR.96 Mvar Dr.195  10 3  1.39 A / phase 3 3 220  10 3  73.

091 4 r   d 3  0. Gaouda . The inductance per phase.5465 uF Dr.M. phase b and c 5 m. 2. The Capacitance between phase and neutral.0250m Deq  Dab Dac Dbc  6.M. Gaouda . A.0250(0.091 4 r  d 3  0. NOTE Use r  for L Use r for C Dr.0195m Dsb  16 ( Ds  d  d  2d )4  1.1373 mH C = 2. Find: 1. The length of the conductor in kilometer is 150 km and its diameter is 50 mm. The spacing between bundled sub-conductors 45 cm and distance between phase a and b 5 m.2996m 3 r   0. 19-Apr-16 14 7 . 4/19/2016 PROBLEM: For the completely transposed OHTL shown in the Figure.2381m For Capacitance Dsb  16 ( Ds  d  d  2 d )4  1.2237m For Inductance L = 100. A.7788)  0. 19-Apr-16 13 SOLUTION: The length of the conductor in kilometer is l 150 km Diameter of the conductor 50 mm Spacing between bundled sub-conductors 45 cm Distance between phase a and b 5 m Distance between phase b and c 5 m Distance between phase c and a 10 m Deq L  2  10 7 ln H/m DSb 2  o Cn  F/m ln( Deq / D bS ) r  0.

VR  Network  The relation between the sending-end and the receiving-end can be written as: VS  AVR  BI R I S  CVR  DI R 16 Dr. The Short and Medium Transmission Line: It is convenient to represent a transmission line by the two port network. 19-Apr-16 8 . 19-Apr-16 15 Classification of the Transmission Lines: Short Transmission Lines: less than about 80 km (50 mi) long Medium Transmission Lines: between 80 km (50 mi) and 240 km (150 mi) long Long Transmission Lines: longer than 240 km (150 mi) Long TL require calculations in terms of distributed constants if a high degree of accuracy is required. V S and I S are the sending-end voltage and current. A. Where.M. Gaouda . IS IR   VS Two Port V R and I R are the receiving-end voltage and current. Gaouda . although for some purposes a lumped-parameter representation can be used for lines up to 320 km (200 mi) long. A.M. 4/19/2016 Classification of the Transmission Lines: Short Transmission Lines: less than about 80 km (50 mi) long Medium Transmission Lines: between 80 km (50 mi) and 240 km (150 mi) long Long Transmission Lines: longer than 240 km (150 mi) IS IR  Z  zl  ( R  jL )l  VS VR   AM Gaouda lumped-parameter ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 Short Transmission Lines AM Gaouda ELEC 472 IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR IS UAEU 2006 I ( x  x ) z x I( x ) IR      Y Y  Vs V ( x  x ) y x V( x ) Vr AM Gaouda     VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR  2 2  x x xl Nominal pi-circuit distributed constants AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 Medium Transmission Lines Long Transmission Lines Dr.

  AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 Dr.C and D are parameters depends on the I S  CVR  DI R transmission line constants (R. C and G). the resulting dissymmetry is slight and the phases are considered to be balanced. NOTE V S   A B  V R       I  C D   I   S    R VS  AVR  BI R Where A. L. 19-Apr-16 18 9 . the following symbols are adopted: z is the series impedance per unit length per phase y is the shunt admittance per unit length per phase to neutral l is the length of line Z is the total series impedance per phase Z  zl Y is the total shunt admittance per phase to neutral Y  yl IS IR Recall that the conductance is ignored. A & D dimensionless ABCD Parameters for a Short Transmission Line B in Ohms C in Siemens The equivalent circuit of a short transmission line is shown AD  BC  1 in Figure. the ABCD parameters   for a short TL are easily obtained by writing KVL and KCL VS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l VR   equations.B. transmission lines are operated with balanced three-phase loads. A. Gaouda . Gaouda .M. AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VS   A B VR  VS  1 Z VR            A  D  1 pu             BZ   I S  C D   I R   I S  0 1   I R  C 0 Dr.M. Although the lines are not spaced equilaterally and not transposed.  Z  zl  ( R  jL )l  VS VR I S and I R are the positive sequence line currents. 19-Apr-16 17 NOTES: Normally. A. The circuit is solved as a simple series ac circuit and the shunt element is ignored. V S and V R are the positive sequence line–to- IS IR neutral voltage for a three-phase completely transposed circuit. 4/19/2016 Or in a matrix format. In order to distinguish between the total series impedance of a line and the series impedance per unit length.

