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# Sag-tension Calculations

A Tutorial Developed for the IEEE
TP&C Line Design Subcommittee
Based on a CIGRE WG B2.12 Technical
Brochure under Development
Dale Douglass June, 2005

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial

CIGRE & IEEE Websites
• CIGRE WG B2.12 – Electrical Effects in Lines
http://www.geocities.com/wg_12/index.htm
– Technical Brochure 244 – Conductors for Uprating of
Existing Lines
– Probabilistic Ratings & Joints
• IEEE Towers Poles & Conductors
http://www.geocities.com/ieee_tpc/index.htm
– IEEE Standard 738 – 1993
– Panel Sessions Jan 28 (Las Vegas) June 4 (SF)

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial

Sag-tension Envelope
Span Length

Initial Installed Sag @15C

Sag @ Max Electrical

Minimum Electrical
Clearance
GROUND LEVEL

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

xls 60 55 ? 50 45 40 Tcdr_measured is deg C much higher than 35 predicted with alumoweld model (H- 30 based) or weather based model for these Tcdr (IEEE) 3 points.AW eq1 15 Tcdr (H) . Why? 25 Tcdr (meas) 20 Tcdr (H) .AW eq2 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 measurement number June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . 1997 data_during_tempmeas. A Bit of Perspective 10C-15C Uncertainty IPC measurements.

Some Questions • Why can we do calculations for a single span and use for an entire line section? • How are initial and final conditions defined? • Why not run the maximum tension to 60% as the NESC Code allows? • Why do I see negative tensions (compression) in aluminum at high temperature? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary Curve • HyperbolicFunctions & Parabolas • Sag vs weight & tension • Length between supports • What is Slack? • What if the span isn’t level? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary – Level Span ⎡ ⎛ w⋅ x ⎞ ⎤ w ⋅ x2 ⎟ − 1⎥ ≅ H y ( x) = ⋅ ⎢cosh⎜ w ⎣ ⎝ H ⎠ ⎦ 2⋅ H H ⎧ ⎛ w⋅ S ⎞ ⎫ w⋅ S 2 D= ⋅ ⎨cosh⎜ ⎟ − 1⎬ ≅ w ⎩ ⎝ 2⋅ H ⎠ ⎭ 8⋅ H ⎛ 2H ⎞ ⎛ Sw ⎞ ⎛ S 2 2 w ⎞ L = ⎜ ⎟ sinh ⎜ ⎟ ≅ S ⎜⎜ 1 + ⎟⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ 2H ⎠ ⎝ 24 H 2 ⎠ June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

094 * 600 ⎞ L= sinh⎜ ⎟ = 600.500 lbs Rated Breaking Strength .094 lbs/ft Bare Weight .600 ft span 6300 ⎡ ⎛ 1.094 ⋅ 600 ⎞⎤ D= ⎢ cosh⎜ ⎟⎥ = 7.094 ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⋅ 6300 ⎠⎦ 2 * 6300 ⎛ 1. Catenary Sample Calcs for Drake ACSR .963 m) 1.1.31.272 ft (182.094 ⎝ 2 * 6300 ⎠ June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .387 m) 1.831 ft (2.

Catenary Calculations What Happens when the weight of the conductor changes June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Ice & Wind Loading • Radial ice (Quebec) • Wind Pressure (Florida) • Wind & Ice Combined (Illinois) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

30 0. NESC Loading District Heavy Medium Light Extreme wind loading Radial thickness of ice 0.50 0.5 6.0 to be added to 4.25 0 (in) 12.5 0 0 (mm) 0 Horizontal wind pressure 4 4 9 See Fig 2-4 (lb/ft2) 190 190 430 (Pa) Temperature 0 +15 +30 +60 (oF) -20 -10 -1 +15 (oC) NESC safety factors 0.0 the resultant (lb/ft) (N/m) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .70 0.50 0.05 0.40 2.20 0.

wbare + wice Conductor in lb/ft lb/ft wbare #1/0 AWG -6/1 0. wbare.845 2.272 1.398 0.559 4. wice.858 0.244t ( D c + t ) ACSR Dc.3 “Hawk” 1590 kcmil-54/19 1.6 “Falcon" June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .044 1. Iced Conductor Weight wice = 1.6570 0.1452 0.545 2.8 “Raven” 477 kcmil-26/7 0.

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .60 lb/ft • Tension increases by a factor of 3.0*(1.244*1.094 + 1.0) = 3. What happens when the conductor weight changes? • Bare weight of Drake ACSR is 1.094 lb/ft • Iced weight is: – 1.6 unless the length of the conductor changes.108+1.

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

Conductor tension limits • Avoiding tension failure (Safety factor) • Limiting vibration (H/w. %RBS) • Designing with less sag June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

7 44.6 14.4 53.8 8. Tension Limits and Sag Tension at 15C Tension at max Tension at max Initial Sag at Final Sag at unloaded initial ice and wind ice and wind 100C .4 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .0 20 38.0 7.6 15 31.6 14.0 9.4 10.%RTS load .4 25 43.9 11.meters 100C .kN 10 22.8 9.meters .%RTS load .5 61.6 31.

