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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS AND AVIONICS
Table of Contents Contents
PAR SEC CHA TITLE T T P 1 AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS 1 Height 1 Introduction to Barometric Height Measurement 2 Altimeters 2 Speed 1 Vertical Speed Indicators 2 Air Speed Indicators 3 Machmeters 4 Combined Speed Indicators 3 Air Data Systems 1 Air Data Computer 2 HEADING, ATTITUDE AND ALIGNMENT 1 Heading
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1 2 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 4
Direct Indicating Compasses and Direction Indicators Gyro-magnetic Compasses Horizontal Situation Indicators Alignment Datum Compasses Magnetic, Compass Deviations Compass Swinging Procedures The Analysis of the Compass Swing Manoeuvre Turn and Slip Indicators Attitude Indicators Accelerometers Stall Warning and Angle of Attack Indication NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Control Systems Remote Indication and Control Servomechanisms DR Position Computing Ground Position Indicator (GPI) Mk 4A The Tactical Air Navigation System (TANS) Inertial Navigation Principles Principles of Inertial Navigation Alignment INS Errors and Mixed Systems COMPUTING AND DISPLAY Central Computing Airborne Computers Real Time Programs Displays CRT Displays Flat Displays Projected and Electronically Displayed Maps Head-up and Helmet Mounted Displays Autopilot and Flight Director Systems Autopilot and Flight Director Systems Engine and Miscellaneous
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Instruments Engine Instruments Miscellaneous Instruments
AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS Height
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Barometric Height Measurement
1. Pressure altimeters are instruments which indicate aircraft height above a selected pressure datum. They operate on the principle that air pressure decreases with height, and they are in fact aneroid barometers graduated to indicate height rather than pressure. In order to be calibrated, certain assumptions must be made concerning the manner in which air pressure decreases with height and this has given rise to a number of model atmospheres. 2. Air Pressure Units. The pressure unit which has been used in the field of aviation for many years is the millibar except for some countries, notably the USA, which have used 'inches of mercury'. However, the current SI derived unit is the hectopascal and this should be used rather than the millibar. Nevertheless the hectopascal has not yet entered the vocabulary of most aircrew and in deference to common usage the millibar will be used in this volume. The hectopascal and the millibar are identical for all practical purposes.
3. The atmosphere is described in detail in Vol 1, Part 1, Sect 1, Chap 1. It is a relatively thin layer of gases surrounding the Earth, becoming more diffuse with increasing height. Water vapour is present in variable amounts, particularly near the surface. 4. The atmosphere can be divided into a number of layers each with a tendency to a particular temperature distribution. The names, heights and characteristics of these layers may vary according to which standard atmosphere is being defined. However, in all cases the lower layer, the troposphere, extends to a layer known as the tropopause. The significant characteristic of the troposphere is the fairly regular decrease of temperature with height. The tropopause tends to become lower towards the Earth's poles (around 25,000 ft) and higher towards the equator (up to 54,000 ft). The region above the tropopause is known as the stratosphere, extending up to the stratopause. The height of the stratopause varies depending on which definition is being employed, but can be taken to be about 30 miles (166,000 ft). 5. Pressure Lapse Rate. As height increases, pressure decreases, but this decrease is not proportional to the increase in height because the density of air varies with height, as does the value of g, although to a lesser extent. It is possible to deduce an expression for the pressure lapse rate at a constant temperature and thus establish a relationship between pressure and height. A practical approximation for the lower levels of the atmosphere is that a decrease in pressure of one millibar equates to an increase in height of 30 feet. 6. Temperature Lapse Rate. Temperature does not remain constant but varies with height in a complex manner. The temperature lapse rate depends on the humidity of the air, and is itself a function of height. This variation greatly affects the relationship between pressure and height. To calibrate an altimeter to indicate barometric height it is necessary to make some assumptions as to the temperature structure of the atmosphere. The relationship can be expressed in mathematical form for each of the various layers of the atmosphere and the instrument can then be calibrated accordingly. 7. Height Assumptions. Because of the temporal and spatial variations in the real atmosphere, and the differences between the conditions on any occasion and the assumptions used in altimeter calibration, there is no real correlation between indicated altitude and actual altitude. A barometrically derived height must therefore be used with extreme caution as a basis for terrain clearance. However, provided that all aircraft use the same datum and the same assumptions in the calibration of their altimeters, safe vertical separation between aircraft can be achieved.
8. A standard atmosphere is an arbitrary statement of conditions which is accepted as a basis for comparisons of aircraft
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performance and calibration of aircraft flight instruments. Because of the extreme variability of conditions in the atmosphere, the standard can only represent the average conditions over a limited area of the globe. Most standards so far adopted are related primarily to the mean atmospheric conditions in temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere. 9. The first widely accepted standard was proposed by the International Commission on Air Navigation (ICAN) in 1924 and between 1950 and 1952 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed and adopted another standard which varied only slightly from the ICAN model. Equations were formulated for determining height from barometric pressure which were valid up to 65,617 ft. The ICAO standard atmosphere is taken as the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) and the assumed characteristics are: a. The air is dry and its chemical composition is the same at all altitudes. 2 b. The value of g is constant at 980.665 cm/sec . c. The temperature and pressure at mean sea-level are 15°C and 1013.25 millibars. d. The temperature lapse rate is 1.98°C per 1000 ft up to a height of 36,090ft above which the temperature is assumed to remain constant at – 56.5°C. 10. A number of other standard atmospheres have been formulated mainly in response to the need to extend the height limit of the model beyond 65,617 ft to accommodate the requirements of missiles and certain high performance aircraft. The assumptions of these models are very similar to the ICAO standard and the differences in the relation of height to pressure are minimal in the lower altitudes. However in the stratosphere and beyond, heights, lapse rates and layer names differ markedly. A comparison of Fig 1, which depicts the Wright Air Development Centre (WADC) Standard Atmosphere with Fig 1 in Vol 1, Pt 1, Sect 1, Chap 1 will reveal some of the differences.
3-1-1-1 Fig 1 WADC Standard Atmosphere
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Conversely a decrease in height compresses the capsule faces.Altimeters Principle of Operation of a Simple Altimeter 1. 3-1-1-2 Fig 1 Simple Altimeter .2 . or in some cases by its own rigidity. sealed.1. This linear movement of the capsule face is magnified and transmitted via a system of gears and linkages to a pointer moving over a scale graduated in feet according to one of the standard atmospheres. The instrument consists of a thin corrugated metal capsule which is partially evacuated.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Height Chapter 2 . Fig 1 is a schematic diagram of a simple altimeter. As the aircraft climbs the static pressure in the case decreases allowing the spring to pull the capsule faces apart.1. and prevented from collapsing completely by means of a leaf spring.Schematic Page 5 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:32 2002 Height 3. The capsule is mounted inside a case which is fed with static pressure from the aircraft's static tube or vent.
000 ft and a third every 100. A sensitive altimeter has a millibar scale so that it is possible to set whatever datum pressure is desired. The single capsule is replaced by two or more capsules to give greater sensitivity for small changes in pressure. the altimeter could be set on the ground to read airfield elevation so that it will thereafter indicate height above mean sea-level.000 ft.1. If sea-level pressure (QNH) is set. The sensitive altimeter is designed for more accurate height measurement than the simple altimeter although the principle of operation is the same. Changes of barometric pressure are still sensed by the contraction or expansion of evacuated capsules. The dial adjusting knob allows the indicator needle to be moved away from the normal datum. Sensitive Altimeter 3. one rotating every 1. Thus if airfield level pressure (QFE) is set. again providing that the surface pressure at the airfield remains constant. Compensation for varying temperatures within the instrument casing is incorporated in the form of a bi-metallic strip inserted between the capsule and the transmission shaft. the altimeter will indicate height above sea-level (ie airfield elevation on the ground).1. the altimeter will read zero on the ground and height above airfield once airborne. The servo-assisted altimeter is designed to relieve the capsule of the work required to drive the mechanical linkage. Page 6 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:32 2002 Height 3. The chief limitation of the directly operated capsule altimeter is its increasing inaccuracy and lack of sensitivity with increasing height above approximately 60. 4. Thus small changes in pressure. ie the movement of the capsule is transferred to the pointers by means of amplified electrical signals. For example. At these altitudes the change in height for a given pressure change is very much greater than at ground level. A simple altimeter will normally be calibrated according to the ICAN or ICAO atmosphere and will therefore normally be set to indicate height above the 1013. Alternatively by setting zero before take-off the altimeter will indicate height above the airfield.000 ft a similar pressure change relates to a height change of 325 ft.2 millibar pressure level. one every 10. above which height is to be measured. whereas at 60. Thus. for example. The millibar setting can be altered in the air to reflect changes of pressure with time. but the mechanical transmission is replaced by a position control servo system. providing that the prevailing sea-level pressure does not change. Limitation.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 2. which can represent significant changes in height. 5. have to overcome inertia in the mechanical linkages and therefore tend to cause the altimeter to lag significantly behind the aircraft's true change of height. a change of pressure of 1 mb at sea-level equates to only 30 ft. location or required datum level. Servo-Assisted Altimeter 6. Typically there will be three pointers.2 .000 ft.000 ft.