A. Gaouda . 19-Apr-16 19 Or in a matrix format. The current in the series branch is: Y I R  VR 2 IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR Using KVL:  Y Y  Y VS AM Gaouda VS  VR  Z ( I R  VR ) ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR  2 2  2 ZY Nominal pi-circuit VS  ( 1  )VR  ZI R 2 VS  AVR  BI R NOTE Using KCL: Y Y VS  AVR  BI R IS  VS  ( I R  VR ) 2 2 I S  CVR  DI R Substituting for VS Y ZY Y IS  [( 1  )VR  ZI R ]  ( I R  VR ) 2 2 2 ZY ZY IS  Y(1 )VR  ( 1  )I R I  CV  DI 4 2 S R R Dr.M. Gaouda .  ZY  V R  (1 ) Z V S   A B  V R   2             I  C D   I       S    R  Y ( 1  ZY ) ( 1  ZY ) I   4 2   R IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR ZY A  D  (1 ) pu  Y AM Gaouda Y  2 VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR  2 2  BZ  Nominal pi-circuit ZY C  Y(1 ) S VS  AVR  BI R 4 I S  CVR  DI R NOTE: IS IR VS  AVR  BI R A  D  1 pu The ABCD parameters for BZ   VS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l  VR a short TL are: I S  CVR  DI R C 0  AM Gaouda AM Gaouda  ELEC 472 ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 UAEU 2006 Dr. 19-Apr-16 20 10 . A. 4/19/2016 ABCD Parameters for a Medium Transmission Line The equivalent circuit of a Medium transmission line is presented by Nominal pi-circuit as shown in Figure.M.

  VS  VR  I R ( R  jX L ) VS IR IRXL VS VS IRXL AM Gaouda IRXL AM Gaouda VR IRR ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 IRR IR IR VR IRR VR Lagging power factor Unity power factor Leading power factor Dr. 4/19/2016 ABCD Parameters of Common Networks: IS Z IR 1 Z   VS AM Gaouda ELEC 472 VR   0 1  UAEU 2006    IS IR 1 0     Y 1 AM Gaouda VS Y ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR    IS Z1 Z2 IR ( 1  YZ1 ) ( Z 1  Z 2  YZ1 Z 2 )       AM Gaouda VS Y ELEC 472  UAEU 2006 VR   Y ( 1  YZ2 )  IS IR Z  ( 1  ZY2 ) Z   Y1 AM Gaouda Y2    VS ( Y  Y  ZY Y ) ( 1  ZY ) ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR    1 2 1 2 1  Dr. A. | VRNL |  | VRFL | VR%   100 | VRFL | The effect of the variation of the power factor IS R XL IR of the load on the sending-end and receiving end voltage for a short transmission line is  AM Gaouda  VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR shown in the Figure.M. Voltage regulation is the change in the voltage at the receiving end of the line when the load varies from no-load to full-load condition at a specified power factor. Gaouda . A.M. Gaouda . while the sending end voltage held constant. 19-Apr-16 21 Voltage Regulation of TL The ABCD TL parameters can be used to describe the variation of the line voltage with line loading. 19-Apr-16 22 11 .

9 ) neutral voltage for a three- 3 88  10 ( 0. A.5  10 6 IR    cos  1 ( 0. 50Hz overhead transmission line (OHTL) has a resistance of 48.9 ) 3 phase completely transposed circuit.2 ohms per phase and capacitance line to neutral of 8.7 ohm per phase. 19-Apr-16 24 12 . A. Z G G I 12 • The magnitude of sending-end voltage.5MW at a voltage of 88kV and 0. Gaouda .2  Y Y  Z  93. 4/19/2016 Example A 200km long 3 phase.42  10  9  200  10 3 ) V S   ( 1  ZY ) Z  V R        Y  529  10  6 90 o Siemens 2             I  Y ( 1  ZY ZY ) (1 ) I   S   4 2   R ZY VS  ( 1  )VR  ZI R 2 NOTE 88  10 3 VR   508080 o 3 V S and V R are the positive sequence line–to- 13.M.73 o  AM Gaouda VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR  2 2  Y  1 / X C  1 /( 1 / jCl ) Y  jCl  2 ( 50 )( 8. 19-Apr-16 23 SOLUTION: IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR Z  zl  ( R  jL )l  48. Using the nominal PI-Circuit model determine: VS  V1 S R  R VV 2 T. Gaouda .8358.41  25. • Power angle or Load angle IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR • The sending end Current  Y AM Gaouda Y  VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR • Voltage regulation  2 2  V S   ( 1  ZY ) Z  V R     2                I  Y ( 1  ZY ZY ) (1 ) I   S   4 2   R Dr.84 Dr.7  j 80. I R  98.M. The OHTL supplies a load of 13. inductive reactance of 80.L.9 lagging power factor.42 nF per km.

