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EEET6775C Arun kumar

Battery Research Activity 3301872

1. What is a Primary Cell?

A primary cell is any kind of battery in which the electrochemical reaction is not
reversible. A common example of a primary cell is the disposable battery. Unlike a
secondary cell, the reaction cannot be reversed by running a current into the cell; the
chemical reactants cannot be restored to their initial position and capacity. Primary
batteries use up the materials in one or both of their electrodes.

2. What is a Secondary Cell?

A rechargeable battery or storage battery is a group of one or more

electrochemical cells. They are known as secondary cells because their
electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in
many different shapes and sizes, ranging anything from a button cell to megawatt
systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network. Several different
combinations of chemicals are commonly used, including: lead-acid, nickel cadmium
(NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion polymer
(Li-ion polymer).

3. What are the two names we give to the battery electrodes in a lead-acid

One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively
charged ions) migrate, i.e., the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to
which cations (positively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the cathode or positive electrode.
The lead acid cell can be demonstrated using sheet lead plates for the two electrodes.
Each plate consists of a rectangular lead grid alloyed with antimony or calcium to
improve the mechanical characteristics. At this stage the positive and negative plates
are similar. The positive plates are the chocolate brown color of Lead(IV) Oxide, and
the negative are the slate gray of 'spongy' lead at the time of manufacture.

4. What do we call the liquid that provides the electrical path for a lead-acid

A wet cell battery has a liquid electrolyte. In chemistry, an electrolyte is any

substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive. The
most typical electrolyte is an ionic solution, but molten electrolytes and solid
electrolytes are also possible.

5. What is the chemical constitution of the electrolyte for a lead-acid


each cell contains electrodes of elemental lead (Pb) and lead(IV) oxide (PbO2) in an
electrolyte of approximately 33.5% v/v (4.2 Molar) sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
In the discharged state both electrodes turn into lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4) and the
electrolyte loses its dissolved sulfuric acid and becomes primarily water.

6. What are the plates made of in a lead-acid battery?

. The positive plates are the chocolate brown color of Lead(IV) Oxide, and the
negative are the slate gray of 'spongy' lead at the time of manufacture.

7. If I connect 6 car batteries in series, what voltage will I have? Draw


8. If I connect 6 car batteries in parallel, what voltage will I have? What

current will be available? Draw Diagram
9. What does the acronym CCA stand for? What does it mean and why is it
important when selecting the right battery for a vehicle?

CCA is critical for good cranking ability. It's the number of amps a battery can
support for 30 seconds at a temperature of 0 degrees F until the battery voltage drops
to unusable levels. A 12V battery with a rating of 600 CCA means the battery will
provide 600 amps for 30 seconds at 0 degrees before the voltage falls to 7.20 V (six

RC helps to power your vehicle's electrical system if the alternator fails. It indicates
the battery's "staying power" -- how many minutes the battery can supply ample
power without falling below the minimum voltage needed to run your vehicle.

In general for both CCA and RC, the higher the number the better. HOWEVER, if
you live in a cold climate, the CCA rating should be an important consideration in
choosing a battery. Conversely, if you live in a high heat climate, you don't need as
much CCA.

If you're looking for a deep cycle battery for marine or RV use, you must consider:
• The type of equipment to be powered
• The current (amps) needed to run the equipment
• The number of hours you'll be using the equipment

10. List some safety precautions when working with a lead-acid battery?

• Wear proper clothing to protect your face, hands and body.

• Make sure your work area is well-ventilated.
• Never lean over the battery while boosting, testing or charging.
• Keep all ignition sources away from the battery. Cigarettes, flames or sparks
could cause a battery to explode.
• Always shield eyes and face from battery.
• Do not charge or use booster cables or adjust post connections without proper
instructions and training.
• In the event of an accident, flush with water and call a physician immediately.