Page 7 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:33 2002 Height 3. Avoidance or reduction of the effect is accomplished by careful probe or vent design and location. and an auxiliary pointer moving over a scale graduated in 50 ft increments from 0 . instrument or installation errors.1. eg IFF/SSR. Pressure error occurs when the true external static pressure is not accurately transmitted to the instrument. b. They do not usually have error compensating devices although they may be compensated to allow for fluctuations in cabin temperature. A false static pressure can be created by the effect of the air flow passing over the static vent. The static pressure is of course cabin pressure and a change in this causes the capsules to expand or contract in the normal way.1. Pressure Altimeter Errors 9. In current altimeters the three needle display is replaced by a digital display. Instrument error. Pressure error. the arrangement has the advantage that the altitude information can be easily transmitted to other systems. The errors inherent in the instrument and installation are: a. It is usually insignificant but if necessary a correction card can be provided.1.Digital Display Cabin Altimeters 8. or automatically in an air data computer or pressure error corrector unit (PECU).000 ft (Fig 2). 10. Large transient errors can be caused by shock waves passing over the vent during accelerations or decelerations. In addition to increased accuracy and sensitivity. or when services such as flaps. airbrakes. Residual error is calibrated for each aircraft type and detailed in the Aircrew Manual or ODM. or gear are operated. having one pointer moving over a scale graduated in tens of thousands of feet. 3-1-1-2 Fig 2 Servo-Assisted Altimeter .000 ft the instrument should be accurate to better than ± 500 ft. Although the error is generally negligible at low speeds and altitudes. Cabin altimeters suffer from the errors outlined below and at cabin altitudes below 30. and errors caused by non-standard atmospheric conditions. Instrument error is caused by manufacturing tolerances. Cabin altimeters indicate cabin pressure in terms of altitude and are normally of the simple type. it can become significant at high speeds.2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 7. Pressure altimeter errors may be considered under two categories.
with complete blockage. the altimeter needle lags whenever height is changed rapidly causing an under-read on climbs and an over-read on descents. A capsule under stress has imperfect elastic properties and will settle to give a different reading after levelling from a climb compared to that obtained after levelling from a descent. This gives an error in the altimeter indication for the duration of the disturbance. In a cold air mass the density is greater than in a warm air mass. Time lag is virtually eliminated in servo-assisted altimeters and may be reduced in others by the fitting of a vibration mechanism. In summary.1.the error being zero at sea-level and increasing with altitude. Since the response of the capsule and linkage is not instantaneous. 11.1. Blockages may occur if water in the pipework freezes. since in order to do so it would be necessary to have a knowledge of the temperature structure from the surface to the aircraft. If a shockwave passes over that static source. The effect of leaks varies with the size and location of the leak. The error is not easy to compensate for. Barometric error. Temperature Error. the pressure levels are more closely spaced and the altimeter will over-read (Fig 4) . The resulting errors in ISA-calibrated altimeters are: a. The effect of the error on an altimeter which is not reset when flying from an area of high pressure to one of low pressure at a constant indicated height is illustrated in Fig 3. while leaks in unpressurized compartments usually produce over-reading. Blockages and leaks are unusual occurrences. e. with a constant temperature of −56. Transonic Jump. Temperature error arises when the atmospheric conditions differ from those assumed by the standard atmosphere used to calibrate the altimeter.98°C per 1.2 . Clearly the latter situation could be dangerous and should be allowed for in rapid descents.000 ft up to 36. Barometric error occurs when the actual datum pressure differs from that to which the altimeter has been set and can be overcome simply by the correct setting of the millibar scale.090 ft. from HIGH to LOW the altimeter reads HIGH. Blockages and Leaks. Variations from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions may be brought about by the development of weather systems.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. If the actual temperatures differ from the assumed ones. as they very often do. a rapid change in static pressure will occur. The amount of lag varies with the rate of change of height. Conversely if the flight was from an area of low pressure to one of high pressure the altimeter would read low if not corrected. and local geographic effects. leaks in pressurized compartments cause under-reading. f. The ICAO standard atmosphere assumes a temperature lapse rate of 1. Hysteresis Loss. or there are obstructions such as insects. but the 1030 mb setting is retained on the altimeter. to make the instrument stick at the reading when the blockage occurred. Lag Error. then the indicated height will be incorrect.5°C above that. In effect the datum is lowered during the flight so that the altimeter reads high. and from LOW to HIGH the altimeter reads LOW. The effect is to increase altimeter lag or. The magnitude of the Page 8 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:33 2002 Height 3. 3-1-1-2 Fig 3 Effect of Barometric Error b. d. In this case the aircraft flies from an area where the MSL pressure is 1030 mb to one where the MSL pressure is 1010 mb.
often marked. The altimeter readings may therefore be affected due to barometric error as described in sub-para a. on altimeter readings.000ft for every 1°C that the air generally differs from ISA. the rising or descending air in the wave will change temperature at very nearly the normal adiabatic lapse rate.1.2 . The temperature profile in the affected area may then be significantly different from the unaffected airmass thereby inducing temperature error effects as described in sub-para b.1. for much of the air to sweep round the ends of the barrier. Corrections can be made for low altitudes by use of the table in the Flight Information Handbook and this may be necessary. Orographic Error. 3-1-1-2 Fig 4 Effect of Temperature Error 3-1-1-2 Fig 5 Temperature Error Correction Page 9 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:33 2002 Height 3. When a current of air meets a barrier of hills or mountains there is a tendency. The table is reproduced in Fig 5 to give an indication of the magnitude of the error. for example. c. when calculating decision heights in arctic conditions. so avoiding the ascent. This gives rise to areas of low pressure to the lee of the barrier. if standing waves are present above the barrier.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 error is approximately 4ft/1. Additionally.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Speed Chapter 1 . is a sensitive differential pressure gauge.1. or capsule. Therefore. Principle 2.1 . The metering unit restricts the flow of air into and out of the case. Static atmospheric pressure is fed directly to the inner chamber. The resultant differential pressure distorts the capsule and this movement is transmitted to the pointer by means of a mechanical linkage. which displays a rate of change of atmospheric pressure in terms of a rate of climb or descent. whereas the flow to the inside of the capsule is unrestricted. A bleed valve is fitted in many VSIs to prevent damage and to improve the Page 10 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:33 2002 Speed 3. if the static pressure varies due to changing altitude. A vertical speed indicator (VSI). which in effect forms the instrument case. and through a metering unit to the outer chamber.2.Vertical Speed Indicators Introduction 1. the pressure change in the case lags behind that in the capsule. The principle employed is that of measuring the difference of pressure between two chambers. one within the other. also known as a rate of climb and descent indicator (RCDI).
The function of the metering unit. 3.Schematic Construction 3-1-2-1 Fig 2 VSI . is to compensate for these changes in ambient conditions. in the manner in which it restricts the flow into the case. It is important that any given pressure difference between the inside and outside of the capsule should represent the same rate of climb or descent.Typical Display Page 11 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:34 2002 Speed 3. The construction of a VSI is shown schematically in Fig 1 and a typical display is illustrated in Fig 2. 3-1-2-1 Fig 1 VSI .2.1.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 instrument's reaction time (by reducing lag) when levelling off from a high speed descent. regardless of the ambient atmospheric pressure and temperature variations with altitude.
position. If the static head or vent is subject to a changing pressure error. The VSI can suffer from the following errors: a. the increase in pressure in the case lags behind the increase in static pressure in the capsule. and the pointer remains at the horizontal. Instrument error is the result of manufacturing tolerances and is usually insignificant. c.Air Speed Indicators Page 12 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:34 2002 Speed 3. when an aircraft is rapidly manoeuvred into a steady climb or descent there is a few seconds delay before the pointer settles at the appropriate rate of climb or descent. A similar delay in the pointer indicating zero occurs when the aircraft is levelled. Pressure Error. Instrument Error. and the capsule is expanded. d.1. Movement of a shock-wave over the static vents results in a rapid change in static pressure which briefly produces a false reading on the VSI. Because of the time required for the pressure difference to develop. The fall in pressure in the case lags behind that in the capsule until level flight is resumed and the pressures equalize. the static pressure decreases and the capsule collapses slightly.2. Lag.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4. Errors 5. Static Line Blockage. zero. Transonic Jump. b. If the static line or vent becomes blocked by ice or any other obstruction the VSI will be rendered unserviceable and the pointer will remain at zero regardless of the vertical speed. In level flight the pressure inside the capsule and the case are the same. the VSI may briefly indicate a wrong rate of climb or descent. In a descent. Speed Chapter 2 . causing the pointer to indicate a rate of climb. When the aircraft climbs. e.2 .