8358.63 o  57484. V S   ( 1  ZY ) Z  V R  ZY    2    VS  ( 1  )VR  ZI R             I  Y ( 1  ZY ZY 2 ) (1 ) I   S   4 2   R ( 93.73 )( 529  10 6 90 ) I S  529  10  6 90( 1  )( 508080 ) 4 6 ( 93.73 )( 98. Z P12  sin(  1   2 ) G G |X| I 12 If the load angle   1   2  0 IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR P12 flows from bus 1 to bus 2  Y AM Gaouda Y  VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR  2 2  The load angle    S   R  5.73 )( 529  10 90 )  (1 )( 98.92  j 5669.41  25. 4/19/2016 The magnitude of sending-end voltage.41  25.84 ) 2 I S  87.8358.M. A.8358. 19-Apr-16 25 The sending end Current ZY ZY IS  Y(1 )VR  ( 1  )I R 4 2 ( 93. VS  3 ( 57763 )  100.M.05 kV The Power angle OR Load angle is: Reminder Note VS  V1 S R  R VV 2 | V1 || V2 | T. Gaouda .03  j 14.84        I  Y ( 1  ZY ZY ) (1 ) I   S   4 2   R Dr.19  9. A.73 )( 529  10 6 90 ) VS  ( 1  )( 508080 )  ( 93.L. 19-Apr-16 26 13 .29 o IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR VS  V1 S R  R VV 2  Y Y  T.64 V (line-to-Neutral) The magnitude of sending-end voltage (line-to-line).84 ) 2 VS  577635.63 o Dr.L.41  25. Gaouda . VS AM Gaouda ELEC 472 VR Z  2 UAEU 2006 2  G G I 12 V S   ( 1  ZY ) Z  V R        2      I R  98.8358.63  0  5.24  88.

Gaouda .14% 50808 Received at Full load Dr.0129 | 88  10 3 VR   508080 o 59009. Gaouda . For the circuit shown in the Figure. AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 IS I ( x  x ) z x I( x ) IR     Vs V ( x  x ) y x V( x ) Vr     x x xl AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 V ( x and ) are the phasor voltage and current at location x. The lumped circuit is only considered for an elemental section of the length. A. A. x is the distance form the receiving end to the sending end and z and y are the series impedance and shunt admittance per unit length.4V 4 2 | 0.M.4  50808 3 VR%   100  16.9788  j 0.M. I( x ) Dr. 19-Apr-16 28 14 . 4/19/2016 The Voltage Regulation % | VRNL |  | VRFL | VR%   100 | VRFL | AT NO-LOAD: IR  0 IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR ZY VS  ( 1  )V R  0  Y AM Gaouda Y  2 VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR  2 2  | VS | | V RNL | ZY V S   ( 1  ZY )  V R  |1 |    2 Z    2             I  Y ( 1  ZY ZY ) (1 ) I  | 57763 |  S     R | V RNL |  59009. 19-Apr-16 27 ABCD Parameters for a Long Transmission Line The validity of lumped circuit analysis fails for a long transmission line.

M. A. A. Gaouda . Gaouda . 19-Apr-16 29 Transmission Line Parameters . Z’ and Y’ are used:  Y  VS AM Gaouda ELEC 472 Y UAEU 2006 VR  2 2   Z Y   V R  (1 Z Z Y  ) V S   2    A  D  1  cosh(  l )      I      2  S  Y ( 1  Z Y  ) ( 1  Z Y  ) I   4 2   R sinh(  l ) B  Z   Z C sinh(  l )  Z l Nominal PI-Circuit Y Z  IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR C  Y ( 1  ) 4  Y AM Gaouda Y  VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR l l  2 2  tanh( ) tanh( ) Y 2  Y 2  2 ZC 2 l  V S   ( 1  ZY ) Z   V R     2   2           I   ZY ZY  S  Y(1 ) (1 ) I   4 2   R Dr. 19-Apr-16 30 15 .Summary: Parameters A=D B C Short TL 1 0 Z ZY ZY Medium TL (1 ) Z Y(1 ) 2 4 Z Y  1 Y Z  Long TL 2 Z   Z C sinh(  l ) Y ( 1  )  cosh(  l ) 1 4  sinh(  l ) ZC AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 IR IS Z  zl  ( R  jL )l IR IS I ( x  x ) z x I( x ) IR IS      Z  zl  ( R  jL )l   Y AM Gaouda Y  Vs  V ( x  x )  y x V( x )  Vr  VS VR VS ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 VR    x 2 2  x xl AM Gaouda ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 AM Gaouda Nominal pi-circuit ELEC 472 UAEU 2006 Short Transmission Lines Long Transmission Lines Medium Transmission Lines Dr.M. 4/19/2016 The Equivalent PI-Circuit: Equivalent PI-Circuit The Equivalent PI-Circuit is similar to the IS Z IR Nominal PI-Circuit however.