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Types of Research

DANILO V. ROGAYAN JR.


Kinds and classifications of research

• Researches are classified according to the


following criteria:
– According to Purpose
– According to Goal
– According to the Level of Investigations
– According to the Types of Analysis
– According to Scope
– According to Choice of Answers to Problems
– According to Statistical Content
– According to Time Allotment
– According to the Types and Kinds of Research
According to Purpose

• Predictive/Prognostic. This research


determines the future operation of the
variables
• Directive. This kind determines what
should be done based on the findings.
• Illuminative. This type of research is
concerned with interaction of the
components of the variables.
According to Goal

• Fundamental or basic research. This


type of research aims to develop theories
and often leads to knowledge for
knowledge’ sake. It is often carried on in a
laboratory or some other sterile
environment. It has no immediate or
planned application and may later result to
further research of an applied nature.
According to Goal

• Applied research. Its purpose is


improving a product or a process—testing
theoretical concepts in actual problem
situations. Most educational research is
applied research, for its attempts to
develop generalizations about teaching-
learning processes, instructional materials,
the behavior of children and ways to
modify it and so on.
According to Goal

• Action research. Its emphasis is on a


problem here and now in a local setting.
Its findings are to be evaluated in terms of
local applicability, not universal validity.
According to the Level of Investigations

• Exploratory. This study of variables


pertinent to a specific situation.
• Descriptive. This study of the relationship
of variables.
• Experimental. This type of research
studies the effects of variables on each
other.
According to the Types of Analysis

• Analytic Approach - identification and


isolation of components of a research
situation.
• Holistic Approach – beginning with the
total situation, focusing on the system and
its internal relationships
Types of Research

QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH RSESEARCH
1. Case Study 1. Descriptive Research
2. Grounded Theory = Factor-isolating
Research 2. Correlational Research
3. Phenominological = Factor-relating
Research 3. Quasi-experimental
4. Ethnography Research Research
= Situation-relating
5. Historical
4. Experimental Research
= Situation-producing
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

- presents non-quantitative type of analysis


- the nature of this type of research is
exploratory and open ended
- it refers to meanings, definitions,
characteristics, symbols, metaphors
and description of things.
- It is more SUBJECTIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Qualitative Research is a journey of discovery
into the reality (researcher is the
instrument) in its natural setting, equipped
with different tools (data collection methods,
data analysis procedures etc), guided by
philosophical orientations (post-positivism,
constructivism, interpretivism etc), in order
to answer questions that its essence
cannot be or is difficult to be represented
numerically.
- Dr. Fukofuka, 2012
1. Case Study
• Studies and individual or small group of
individuals with an unusual condition or
situation
• Case studies are typically clinical in scope
• Examples:
– Clinical studies on psychological
– behavior of patients
– Suicide tendencies
2. Grounded Theory Research
is a research approach designed to discover what
problems exist in a given social environment and how
the persons involved handle them; it involves
formulation, testing, and reformulation of propositions
until a theory is developed.
2. Grounded Theory Research
• A research method that operates almost in a
reverse fashion from traditional research abd
appears to contradict scientific method.
• Four Stages
1. Codes – identifying factors that allow the key
points of the data to be gathered
2. Concepts – collections of codes of similar
content that allows the data to be grouped
3. Categories – broad groups of similar concepts
that are used to generate a theory
4. Theories – collection of explanations that explain
the subject of the research
3. Phenomenological Research
• Describes the structures of experience as
they present themselves to consciousness,
without recourse to theory, deduction, or
assumptions from other disciplines
• Its aim is to describe an experience as it is
actually lived by the person
• Concerned with the study of experience from
the perspective of the individual, ‘bracketing’
taken-for-granted assumptions and usual
ways of perceiving.
4. Ethnography Research
• refers to the investigation of a culture
• it involves the systematic collection,
description, and analysis of data for
development of theories of cultural behavior.
• It studies people, ethnic groups and
formations, resettlement, social welfare
characteristics and culture.
• Data collection is often done through
participant observation, interviews,
questionnaires, etc.
5. Historical Research
• is research involving analysis of events that
occurred in the remote or recent past
• The systematic collection and objective
evaluation of data related to past occurrences
in order to test hypotheses concerning
causes, effects or trends of these events that
may help to explain present events and
anticipate future events.
• Example: the lending pattern of business in
the 19th century.
4. Historical Research
• Example: the lending pattern of business
in the 19th century.
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

- The research is based on numeric figures


or numbers
- Aim to measure the quantity or amount
and comparesit with past records and tries
to project for future period.
- The process of measurement is its main
central; statistical methods are widely
used
- It is more OBJECTIVE
1. Descriptive Research
• Refers to research that provides an
accurate potrayal of characteristics of a
particular individual, situation, or group.
• Deals with everything that can be counted
and studied, which has an impact on the
lives of the people it deals with.
• Discovers meaning, describing what
exists, the frequency with which something
occurs, and categorizing information.
2. Correlational Research
• Refers to the systematic investigation or
statistical study of relationships among two
or more variables, without necessarily
determining cause and effect.
• It seeks to establish a relation/
association/ correlation that do not readily
lend themselves to experimental
manipulation.
3. Quasi-experimental Research
• Situation – relating
• Comparing a group that gets a particular
intervention with another group that is
similar in characteristics but did not
receive the intervention—no random
assignment used
4. Experimental Research
• is an objective, systematic, controlled
investigation for the purpose of predicting and
controlling phenomena and examining
probability and causality among selected
variables.
• Tests the way in which an independent
variable (the factor that the scientists
manipulates) affects the dependent variable
(the factor that the scientists observes).
References
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PCARRD, Los Banos., Laguna
• Belmont Report. 1979. Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research.
Washington
• Best, J.W. and J.V. Kahn.1989. Research In Education. 6th Edition.New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
• Calderon, J.F. and E.C. Gonzales. 1993. Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. Manila: Great Books Trading
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Rex Books Store.
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• Espiritu, J.A. 2014. Research Methodology. Unpublished Manual.
• Fraenkel, J. and N. Wallen. 2007. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, 6th Edition. New York,
USA: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
• Gregorio, G.L. 2000. Research Methods and Technical Writing in Agriculture. Manila: Rex Printing Company.
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Laguna, Philippines: UPLB.
• Mcmillan J. and Schumacher. 1993. Research in Education – A Conceptual Introduction. New York, USA:
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• Sanchez, C.A. 1986. Methods and Techniques of Research. Manila: Rex Bookstore.
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Maraming salamat! That in all
things God may be glorified!