Principle 2. which is mounted in a suitable position on the airframe. the pitot tube. and a second tube. in its most simple form. which is closed and streamlined at the forward end but which has a series of small holes drilled radially along its length. The 2 air speed indicator measures this pressure difference and provides a display indication graduated in units of speed. however. 3. When moved through the air. aligned with the direction of flight. An aircraft. In flight the aircraft experiences an additional pressure on its leading surfaces due to a build up of the air through which the aircraft is travelling. ie the air speed.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Introduction 1. stationary on the ground. Rearranging the formula. However. divided by a thin flexible diaphragm. the difference between the pitot and the static pressures is equal to 1 ½V2 (the dynamic pressure). is subject to normal atmospheric or static pressure which acts equally on all parts of the aircraft structure. 3-1-2-2 Fig 1 Principle of Air Speed Indicator 4. The instrument which displays this information is the air speed indicator (ASI).2 . the static tube. This additional pressure due to the aircraft's forward motion is known as dynamic pressure and is dependent upon the forward speed of the aircraft and the density of the air according to the following formula: 1 pt = ½V2 + p 2 where pt = the pitot pressure. is essential both to the pilot for the safe and efficient handling of the aircraft and to the navigator as a basic input to the navigation calculations. The diaphragm is subjected to the two opposing pressures. (also known as total head pressure or stagnation pressure) p = the static pressure ½ = the air density V = the velocity of the aircraft. The static tube is unaffected by dynamic pressure as its end is closed. the static pressure component of the pitot pressure is Page 13 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:34 2002 Speed 3.2. 5.1. A knowledge of the speed at which an aircraft is travelling through the air. on which all air speed indicators function. The pitot pressure is led through a pipe-line to one side of a sealed chamber. The static pressure is led through a second pipe-line to the other side of the diaphragm. Fig 1 illustrates the principle. the small holes will pick up local static pressure. The simplest pressure head consists of an open ended tube. The ASI is a sensitive differential pressure gauge operated by pressures picked up by a pressure head. the pitot tube will pick up pitot pressure made up of static pressure and dynamic pressure.
quadrant and pinion can be used to transfer this movement to a pointer and dial calibrated in knots. 3-1-2-2 Fig 3 A Typical Simple ASI Page 14 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:34 2002 Speed 3. A link. the pitot excess pressure varies with the square of the speed and a linear pressure/deflection characteristic in the capsule produces an uneven speed/deflection characteristic of the pointer mechanism.2 . Most air speed indicators in current use have a capsule instead of a diaphragm.2. Control of the capsule is difficult due. giving unequal pointer movements for equal speed changes. As stated in para 2. which thus contains the lower pressure. 6. pressure. 8. or pitot excess. to the magnification factor of the mechanism. It is more usual to control the mechanism to produce a linear scale shape by changing the lever length as the pointer advances. acting as the pressure sensitive element is mounted in an airtight case. A pressure difference will cause the capsule to open out. To produce a linear scale between the capsule and pointer it is necessary to control the characteristics of the capsule and/or the mechanism. A heater is placed between the pitot and static tubes to prevent ice forming and causing a blockage. A typical simple ASI is shown in Fig 3. 3-1-2-2 Fig 2 A Combined Pressure Head Construction 7. In some installations the pitot tube and the static tube are combined into a single pressure head with the pitot tube built inside the static tube. Pitot pressure is fed into the capsule and static pressure is fed to the interior of the case. detailed points of construction will vary. A combined pressure head is shown in Fig 2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 balanced by the static pressure on the other side of the diaphragm so that any diaphragm movement is determined solely by the dynamic. however. Movement of the diaphragm is transmitted through a mechanical linkage to a pointer on the face of the ASI where the pitot excess pressure (pt – p) is indicated in terms of speed.1. the movement being proportional to pressure. the principle of operation is exactly the same. among other reasons. The capsule. Drain holes in the head allow moisture to escape and various traps may be used to prevent dirt and water from affecting the instrument. however. Depending on the manufacturer of the ASI. the basic principle holds good for all.
1. This capsule assembly has a linear pressure/deflection characteristic which is more closely controlled than the single capsule used in the simple ASI.2 . more power is required to operate the gears and this is provided by a stack of capsules. Sensitive and Servo Air Speed Indicators. In a servo ASI the mechanical linkage is replaced by an electrical linkage utilizing error actuation and power amplification. Extra sensitivity is achieved by an increase in the gear train from the capsule. A typical sensitive ASI display is shown in Fig 4. 3-1-2-2 Fig 4 A Two Pointer Sensitive ASI Page 15 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3.2. Because of this increase in the gear train.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 9. Sensitive and servo ASIs are identical in principle to the simple ASI and operate from the normal pitot/static system. so that two pointers may be moved over an evenly calibrated dial.
c. pitot head or static vent. Density error. Pressure Error.2 . 13. Compressibility error. Any departure from these conditions or disturbance in the pitot or static pressures being applied to the instrument will result in a difference between the indicated and the true air speed and thus an error in the display. the dial is calibrated according to the formulae mentioned above which assume constant air density (standard sea level density) and no instrument defects. Page 16 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3. Instrument error is caused by manufacturing tolerances in the construction of the instrument. Pressure error results from disturbances in the static pressure around the aircraft due to movement through the air. The values used are the sea level values of the standard ICAO atmosphere. The error is determined during calibration and any necessary correction is combined with that for pressure error (see para 13). However. d. The formula given in para 2 is only an approximation and one of two formulae is used for calibration of a particular ASI depending on the speed range of the instrument. b. standard datum values have to be used in the calibration of air speed indicators. Since dynamic pressure varies with air speed and air density. the error may be influenced by: a. and since air density varies with temperature and pressure. Pressure error. c. Depending upon aircraft type. The configuration of the aircraft (ie ‘clean’/ flaps/gear/airbrakes/etc). The angle of attack of the aircraft.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Calibration 10. The position of the pressure head. Instrument Error. The ASI pointer registers the amount of capsule movement due to dynamic pressure.1.2. 12. d. b. The speed of the aircraft. Instrument error. ASI Errors 11. There are four sources of error: a.
15. Compressibility error and its correction can be calculated by using the circular slide rule of the DR Computer Mk4A or 5A. = the air density at mean sea level.8. for any other condition of air density. pressure error is determined by flight trials. and thus EAS. In addition compressibility increases with increase of speed. will become progressively lower than true air speed (TAS). Thus. At higher speeds this factor becomes significant. therefore compressibility error varies both with speed and altitude. The relationship between the various air speeds and the associated errors can be summarized as follows: CAS = IAS § PEC § IEC EAS = CAS ¡ CEC TAS = EAS § DEC Blocked or Leaking Pressure Systems 17. the ASI will not react to changes of air-speed in level flight. Most of the error results from variations in the local static pressure caused by the airflow over the pressure head. If the pitot tube contains a small bleed hole for drainage. the capsule may act as a barometer producing an indication of increase in speed if the aircraft climbs or a decrease in speed if the aircraft dives. Standard mean sea level air density is used for calibration purposes. It it usual to have two static vents. Summary. More extensive icing will cause the reading to reduce towards Page 17 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 e. the less dense air is more easily compressed than the denser air at sea level. resulting in a greater dynamic pressure which causes the ASI to over-read. 14. In lower speed aircraft the static head is often divorced from the pitot tube and positioned where the truest indication of static pressure is obtained eg on the fuselage midway between nose and tail. Compressibility Error. Pitot. one either side of the aircraft to balance out the effects of sideslip which produces an increase of pressure on one side of the aircraft and a corresponding decrease in pressure on the other side. the density error correction (DEC) is obtained from a graph or by the use of a circular slide rule such as the DR Computer Mk 4A/5A. the ASI will be in error. Unfortunately the use of a static vent becomes less acceptable for high performance aircraft since at Mach numbers exceeding 0. In practice. The pressure error correction (PEC) is tabulated in the Aircrew Manual for the aircraft type and is also combined with that for instrument error correction (IEC) and recorded on a correction card mounted adjacent to each ASI. Blockages a. density decreases and IAS. Density Error. The calibration formulae contain a factor which is a function of the compressibility of the air. The presence of sideslip.2 . as before. 16. Any remaining error is determined by flight trials. the flow of air around the static vent may be unpredictable. The necessary correction can be calculated from the formula: r ½ ½o EAS = TAS where: ρ ρo = the air density at the height of the aircraft. As has already been explained. However. As altitude increases. If the pitot tube is blocked eg by ice. The use of static vents eliminates almost all the error caused by the pressure head.1. dynamic pressure varies with air speed and the density of the air. In such cases a high speed pitot-static head is used and. partial blockage of the 'nose' of the tube (the most common effect of icing) will result in an under-reading. The card correction (IEC + PEC) should be applied to the indicated air speed (IAS) to obtain calibrated air speed (CAS). Application of the compressibility error correction (CEC) to CAS produces equivalent air speed (EAS). However the calibration formulae use standard mean sea level values and an error is introduced at any altitude where the actual values differ from those used in calibration. In such a case the static pipeline terminates at a hole in a flat brass plate known as the static vent. At altitude.
As explained in para 1. The onset of these shock waves and their subsequent effects occur. 19. The local speed of sound is a function of static pressure and density. Because of the effect of the shock waves on stability and control of the aircraft. depending on the aircraft design. Effects. Mach number can be expressed as: · ¸ V p ¡p / t a p M= where: V a pt p = True air speed = Local speed of sound = Pitot pressure = Static pressure The machmeter uses an air speed capsule to measure pt – p an altitude capsule to measure p. it is important that the pilot knows his speed in terms of Mach number. Leaks a. This is achieved by an instrument called a Machmeter which gives a direct display of Mach number and may have an adjustable index which is usually set to the Limiting Indicated Mach Number of the aircraft in which it is installed. As the density factor is common to both functions.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 zero as the dynamic pressure leaks away through the bleed hole b. Page 18 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3. Speed Chapter 3 . the airflow around the aerofoils exhibits a marked change. The under. A leak in the pitot tube causes the ASI to under-read. These will occur locally. the ASI will over-read at lower altitudes and under-read at higher altitudes than that at which the blockage occurred. erratic control loads. Pitot.3 . Static. Static. and is calibrated to show the quotient as the corresponding Mach number. and density. For convenience. As an aircraft's speed approaches the speed of sound. characterized by the occurrence of shock waves. the local Mach number varies with the true air speed and the local speed of sound. Machmeter. A leak in the static tube. will cause the ASI to over-read. True air speed is a function of pitot excess pressure ie the difference between pitot and static pressure. Basic Principle 3. where the pressure outside the pipe is lower than static (ie most unpressurized aircraft). Mach Number. They can cause loss of aerodynamic lift. 18. the ratio of true air speed to the local speed of sound is considered as a single entity. The former may cause problems in adverse landing conditions (eg in a strong cross-wind).Machmeters Introduction 1. It is called Mach number and is usually expressed thus: Mach number (M) = V/a where: V = True air speed a = Local speed of sound 2. when the true air speed is a certain proportion of the local speed of sound. Where the outside air is higher than static (ie in a pressurized cabin) the ASI will under-read. b. at some speed below the speed of sound and will increase in effect and extent as the speed is further increased. changes in aerodynamic stability. loss of control effectiveness and buffeting.2. If the static tube is blocked.or over-reading of an ASI is potentially dangerous. for a given aircraft type.1. and the latter condition may result in an aircraft stall at a higher indicated airspeed than that specified for the aircraft.
causing it to rotate and move a pivoted arm (the ratio arm) in the direction A-B (see Fig 2). Presetting can be carried out by an adjusting screw on the front of the instrument.1. 7. therefore. 8. via a spring and pin. the altitude capsule. 3-1-2-3 Fig 2 Principle of Operation of a Machmeter Page 19 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3. expanding or contracting with variation of altitude. since the behaviour of air changes as speed is increased. Critical or Limiting Mach Number is indicated by a specially shaped lubber mark located over the dial of the machmeter. is connected to the pitot pressure pipeline. upon both pitot excess and static pressures. turns the pointer thus displaying the corresponding Mach number. the spring providing the tension necessary to retain the pin in position. The interior of the case is connected to the static pressure pipeline.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4. As Mach number increases therefore. A typical machmeter is shown in Fig 1. 3-1-2-3 Fig 1 A Typical Machmeter 6. The air speed capsule measures the pressure difference between pitot and static pressure and therefore expands or contracts as air speed increases or decreases. The position of the ratio arm depends. especially once shockwaves form. The actual calibration of the instrument is more complex than the basic principle suggests. The second capsule unit. is sealed and evacuated to respond to static pressure changes. the actual formula used to derive an indicated Mach reading requires and receives considerable modification. The interior of one capsule unit. the air speed capsule. The movement of the capsule is transferred to the ratio arm. It is adjustable so that the relevant Mach number for the particular type of aircraft in which the machmeter is installed may be preset. An increase of altitude and/or air speed results in a display of higher Mach number. Movement of the ratio arm controls the ranging arm which. The altitude capsule responds to changes of static pressure. through linkage and gearing. The movement of the capsule is transferred by the air speed link to the main shaft. The pin is pointed at both ends and rests in cups on the altitude capsule and ratio arm. 9. It consists essentially of a sealed case containing two capsule assemblies and the necessary mechanical linkages.3 . causing it to move in the direction C-D. Construction 5.
of the order of ± 0. modifies a parallel drive Page 20 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:36 2002 Speed 3.0M. Pressure Error.4 . instrument error and pressure error. The air speed capsule directly drives. There are only two such errors. small and are.5 to 1. Instrument Error.01M over a range of 0. a simple capsule operated dial presentation or a capsule operated IAS dial with a synchro operated digital Mach number presentation. The altitude capsule. As Mach number is effectively a function of the ratio of pitot excess pressure to static pressure. However. a pointer which is read against a dial calibrated in IAS.. it is becoming the practice to combine two or more functions into one instrument. Description 3. typically. This movement. Speed Chapter 4 . A combined instrument showing both indicated air speed and Mach number is now fitted in some aircraft. 12. The combined speed indicator (CSI) contains an air speed capsule and an altitude capsule. only those errors in the measurement of this ratio will affect the machmeter. The machmeter operates from the same pressure source as the air speed indicator and is therefore subject to the same pressure errors. Like all instruments. however. Principle 2. the effect of pressure error is relatively greater on the machmeter as the ratio of pitot excess pressure (pt – p ) to static pressure (p) is being measured rather than just the pitot excess pressure (pt – p) in the case of the ASI.Combined Speed Indicators Introduction 1. Variations in air density and temperature from the standard mean sea level values have no effect. through a normal type linkage.2. machmeters are subject to tolerances in manufacture which produce errors that vary from instrument to instrument. 11.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Errors in Machmeters 10. expanding or contracting. With the increased complexity of aircraft instrument panels in modern aircraft and the continual search for more room in an already restricted space. One area where this has been successfully carried out is with speed indicating instruments. The construction of the dial-type combined speed indicator is very similar to the machmeter and the same principles are employed. through a second linkage.1. reacts to static pressure and thus altitude. These are. The instrument can take one of two forms.
Most aircraft performance data list a speed. These include: a. However. 5. Thus the pointer displays against the Mach number disc the correct Mach number for the particular air speed/altitude combination as well as the IAS against the fixed graduations on the dial. in this case 490 knots. This is usually achieved by means of a distinctively coloured pointer. Limit Speed Warning. which should not be exceeded under normal operating conditions or a speed which should not be exceeded under any conditions.9M. an overriding stop maintains the pointer at this reading until a condition exists where 490 knots is equivalent to 0. In some CSIs a limit speed switch is incorporated which is closed when the IAS pointer reaches or exceeds the speed shown by the limit speed pointer. at 30.000 ft to 347 knots. As the aircraft climbs. red or chequered. 7.000 ft to 425 knots. From then on the pointer moves anti-clockwise showing the IAS equivalent of 0. The Mach number disc rotates anti-clockwise as altitude increases whilst the pointer rotates clockwise with increasing IAS. Other functions are sometimes included in the CSI. 3-1-2-4 Fig 1 Typical CSI Dial Presentations 6. b. c.9M equivalent at sea level (and ISA conditions) to 594 knots. a rotatable disc graduated in Mach number. control of this facility may be achieved by a Page 21 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:36 2002 Speed 3. the pointer will move clockwise until 490 knots is reached when the overriding stop again takes effect and the pointer remains at the maximum figure. to warn the pilot that he has reached his limit speed. This limit speed pointer is set on the ground to the particular relevant limit speed.000 ft to 509 knots.4 . This switch operates either an audio or visual warning or both. This second drive is used to position against the air speed pointer.9M.1. A limit speed pointer. Outputs to control an auto-throttle system. usually expressed in knots of IAS. 4. at low level it may be restricted to 490 knots.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 from the air speed capsule in a similar manner to the machmeter. Limit Speed Pointer. Limit speed warning. at 20. at 10. Undercarriage warning. Auto-throttle Control. expressed in Mach number and sometimes the equivalent IAS. It is possible. Sometimes there is a somewhat lower speed. by means of a special linkage designed to suit the particular aircraft and connected to the altitude capsule. On aircraft where an auto-throttle system is installed. d. which must not be exceeded at low level. to display this information on the CSI. During descent. At any time the pilot can assess his air speed in relation to his maximum permitted speed by the angle between the IAS pointer and the limit speed pointer. an aircraft may have a limiting Mach number of 0. etc. For example.
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synchro system installed in the CSI. A moveable command pointer, manually set by a knob on the front of the instrument, positions the rotor of a synchro. The rotor of a second synchro is positioned by a low friction drive from the IAS pointer. When the IAS pointer reads the same as the command pointer, there is zero output from the pair of synchros. Any difference between the two pointers produces an error signal which is fed to the auto-throttle system adjusting the throttles so that the aircraft returns to the original selected speed. 8. Undercarriage Warning. An internal switch is fitted in some CSIs which will close at a pre-set figure in the aircraft approach speed range to provide a signal for a visual or audio warning if the undercarriage is not selected down.
9. A single pointer is read against a fixed IAS dial calibrated in knots and a rotatable disc (the Mach disc) calibrated in Mach number. The Mach disc is set behind and viewed through an aperture positioned either inside or outside the air speed scale. A second pointer, distinctively painted with diagonal lines or chequers may be incorporated to show the limit speed at all altitudes. On some models, two manually positioned bezel mounted lubber marks are available to indicate any desired air speed for reference purposes. A single command lubber positioned manually by a knob on the front of the instrument, allowing the auto-throttle reference speed to be set, may also be incorporated. Typical presentations are shown in Fig 1a and b.
Digital Mach/Air Speed Indicators
10. A variation of the CSI is a model which shows IAS by a pointer indication and Mach number by a digital display. In this case the instrument contains two capsules (air speed and altitude) as explained above but these are used only to drive the air speed pointer and a limit speed pointer, if fitted. A synchro drive proportional to Mach number is received from the aircraft's air data computer and a servo loop drives a three counter digital display. Limit speed warning and auto-throttle control can be incorporated as described in paras 6 and 7. 11. Presentation. An air speed pointer is read against a fixed scale and a second pointer, distinctively marked, may be incorporated to show limit speed at all altitudes. A servo driven three drum counter provides a digital read out of Mach number to two or three places of decimals. A failure flag covers the counters in the event of power failure or loss of the Mach number synchro signal from the air data computer. Moveable index lubber marks may be incorporated in the same manner as for the dial presentation CSI and control of an auto-throttle reference lubber mark by a knob on the front of the instrument may also be included. A typical digital Mach/air speed indicator is shown in Fig 2.
Range and Accuracy
12. The operating range of the CSI varies with the particular model but, typically, air speeds up to 800 knots and Mach number up to 2.5 can be covered. Typical instrument accuracies are ± 3 knots and ± 0.010M.
3-1-2-4 Fig 2 Typical Digital Mach/Air Speed Indicator
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3-1-2-4 Fig 1a Mach Aperture Inside IAS Scale
3-1-2-4 Fig 1b Mach Aperture Outside IAS Scale
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Air Data Systems
Chapter 1 - Air Data Computer
1. Although conventional pressure instruments can provide satisfactory information for the crew, they have a number of limitations, especially in the context of modern aircraft systems. In particular, the information that an instrument measures can only be presented in one form and cannot easily be transmitted for use by other equipment, or to other crew positions, resulting in a need to duplicate the instrument. An Air Data System (ADS) overcomes these limitations. 2. An ADS can take a number of forms which will vary between aircraft types, however all systems are similar in principle and this chapter will describe a typical, rather than any specific, system. 3. The core of an ADS is an Air Data Computer (ADC) which forms an essential part of a modern flight/navigation/weapon aiming system. The ADS measures the basic air inputs of pitot pressure, static pressure, air temperature, angle of attack (α angle), side slip (β angle), and outputs flight parameters for the various systems and displays. A comprehensive ADS thus consists of: a. Pitot, static and temperature probes to measure the basic air data. b. Local incidence vanes for α angle and β angle computation. c. Transducers to convert the basic air data into electrical or electro-mechanical signals. d. Air Data Computer to process the data and provide the required outputs to the aircraft systems and displays. e. Power supplies to provide specific stabilized power for the ADS units.
4. Pitot/Static. Pitot and static pressures are taken from the aircraft's pressure head or the pitot head and static vents.
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Air Data Systems
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5. Temperature. Temperature is determined from outside air temperature probes. 6. Angle of Attack (α Angle). Angle of attack is the angle, in the vertical plane of symmetry of the aircraft, at which the free stream airflow meets an arbitrary longitudinal datum line on the aircraft. It is generally measured by a small pivoted vane whose axis of rotation is nominally horizontal and athwartships. The vane is usually mounted on the side of the fuselage near the nose or on a probe forward of the wing or nose. 7. Angle of Side Slip (β Angle). The β angle is the angle in the horizontal plane at which the free stream airflow meets an arbitrary longitudinal datum line on the aircraft. The β sensor is normally identical to the α sensor and mounted on the underside of the airframe along the aircraft centre line. In simpler ADS the β sensor is often omitted.
8. Transducers, which convert pressures, temperatures and angles to voltages or digital pulses, are the most vital elements of the air data systems, and are the limiting factors in the system accuracy. Transducers vary in type depending on the parameter which is to be measured, ie pressure transducers, temperature transducers and angular transducers. Various techniques are employed to convert the measured data into usable, repeatable and accurate signals which can be transmitted to the ADC, eg using the expansion of a diaphragm or capsule to actuate an electrical pick-off, or to vary the electrical resistance of a wire by changing the wire's tension.
Air Data Computers
9. The air data computer processes the data input from the sensors, applies any necessary corrections, and supplies output data in the form required by other equipment, either directly or via a central computer. Particularly in older systems, where there is no central computer, the same output parameter may be in several forms, eg pressure altitude may be processed as a voltage, a synchro output, and a digital code. Fig 1 shows a typical ADS arrangement. 10. Compared with conventional pressure instruments the ADS has the following advantages: a. The bulk and complexity of pipe work is avoided. b. Duplication of units is avoided. c. Errors can be automatically corrected before display. d. There are accuracy and sensitivity gains. e. There is a reduced time lag. f. There is the potential for flexibility in presentation. The disadvantage of the ADS is that it needs power to work whereas conventional pressure instruments do not. It is therefore usually necessary to provide back-up systems, either in the form of alternative power supplies or with simple pressure instruments.
3-1-3-1 Fig 1 Air Data System
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Air Data Systems
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1.1 . the aircraft's magnetic heading can be read off against a lubber line. The magnet's behaviour must be aperiodic (ie without recurring oscillations). c.2. A direct indicating compass system (DICS) consists of a freely suspended magnet system which can align itself with the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field thus defining the direction of Magnetic North. By aligning a compass card with the North-seeking (red) end of the magnet system as shown in Fig 1. The magnet must be sensitive. Sensitivity. The magnet system must remain as near horizontal as possible. Aperiodicity. 3-2-1-1 Fig 1 Basic DICS Page 26 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:37 2002 Heading 3. Properties 2. DICS must exhibit the following properties: a. b. Horizontality. ATTITUDE AND ALIGNMENT Heading Chapter 1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 HEADING.Direct Indicating Compasses and Direction Indicators PRINCIPLES OF THE DIRECT INDICATING COMPASS SYSTEM (DICS) Introduction 1.
2. When the pendulously suspended magnet system tilts to align with T.1. the magnet system's centre of gravity is displaced from the vertical through the pivot (Fig 2). at all other places the magnet system is tilted in the direction of the total field (T). moreover. where T is the resultant of the horizontal and vertical fields. DICS must be sensitive and able to indicate the local magnetic meridian quickly and accurately. which acts to restore the magnet system to the horizontal. At the magnetic equator the field direction is parallel to the Earth's surface. Freely suspended in the Earth's magnetic field. the tendency to tilt would reduce the magnetic moment in the horizontal plane in which direction is measured. The magnet system's weight forms the couple Wd.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Horizontally 3. 3-2-1-1 Fig 2 Pendulous Suspension Sensitivity may be increased by the following methods: Page 27 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:37 2002 Heading 3. 4. a magnet system will align itself with the direction of that field. A pendulous suspension system is therefore used to overcome the magnet system's tendency to tilt. Sensitivity 5. In UK latitudes the residual tilt in a well designed compass is approximately 2°. If the magnet system were allowed to align itself with the T field it would be difficult to align the compass card accurately.
Consider an aircraft in the Northern Hemisphere increasing speed whilst heading West. 6. Looking down on the magnet system in Fig 3 it can be seen that a couple is produced which turns the magnet system anti-clockwise. ie when the aircraft changes speed on easterly or westerly headings. DICS . 3-2-1-1 Fig 3 Accelerating Force Producing Couple Page 28 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. The vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field no longer acts through the pivot. Increasing the magnetic moment of the magnet system. but through the magnet system's centre of gravity. 11.1 . the accelerating forces may cause errors in the indicated heading. the resultant errors being greatest when the accelerating force acts at right angles to the magnetic meridian with which the compass is aligned.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 a. not through the pivot. If an aircraft fitted with a DICS is subjected to horizontal accelerations. Aperiodicity 7. In Fig 4 it is shown that the component Z sin θ tends to pull the blue end of the magnet to the right.Cause 9. light. The accelerations may be the result of speed changes or from the central acceleration experienced in a turn. θ is the angle of tilt. it can be seen from Fig 4 that the accelerating force and its reaction create a couple which tilts the magnet system out of the vertical. Turning and Acceleration Errors . or turning from North or South on to West. One component (Z cos θ) acts through the pivot. This displacement results in the formation of couples which rotate the magnet system and produce heading errors. which create drag forces and reduce the magnet system's tendency to oscillate. Reducing the moment of inertia of the magnet system. and the other (Z sin θ) at 90° to the pivot.ERRORS AND LIMITATIONS General 8.1. both have similar effects on the compass system. Reducing the friction at the suspension point. and a magnetic couple is created which turns the magnet system anti-clockwise (Fig 5). In addition to the errors caused by external magnetic fields. Aperiodicity is achieved using a magnet system with a low moment of inertia and high magnetic moment. powerful magnets as the magnetic sensing element of the compass.2. are also used. but can be resolved into two orthogonal components. The vibrations and oscillations experienced in flight by a suspended magnet system tend to cause undesirable periodic oscillations. c. b. the same compromise applied for sensitivity. A compromise is reached between the magnetic moment and the moment of inertia requirements by using a number of small. DICS are subject to the errors and limitations covered in the following paragraphs. The reaction force acts. Damping filaments.Effect 10. The errors are caused by the displacement of the magnet system's centre of gravity from the line through the pivot. An equal but opposite effect is created at the red end. Friction at the pivot is reduced by using jewelled bearings and also by suspending the magnet system in a fluid which reduces the weight acting on the pivot and lubricates the bearing. Turning and Acceleration Errors . In both cases the accelerating force acts through the pivot which is the magnet system's point of attachment to the aircraft. or turns through North or South. Considering the effect of these forces in the vertical plane together with the magnetic forces acting on the magnet.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-1 Fig 4 Acceleration Causing Tilt 3-2-1-1 Fig 5 Couple Causing Turn 12. the effect depends on the direction and rate of turn. turn the magnet system anti-clockwise. Page 29 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. ie the compass indicates a turn of perhaps 40° for an actual turn of 20°. the indicated turn is slower than the actual turn. Two couples. one mechanical and one magnetic. the magnet system turns in the direction of turn and in all but the most violent manoeuvres.2. ie the compass under reads the turn indicating a turn of perhaps 20° for an actual turn through 45°.1. In turns through South. ie the compass over-reads.1 . In turns through North. the magnet system turns in the opposite direction to the turn and the indicated turn is greater than the actual turn. If the error is caused by an increase in speed. If the error is caused by turning. the effect is an apparent turn to North. however.