Conductor Elongation • Elastic elongation (springs) • Settlement & Short-term creep (before sagging) • Thermal elongation • Long term creep (After sagging. over the life of the line) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Conductor Elongation Long-time Settlement Elastic Creep Thermal Strain Strain &1-hr Strain Manufactured Length creep Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Annealed Copper Hard-Drawn 1350-H19 Steel Core Standard Copper Wire Aluminum Wire Wire Conductivity.4 Linear Expansion 10-6 per oF June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . 100.00 97.8 6. Thermal Elongation International Commercial Standard Galv.4 12.0 % IACS @ 20oC Coefficient of 9.00 61.4 9.2 8.

000 50% RBS [MPa] 20.200 0.000 Modulus 35.400 0. Courtesy of Southwire Corp.100 0.000 Initial 70% RBS 200 Modulus Stress 25.000 100 30% RBS 10.000 0 0.350 0.450 % %Strain Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . Stress-Strain Test 45.000 30.000 15.000 Final Modulus 5.150 0.050 0.000 0.250 0.000 300 One Hour 40.300 0.

05 0 0. Stress-strain & creep elongation curves for 37 strand A1 conductor 140000 120000 Initial "1-hour" Aluminum 70% RBS 100000 Linear Modulus 80000 Stress.kPa 50% RBS 12 mo Final Alum after 60000 creep load to 122 MPa 6 mo creep 30% RBS 40000 10 yr creep 20000 0 -0.25 0.4 0.45 Percent Elongation June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .15 0.35 0.3 0.1 0.05 0.2 0.

Conductor Elongation • Elastic elongation (reversible) • Settlement & Short-term creep (permanent) • Thermal elongation (reversible) • Long term creep (permanent after years or high loads) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

30 0.15 0.40 0. 100 80 % of Tensile Strength Plastic Elong at High Tension 60 Creep for 1 year 40 Initial Settlement 20 0 0.45 0.20 0.25 0.05 0.10 0.35 0.50 % Increase in Length June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

What is a ruling span? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Pivot Attachment Point Tilt Angle Tension equalization T at suspension points. Winsul The basis of the Insulator Length. Hspan1 Hspan2 Wspan1 Wspan2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . Li ruling span concept.

.+ S n RS = S1 + S 2 + ..+ S n 3 3 3 600 + 900 + 600 RS = = 745 ft 600 + 900 + 600 • Based on Tension equalization • Used for Stringing sags • Sag = (w/8H)*S2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .... The “Ruling Span” 3 3 3 S 1 + S 2 + ..

• Maximum tension so that structures can be designed to withstand it. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . • H/w during “coldest month” to limit aeolian vibration. • Minimum sag to control structure uplift problems. Sag-tension Calculations - Deliverables • Maximum sag so that clearance to ground and other conductors can be maintained.

Summary of Some Key Points • Tension equalization between suspension spans allows use of the ruling span • Initial and final conditions occur at sagging and after high loads and multiple years • For large conductors. max tension is typically below 60% in order to limit wind vibration & uplift • Negative tensions (compression) in aluminum occur at high temperature for ACSR because of the 2:1 diff in thermal elongation between alum & steel June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

C. 3. 1927 • Winkelman.B.. IEEE Trans. Tampa. • Barrett. “Computing tensions in transmission lines”. Pittsburg. pp 485-493 • Electrical Technical Committee of the Aluminum Association.84. 3. Feb. AIEE Paper 59-900. 1924 • Aluminum Association. “A Method of Stress-Strain Testing of Aluminum Conductor and ACSR” and “A Test Method for Determining the Long Time Tensile Creep of Aluminum Conductors in Overhead Lines”. PAS-100. A New Computer Model of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors.. 1999. No.” Published 7/15/74. Characteristics of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors as High Temperatures and Stresses. “Some Effects of Mill Practice on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of ACSR”.F. and Nigol. 380-386. Electrical World.”. No. E. “Limitations of the Ruling Span Method for Overhead Line Conductors at High Operating Temperatures”. JR and Larson RE. Report of IEEE WG on Thermal Aspects of Conductors. • Varney T. Vol. pp 614-621. 3.. IEEE Trans. P. DC 20006. pp. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . PAS-89. Use of Elevated Temperature Creep Data in Sag-Tension Calculations. 1998 • Thayer. Feb. ECH-56" • Southwire Company "Overhead Conductor Manual“ • Barrett. January. Washington. Vol. JS. no.. 1998. No. Vol. March 1970 • Rawlins.2. March 1983. IEEE WPM 1998.. FL.S. “Stress-Strain-Creep Curves for Aluminum Overhead Electrical Conductors. FL. USA. O.. 2. Tampa. PAS-102. • IEEE Working Group. IEEE Trans. “Graphic Method for Sag Tension Calculations for A1/S1A (ACSR) and Other Conductors.. Dutta S. June 1959. General Sag-Ten References • Aluminum Association Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook Publication No. July 12. and Nigol.. Vol. February 1981. IEEE WPM 1998.. • Harvey. JS. “Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of Bonneville Power Administration. O. The aluminum Association.. Aluminum Company of America.

The End A Sag-tension Tutorial Prepared for the IEEE TP&C Subcommittee by Dale Douglass June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .