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In this compendium, we have also incorporated: • • • CBSE Blue Print: Type of questions asked and the weightage of different forms of questions. Analysis of Previous Years CBSE questions: The topic wise analysis of previous years question along with the marks allocated. We are confident that this Compendium will prove very helpful in achieving excellent result in your exams. All the very best for your exams! Vidyamandir Classes Academic Team Compendium/Chemistry/Class XII 1
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The Solid State
About The Solid State
Matter exists in nature in four states namely solid, liquid, gas and plasma. All these states differ from each other in attractive forces, and arrangement of particles. This chapter looks at solid state in detail.

Solids are of two types as given in the following table with their properties:


Crystalline Solids

Amorphous Solids

1. Shape




Irregular shape

geometrical shape 2. Melting point Have sharp and characteristic temperature Soften over a range of


3. Cleavage property

On cutting with a sharp edge tool, these cut into two pieces having smooth surfaces and plain

On cutting with a sharp edge tool, these cut into two pieces with irregular surfaces

4. Anisotropy 5. Nature

Isotropic in nature True solids

Anisotropic in nature Pseudo solids or supercooled liquids

6. Order in arrangement of constituent particles

Long range order

Short range order

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Crystalline solids can be further classified into four categories.
Type of solid Non polar Examples Ar, CCl4 Molecular solids Polar HCl, SO2, HBr Hydrogen bonded H2O (ice) NaCl, CsCl, MgO, ZnS, CaF2 Constituent particles Bonding forces Weak dispersion forces Physical nature Soft Dipoledipole interaction Soft Hard Hard but brittle Melting point Electrical conductivity Very low Insulator Low Insulator Low Insulator High Insulator in solid state but conductors in molten state or aqueous solutions Graphite (exception) is conductor Hard but malleable and ductile Fairly high Conductors Very high Insulators Hard, graphite is soft Hydrogen bonds Coulombic Molecules Molecules Molecules Ions Positive ions in sea of delocalized Metallic bonding Covalent bonding Fe, Cu, Ag, Mg SiO2 (quartz), SiC, C (diamond), AlN, C(graphite) Atoms Ionic solids Metallic solids Covalent or network solids

Crystal Lattices The constituent particles (atoms, ions or molecules) of a crystal are arranged in a definite and regular order in space. The relative positions of such particles in a crystal are shown by points. The arrangement of these points in a crystal is called space lattice. The seven crystal systems form the 14 possible Bravais lattices listed in the following table:
Crystal System Cubic Tetragonal Orthorhombic Monoclinic Rhombohedra Triclinic Hexagonal Types of Lattices Simple, Face centred, Body centred Simple, Body centred Simple, Face centred, Body centred, End Centred Simple, End Centred Simple Simple Simple

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The seven crystal systems form the following Bravais lattices according to the arrangement of the points in the different unit cells involved.
Crystal system Possible variation Cubic Primitive, Body-centred, Face-centred Tetragonal Orthorhombic Primitive, Body-centred Primitive, Body-centred, Face-centred, End-centered Hexagonal Rhombohedral or Trigonal Monoclinic Triclinic Primitive, Endcentered Primitive abc α  β  γ  90° abc α = γ = 90°, β 120°, Primitive Primitive a=bc a=b=c α = β = 90°, γ = 120° α = β = γ 90° Graphite, ZnO, CdS, PbI2 Calcite (CaCO3), quartz NaNO3, HgS (Cinnabar) Monoclinic sulphur, Na2SO4 .10H2O CuSO4.5H 2O, K2Cr2O7, H3BO3 abc α = β = γ = 90° Rhombic sulphur, KNO3, K2SO4, BaSO4, PbCO3 a=bc α = β = γ = 90° White tin, SnO2, TiO2, CaSO4 Axial distances or edge lengths a=b=c α = β = γ = 90° NaCl, KCl, Diamond, Zinc blende (ZnS), Cu, Ag Axial angles Examples

Figures of 14 Bravais lattices associated with the seven crystal systems are:

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Body-centred unit cell

No. of atoms in unit cell  1  8+1  2 8

Atoms are present at eight corners (one atom shared between eight cubes) and one (not shared with any) atom is present at the centre

Face-centred unit cell

No. of atoms in unit cell 1 1 =  8+6   4 8 2

of the cube.

Atoms are present at eight corners (one atom shared between eight

End-centred unit cells

cubes) and six atoms (each shared between two cubes) present on the six faces of the cube.

In solids the constituent particles are close-packed, leaving minimum vacant space. Close packings are of following types: (i) Close Packing in One Dimension: the spheres representing particles touch each other in a row, the coordination number is 2.


Close Packing in Two Dimensions: Square close packing: Can be generated by placing together the rows of close packed spheres (Arrangement 1). Hexagonal close packing: Generated by placing the second row on the depression between the spheres of first row (Arrangement II).

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(iii) Close Packing in Three Dimensions:

V o i ds: The empty spaces between atoms in a crystal are called voids. Voids are of three types: tetrahedral, octahedral and trigonal voids.

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Calculations involving unit cell dimensions
Density of anunit cell  Mass of unit cell Volume of unit cell zM 3N a A

or d 

where, z = number of atoms in unit cell M = Molar mass NA = Avogadro constant a3 = Volume of unit cell


Types of Defects



Vacancy defect

Some lattices are vacant

Point defects

Stoichiometric defects Interstitial defect Constituent particles occupy an interstitial site

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Frenkel defect, also called dislocation defect

A vacancy defect at original site and interstitial defect at new location, ZnS, AgCl, AgBr, AgI

Stoichiometric defects This defect has Schottky defect equal number of cations and anions NaCL, CsCl, KCl, AgBr

Impurity Point defects Impurity defects occupies the sites of a crystal

SrCl2 in NaCl, solid solution of CdCl2 and AgCl

Due to the Metal excess presence of defect Non stoichiometric defects Have less amount of metal Metal deficiency defect compared to stoichiometric proportion FeO which is mostly found with a composition of Fe0.95O extra cations at interstitial sites ZnO

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Types of questions Very short answer (1 mark) Option I Option II 1 – Short answer I (2 marks) – 2 Short answer II (3 marks) 1 – 1+3=4 22=4 Total marks

CONCEPTS Crystal structure, formula of compound Close packed structures Defects in crystals Semiconductors Magnetic properties Numerical on unit cell dimensions YEAR(S) 2008, 2006, 2005 2007 2007, 2006, 2004 2007 2007 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004

Tips to answer Formula of a compound Check the type of lattice (ccp, hcp, etc.), find the number of voids and occupancy of the elements of the compound in lattice and voids. Find the ratio of two, e.g., A:B = 4:3 gives the formula A4B3 Coordination number Doping Find the type of packing, then the number of closest neighbours Indicate the type of element with which silicon, germanium are to be doped, e.g. group 15 element gives n-type (electron rich) whereas group 13 element gives p-type (electron deficient) semiconductors Number of atoms in unit cell Check that how many atoms are shared between the unit cells in vicinity and calculate accordingly Atomic density, Can be calculated using formula Z ×M number of atoms etc. Density of the unit cell = 3 a NA Number of tetrahedral voids Number of octahedral voids Number of vacancies Twice the number of atoms Number of atoms radius,

on Number of corresponding ions added

adding ions

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