or by a displaced lubber-line.2. (1) Acceleration on westerly headings and turns to the West cause the magnet system to rotate anti-clockwise. (4) Turns through North cause the compass to under-indicate the turn. b. The effects of turning and acceleration errors are summarized below: a. Scale error is caused by errors in the calibration of the compass card. small and light. c.1. Northern Hemisphere.1 . When reading DICS care must be taken to ensure that the eye is centred on the face of the compass. b. It can only provide magnetic heading. simple and easy to maintain and operate. (3) Acceleration causes an apparent turn to the North. Southern Hemisphere. whereas true or grid heading may be required on occasions. It must be installed in the aircraft cockpit. c. In this application it has the advantages of being cheap to purchase and install. Centring Error. The differences between the E2A. Advantages 16. b. The principles of the DICS are exemplified in the E2 series of standby compasses which are widely used (Fig 6). with figures every 30 degrees. (2) Acceleration on easterly headings and turns to the East cause the magnet system to rotate clockwise.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Summary 13. The following minor errors also occur: a. Operational Limitations 15. unaccelerated flight. E2B and E2C are minor and mostly concern the lighting arrangements. The compasses have a vertical card fastened to the magnet system. Scale Error. Centring error occurs when the compass card is not centred on the magnet system pivot. The cardinal points are Page 30 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. Parallax Error. which is normally an area of high magnetic deviation. and requiring no power. The effects are reversed in the Southern Hemisphere. A DICS has the following limitations which make it unsuitable for use as the primary heading system of a modern aircraft: a. There is insufficient torque to enable it to drive transmission systems to feed other aircraft equipment. d. (5) Turns through South cause the compass to over-indicate the turn. If the line of sight is offset parallax errors occur. It depends upon the size of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field for its drive and thus it becomes insensitive and unreliable at high magnetic latitudes. d. Despite the limitations of a DICS it is likely to be fitted to most aircraft for the foreseeable future as a standby compass. graduated every 10 degrees. A PRACTICAL DICS The E2 Series 17. e. Alignment error is caused by the incorrect mounting of the compass in the aircraft. Alignment Error. The error is corrected by the compass swing. except for lighting. Turning and acceleration errors make it only suitable for use in straight. Minor Errors 14.
1 . The magnet is a steel ring to which a dome is attached. stable flight conditions the accuracy may approach the bench accuracy of 2. Fig 7 shows an exploded view of an E2 compass. The compass bowl is filled with a silicone fluid and a bellows at the rear of the bowl allows for a change of the volume of the liquid due to variations in temperature. The compasses are designed to give an operational accuracy of ±10°. Design. Serviceability Checks.Exploded View Page 31 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. 18. and C (see Chap 3). Before use the compass should be checked to ensure that the bowl is not cracked or damaged and is completely filled with fluid that is free from excessive discolouration.2. in good. The iridium tipped pivot screws into the centre of the dome and rests in a sapphire cup secured to the vertical stem by the cupholder.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 marked with the appropriate letter. The bowl is plastic with a lubber line marked on the front inside.1.5°. 3-2-1-1 Fig 6 E2 Compass 19. Provision is made for correction of coefficients A. B. bubbles and sediment. 3-2-1-1 Fig 7 E2 Compass .
Thereafter it may be used as a heading reference during level flight provided that it is checked and reset if necessary to the correct heading periodically. Sect 4.1 . and to position a moveable heading index (see Fig 8). displacement gyro with its spin axis mounted horizontally (Refer to Vol 8. The direction indicator (DI) is used. unaccelerated flight. The display is usually in the form of a conventional plan form compass rose and the only controls provided are to reset the indicated heading. It consists of an air or electrically driven. 21. The DI must initially be set to a known heading such as that obtained from a direct indicating compass. mostly in light aircraft. Topple is controlled within acceptable limits by the action of the levelling system. Resetting should be done in straight. The direction indicator is subject to the normal wander errors associated with gyros. 3-2-1-1 Fig 8 Direction Indicator Display Page 32 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. two degree of freedom. 23. Errors 22. The spin axis is maintained in the horizontal plane either by the action of a gravity actuated torque motor or by air jets initiated by a liquid level switch. The combination of real and apparent drift could make the total error rate accrued by a direction indicator to be in the order of 10 . Pt 2.20°/hr. as a simple heading reference.1. Chap 5). hence the need to reset the instrument at regular intervals.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 DIRECTION INDICATORS Operation 20.2. Clearly the direction indicator cannot be relied upon as a primary heading reference.
the detecting element will oscillate for a considerable time before settling down. A gyroscope is unaffected by changing magnetic fields or by normal aircraft accelerations but its heading indications may be inaccurate due to the effect of precessional forces caused by friction. incorrect balance etc. This has the effect of making the compass sluggish in indicating a change of heading. ie in the cockpit where the deviating effects due to hard iron (including DC fields) and soft iron fields are large.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Heading Chapter 2 . Therefore. Since the commonly used detecting element. separate compass systems must be provided for each crew member requiring a heading readout. the gyro stabilized remote indicating (gyro-magnetic) compass gradually evolved. The gyro-magnetic compass consists essentially of a magnetic compass whose indications are stabilized gyroscopically so that the effects of turning and acceleration errors are reduced. 2. Since the Earth’s magnetic field strength cannot provide sufficient torque for driving repeater indicators from one master detector element.Gyro-Magnetic Compasses Introduction 1. In the case of the direct indicating compasses. In addition to these errors. The direct indicating compass is subject to errors due to two main causes. the fluxvalve. The pendulously suspended magnet system is subject to errors due to accelerations. it is affected by accelerations. is pendulously suspended. Although a number of these systems have been designed using different detecting and stabilizing techniques.1. the principle underlying the gyro-magnetic system is to integrate the heading indication of Page 33 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. 3.2 . magnetic fields of the aircraft structure and flight accelerations. General 5.2. 4. A further disadvantage of the direct indicating compass is that indications of direction can be given at only one position in the aircraft. magnetic fields due to aircraft magnetism are accentuated by the necessary positioning of the compass so that it can be read by the pilot/navigator. After an alteration of heading. the effect of reduction in the directional force acting on the detecting element renders the direct reading instrument unreliable in high magnetic latitudes where the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field is weak. The remote indicating compass was developed to reduce the errors of the direct indicating compass and to evolve an instrument giving automatic continuous direction which could be fed to other instruments.
Control synchros are usually used for this purpose. the fluxvalve. A deviation compensator is usually mounted on top of the unit. 11. in a turn the fluxvalve heading is likely to be in error so the control rate must be engineered so that the induced heading is that of the gyro. Fluxvalve Theory 10. The Fluxvalve.2. 3-2-1-2 Fig 1 Fluxvalve 8. 9. When considering the various units associated with the design of gyro-magnetic compass systems. The degree of control of the fluxvalve over the gyroscope. The fluxvalve.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the magnetic compass with the directional properties of a gyroscope so that a compromise between the two is achieved. The pendulous detector element resembles a three spoke wheel with the spokes 120° apart and slotted through the rim. or the monitoring rate. the rotor of a control receiver can be attached to a digital counter. see Fig 1. ie the spin axis in the local horizontal plane. The transmission system provides data transmission between compass system components and to associated equipments. For a heading display. Short term azimuth stability is typically provided by a two degree-of-freedom gyro with the input axis vertical. The Page 34 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:39 2002 Heading 3. a moveable pointer against a fixed card or a moveable card against a fixed lubber line.1. it is logical to break them down into three basic components. At the same time there must be sufficient control to correct the gyro drift. For example. It is usually remotely located in a wing tip or fin in an area relatively free from aircraft magnetic disturbances.2 . Basic Components 6. A fluxvalve is the detecting element of many remote indicating compasses and it provides the long term azimuth reference for the gyroscope. consists of a sensitive pendulous element which is free to swing within limits (usually ± 25°) but fixed to the aircraft in azimuth. The net result is to reduce the individual errors of each. 7. is of considerable importance. The technique most commonly used is to reference the azimuth gyroscope initially to the magnetic meridian and to maintain the relationship by applying precessional forces to the gyroscope based on long term magnetic azimuth information from the fluxvalve detector. The Gyroscope. The Transmission and Display System. the transmission and display system. The element is suspended by a Hooke’s Joint with the whole assembly being hermetically sealed in a case partially filled with oil to dampen oscillations. and the gyroscope.
its output is affected by the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field and the flux passing through the coil is proportional to the magnetic heading of the aircraft. 12. the amplitude and phase representing the relationship of magnetic North to the aircraft longitudinal axis (magnetic heading). 3-2-1-2 Fig 2 Vertical Cross-section of Spoke This cone has an exciter coil wound round it on a vertical axis.2. The output of the secondary or pick-off coil is an 800 Hz single phase AC current. The exciter coil is fed with 400 Hz single phase AC. The coil output curve is shown at Fig 4. In order to appreciate the operation of the fluxvalve it is necessary to consider an individual spoke. The function of a spoke will be developed in a series of diagrams (Figs 3 to 10).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 rim forms a collector horn for each spoke. The spoke consists of two superimposed legs which are separated by plastic material and opened out to enclose the central hub cone. If a single coil is placed in a magnetic field. The H cos θ component is parallel to the coil and is the effective flux producing element.2 . and maximum but of opposite sense relative to the coil when turned 180° from its original position. the magnetic flux passing through the coil is maximum when the axis of the coil is in line with the direction of the field. the total flux passing through the coil is proportional to the cosine of the angle between the direction of the coil axis and the direction of the field. If the coil is in the horizontal plane with its axis parallel with the aircraft longitudinal axis. The horns and spokes are made up of a series of metal laminations having a high magnetic permeability. Each spoke has a vertical cross-section similar to that shown in Fig 2.1. 3-2-1-2 Fig 3 Magnetic Flux Components Page 35 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:39 2002 Heading 3. 13. Therefore. zero when the coil lies at right angles to the field. one along the coil equal to H cos θ and the other at right angles to the coil equal to H sin θ. and each spoke has a pick-off coil wound round both legs on a horizontal axis. For a coil placed at an angle θ to a field of strength H (see Fig 3) the field can be resolved into two components.
2. the simple concept just described cannot be used without modification as a heading reference system for two important reasons. Firstly. once established on a heading. the voltage induced into a coil depends on the rate of change of flux. Permalloy has a very high magnetic permeability (µ = B/H) and a corresponding low hysteresis loss. ie there are always two headings which cause the same induced output voltage. Fig 5 shows the relationship between flux density (B) and magnetizing force (H) known as the hysteresis loop for the permalloy commonly used in the legs of the flux valve spokes. 15. 3-2-1-2 Fig 5 Hysteresis Curve for Permalloy Page 36 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:39 2002 Heading 3. In the following discussion the hysteresis loop is represented by a single line curve. the output of the simple detection device would be subject to heading ambiguity. Secondly. no induced voltage. there would be no change of flux and. phase or amplitude) to the components of the Earth’s field and linked with the coil.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 4 Variation of Flux with Theta 14. This is achieved in the fluxvalve by introducing an alternating magnetic field in addition to the static field caused by the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field. the problem that must be solved is how to produce an output waveform which is proportional in some way (frequency. Unfortunately. Therefore.2 .1. consequently. Therefore.
is linked with the circuit.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 16. 3-2-1-2 Fig 6 Simple Fluxvalve 17. 3-2-1-2 Fig 7 The Effect of Excitation Current in the Top Leg Only Page 37 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:39 2002 Heading 3. It consists of a pair of soft iron (usually permalloy) cones each wound with a primary coil. A secondary coil.1. Fig 7 shows the 400 Hz alternating flux induced in the top leg by the excitation current considering only the top leg of the spoke and the effect of the excitation.2. The winding on one core is the reverse of that on the other. at peak power. The AC supply is just sufficient. One spoke of the three-spoke fluxvalve is shown diagrammatically in Fig 6. wound round the two primaries. and any change of flux through it induces a voltage and current flows.2 . to saturate magnetically each of the parallel soft iron cores.
2. Therefore. ie the flux in the bottom leg is 180° out of phase with the flux in the top leg as shown in Fig 8. 3-2-1-2 Fig 8 The Effect of the Excitation Current in the Bottom Leg Only 19. 3-2-1-2 Fig 9 The Effect of the Excitation Current in Both Legs Page 38 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3. Since the top and bottom legs are identical. the flux induced in this leg by the excitation current will at any instant be in the opposite direction to that induced in the top leg.1. which is the algebraic sum of the flux in the top and bottom legs is zero as shown in Fig 9. the amplitudes of the flux of the two legs are equal but 180° out of phase with each other relative to the pick-off coil.2 . Now considering the bottom leg only. the resultant flux cutting the pick-off coil. which is wound round both legs.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 18.
it will induce a steady flux in both legs of the spoke which will be added to the flux due to the excitation current. on the B-H curve by an amount equal to H.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 20. will no longer be zero but will have a resultant proportional in amplitude to heading. Therefore. The resultant flux cutting the pick-off coil.2. which is the algebraic sum of the fluxes in the top and bottom legs. the excitation current is biased further from the mid-point of the hysteresis curve. Therefore. It has been found by experiment that the amplitude of the emf is proportional to H. if a greater H is detected. ie the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field in line with the spoke. will be to bias the datum for the magnetizing force. This should be apparent from Fig 10 in that. The effect. The strength of the excitation current is so arranged that the effect of the introduction of the Earth’s magnetic field component is to bring the flux density curves in Fig 10 onto the saturation part of the hysteresis curve. 3-2-1-2 Fig 10 The Combine Effects of the Excitation Current and the Component of the Earth's Field Page 39 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3. If the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field (H) is now added in line with the spoke. the emf in the pick-off coil is a measure of H. and the imbalance between the upper and lower leg fluxes will increase. ie twice the frequency of the excitation current as shown in Fig 10. a greater resultant flux exists which will induce an emf of greater amplitude in the pick-off coil. as shown in Fig 10.2 . The emf induced in the pick-off coil is proportional to the rate of change of flux cutting the coil and therefore will have a waveform approximating to a sine wave at 800 Hz. A plot of the amplitude of the pick-off coil output voltage would show that it varies as the cosine of the magnetic heading. due to the excitation current.1.
This ambiguity is overcome by using a fluxvalve having three spokes (each spoke similar to the single spoked device previously discussed) with 120° separation as shown in Fig 11. Regardless of the heading. The resultant field across the receiver stator is still aligned with H (see Fig 13).1. there will be four headings corresponding to a single voltmeter reading. This produces a change in the static flux linking the spoke. This limitation is overcome in the three-spoke fluxvalve because the flux associated with each spoke will change in proportion to the change in H. even though the heading may remain unchanged. Limitations of the Simple Single Spoke Detector. For any other value of flux (other than zero).2 .2.schematic Page 40 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3. The simple one-spoke detector suffers from another limitation in that the value of H changes with magnetic latitude. 3-2-1-2 Fig 11 Detector Unit and Transmission System . at least two of the spokes will have a voltage induced and their vector sum points to magnetic North (see Fig 12).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 21. The two maximum values give the same reading on an AC voltmeter since the instrument cannot take into account the direction of the voltage. It should be apparent that there are two magnetic headings corresponding to zero flux (90° and 270°) and two headings corresponding to a maximum flux.
1.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 12 Operation of the Three-spoke Fluxvalve 3-2-1-2 Fig 13 Eliminating Latitude Ambiguity Page 41 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3.2 .2.
It has been shown that the resultant field produced by the three pick-off coils is directly related to the direction of the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field. 3-2-1-2 Fig 14 Action of the Fluxvalve and Transmission System Page 42 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3. The Transmission/Display System 23. A null seeking rotor will follow this field change since it remains at right angles to the field and may be used to transmit any change in aircraft heading. In the three-spoke fluxvalve a single primary coil excites all six cores.1. the direction of the induced field will change accordingly. The exciter coil is fed with 400 Hz single-phase current so that each of the three pick-off coils has an emf at 800 Hz induced in it whose amplitude is proportional to the magnetic heading of the aircraft. This increases the static flux and therefore the induced voltage. as a result of the effects of a heading change in the fluxvalve. The flux induced in the upper core of the spoke is equal and opposite to that induced in the lower core and this is exactly the effect produced by the primary windings in the simple fluxvalve. it will be apparent that the top and the bottom of the exciter coil have opposite polarity. It is now necessary to convey this heading information from the detector unit to those positions in the aircraft where the information is required. Each core of the fluxvalve is fitted with a flux collector horn to concentrate the Earth’s lines of force through the core. The fluxvalve can be likened to a control transmitter where the transmitter rotor field is represented by the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field. 24. The three arms of the fluxvalve are wound with secondary or pick-off coils which are star connected.2. This is achieved by means of the transmission system. A field is set up across the receiver stator in a direction determined by the resolution of the current flowing in each of the receiver stator coils. If a single arm of the fluxvalve is considered.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 22. When the pattern of current flow changes in the receiver stator. The voltage induced in the fluxvalve pick-off coils cause a current to flow along the connecting lines to the receiver stator (see Fig 14).2 .
HEADING ERRORS INDUCED BY THE FLUXVALVE General 26. It can be said at this point that those errors are present to some extent even in gyro-magnetic compass systems. The wiring will depend on whether it is necessary to drive a compass needle or a compass card. Since most compass systems in use have refinements which to some extent compensate the errors outlined here.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 25. This approach will simplify the presentation of the errors associated only with the fluxvalve without having to consider gyro behaviour. Such a system is illustrated in Fig 15. the following discussion considers a single system without compensation or refinement of any sort apart from deviation correction.2 . the field across the fluxvalve (which always points to magnetic North) will rotate in an anti-clockwise direction. If the aircraft alters heading to starboard. The outputs from the second and third fluxvalve spokes may be wired to the second and third receiver stator coils respectively or vice versa. The errors discussed under this section are limited to those evident in a magnetic compass system without gyroscopic azimuth stabilization. In this case a compass needle must rotate clockwise (therefore 2 to 3 and 3 to 2).2.1. but a card rotating against a stationary lubber line must rotate anti-clockwise in which case the second and third fluxvalve spokes are attached to their respective receiver stator coils. Page 43 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3. ie the fluxvalve is connected directly to the indicator.
2. Any vertical component of the Earth’s field (Z) linked through the fluxvalve coils will cause an error in the output heading. Fig 16 illustrates a fluxvalve fitted in an aircraft on a heading of magnetic North. can be quite large.1. Only the horizontal component (H) threads the fluxvalve spokes to produce this result. 3-2-1-2 Fig 16 Indication of Magnetic North 3-2-1-2 Fig 17 Effect of a Gross Tilt to Port Page 44 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:41 2002 Heading 3. 2 and 3 are such that they produce component magnetic fields in the error detector which compound to produce a resultant magnetic field in a direction indicating magnetic North.2 . accelerations act upon the fluxvalve which tilt it slightly and small errors result. In ostensibly straight and level flight. The currents induced in spokes 1.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 15 Simple Remote Indicating Compass Detector Tilt Error 27. The fluxvalve will provide a correct output of magnetic heading only if the detecting element is maintained in the local horizontal plane. 28. ie only detecting the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field (H). At this stage it is sufficient to note that even small tilts can cause significant errors in heading. and hence the tilts and errors. During manoeuvres the accelerations.
In Fig 18 the dip is increased. Therefore. In this case the direction of magnetic North is rotated anti-clockwise and the heading indication is an over reading.1. the components threading the spokes will alter. The error also depends on magnetic dip for.2 . The induced currents in the spokes change as the components of the total field through them change. In Fig 17 the fluxvalve is tilted through 90° to port. 3-2-1-2 Fig 18 Effect of Change of Dip 3-2-1-2 Fig 19 Effect of Direction of Tilt Page 45 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:41 2002 Heading 3. in this case the component in spoke 1 remains unchanged while that in 2 increases and 3 decreases. 30. thereby increasing the error and reversing one component in this particular case. At intermediate tilts the error would be less. if the case at Fig 17 is repeated with a different dip.2. The resultant field in the error detector is displaced and an error in heading results.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 29.
c. Direction of tilt. In this case the flux flow through each spoke changes but the proportion of one to the other remains unchanged. if the tilt exceeds 90° − dip. Here. 32. the error produced by tilting depends on the following factors: a. Fig 19 shows how a tilt in the direction of the total field may produce no error.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 31.2 . Therefore. Magnetic dip (δ) 3-2-1-2 Fig 20 Tilt Exceeds 90 deg minus Dip 3-2-1-2 Fig 21 Typical Errors in Magnetic Heading Due to Tilt Page 46 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:41 2002 Heading 3. The intensity of the resultant field increases but the direction remains the same. Angle of tilt b. the flux flow in each spoke is reversed and the error is 180°.2.1. A second case exists in which the tilt is in the opposite sense as in Fig 20. The direction of tilt relative to the total field is also important.
these include: a. Gross errors occur when tilt is greater than 90 − δ due to field reversal (see para 31). Any tendency for the gyro to drift away from its alignment datum may be checked by slaving it to the fluxvalve when the aircraft is straight and level. THEORY OF THE GYRO-MAGNETIC COMPASS General 34. the larger the error. the bigger the tilt and the dip. These are discussed in paras 44-49. A number of factors exist during flight which can cause fluxvalve tilts. If the two headings are not equal.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Typical values of the error in the fluxvalve output are shown against the direction θ of the axis of tilt for various values of tilt in Fig 21. Aircraft linear acceleration. To overcome the inaccuracies in magnetic heading obtained from a tilted fluxvalve. a gyro must be added to the system. e. This precession continues until the two headings are equal and the correct heading is displayed. c. b.2 .2. An important principle is illustrated here. Page 47 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:41 2002 Heading 3. Coriolis accelerations. uncorrected and uncompensated gyro-magnetic compass system.1. Fluxvalve vibration. if an error exists in gyro heading. The incorporation of a gyro introduces a number of new errors in the heading output of the system. d. the displayed heading must also be in error. Vehicle movement (rhumb line) acceleration. but these errors are more than offset by the improvement in accuracy which results from having an accurate mechanical datum about which any change of heading may be measured. In general. Central acceleration caused by aircraft turns. The fluxvalve magnetic heading is compared with gyro heading at an error detection device. an error signal is developed. 33. Mechanization 35. Since gyro heading is displayed. amplified and used to precess the gyro. The simple schematic at Fig 22 shows a basic.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 36. the purely linear system also has its limitations. The common solution to the precession mechanization problem is a compromise between the step function and the linear function techniques . gyro precession rates are proportional to the error signal for small discrepancies. In a gyro-magnetic compass system in which the gyro is controlled by the limited linear concept. in Fig 23c. small torques are applied and vice versa. 39. modern gyro magnetic compasses commonly use the random gyro azimuth technique in which the gyro spin axis can point in any direction relative to magnetic North or aircraft heading. Not only is such a system difficult to engineer. ie for small errors. Linear function correction 3-2-1-2 Fig 22 Basic Gyro-magnetic Compass c. The method of mechanizing the gyro precession loop is of extreme importance.namely the method shown in Fig 23c. Three methods of accomplishing the task are as follows: a.2 . the gyro precession rate (Wc) is proportional to ε. b. 180° can exist between gyro and magnetic heading. When the system is initially switched on. Step function (bang-bang) correction. where ε is ≤ 2°. 180° would demand an excessive precession rate. The linear correction technique (Fig 23b) appears to be ideal since the correction rate (Wc) is proportional to the error signal (ε). but gyro behaviour suffers severely from nodding or nutation and secondary precession. Therefore. For example. the limited linear technique. 38.2. If the system were mechanized to provide an adequate rate of precession for small errors. 37. A problem exists when very large errors occur. Limited linear function correction. however Wc cannot exceed 2° per min regardless of the size of ε 3-2-1-2 Fig 23 Gyro Correction Techniques Page 48 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3.1. For example. The step function correction technique requires the gyro-fluxvalve error signal (ε) to be removed at a fixed rate (Wc) whenever it is generated (see Fig 23a).
The current flowing through the precession coil will also reduce. Conversely. for an initial error of 2° and a τ of 2 minutes. the currents induced in the spokes of the fluxvalve are passed to a receiver synchro (CT) and produce a field across the rotor from which the aircraft magnetic heading can be determined. the rate of precession (Wc) is given by: " 2± = = 4± per min ¿ 0. If Wc is in degrees per minute and ε is in degrees. The electrical output of the rotor is taken to the gyro azimuth precession coils which are threaded by a permanent magnet. gyro and compass needle will all be correctly aligned. the rotor will be misaligned causing a current to flow in it which is fed to the precession coil to correct the gyro. Therefore. Therefore. a current will flow through the precession coils setting up a magnetic field which will set up a force on the permanent magnet. Typical Gyro Slaving Mechanization. The authority of the fluxvalve over the gyro is effectively controlled by τ. when the receiver rotor is lying in the null position. The rate of precession in a limited linear system is controlled by the amplified error signal and. the rate of precession multiplied by a constant is equal to the gyro-fluxvalve discrepancy of WcK = ε (degrees). the fluxvalve.2. the dimension of K must be time. the error will reduce exponentially until at the end of 5τ (10 mins) the error is effectively reduced to zero. if τ is substituted for K and it has the dimension of time (commonly minutes).1. therefore the rate of gyro precession decreases as the error diminishes. Notice that t does not express explicitly the time to correct a given error since the rate of correction reduces as the error reduces so it takes much longer than τ minutes to correct the error. it would be expected that any discrepancy between gyro and fluxvalve was caused by the gyro. As the rotor approaches the null. τ is referred to as the time constant of the system. the current flowing in it will reduce. the rotor is repositioned by mechanical feedback until eventually it reaches its null position. As the gyro precesses. Therefore.5 min Wc = Obviously the larger the time constant. Significance of τ. Time Constant. 41. the gyro should be less closely tied to the fluxvalve and a large time constant anticipated.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 40. " = Wc ¿ Therefore if ε = 2° and τ = 0. a short τ should be anticipated. for the linear portion of the curve. If the rotor is not at right angles to the field set up by the stator coils.5 minutes. is arranged to be proportional to the error. If an error occurs between gyro and fluxvalve. If the compass system contains a poor quality gyro. Since the compass needle is driven by the gyro. 42. Since the error reduces exponentially.2 . t directly gives the time it takes to remove 63% of the error. The implementation of a typical limited linear control is illustrated in the block diagram at Fig 24 and the schematic at Fig 25. 3-2-1-2 Fig 24 Compass Block Diagram Page 49 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3. if a high quality gyro with a low real drift rate is incorporated. the slower is the rate of precession. It would require approximately 5τ to remove all the error in a step error function. assuming small errors. This rotational torque will be translated through 90° by the gyro and will cause it to precess in azimuth. therefore.
the H field strength must be quoted with τ to make τ meaningful. The H field strength at Greenwich is the common datum quoted by British gyro-magnetic compass system manufacturers. An increase in τ will make the system sluggish and will also tend to magnify any hang-off error present (see para 50). Since the amount of torque applied to the gyro azimuth precession device depends on rotor current. Page 50 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3. However. Although the direction of the resolved voltages remains the same. the amplitudes of the voltages induced in the fluxvalve spokes are reduced proportionally. the field strength across the receiver stator will be reduced and the rotor current flow for any given misalignment will decrease.2. As the H field strength decreases due to northward movement.1. Since τ changes with H field strength. Therefore. the size of the currents transmitted to the receiver synchro are smaller. the fluxvalve is less reliable due to the reduction of H field strength and an automatic increase of τ is acceptable. The reduction in gyro correction rate with a decrease of H field strength (or an increase in magnetic latitude) results in effectively the same phenomenon as would be achieved by increasing τ. The Change in τ with H. the precession will also decrease.2 . Fig 26 illustrates the relationship between H field strength and gyro precession rate in a typical compass system. if the aircraft is operating at high latitudes.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 25 Typical Gyro Slaving Mechanization (Simplified Schematic) 43.
The amplitude of the displayed heading error in a gyro-magnetic compass due to co-ordinated aircraft turns is less than that shown in Fig 21. Turning Error. The errors decay after level flight is resumed. Although a high rate of turn in a fast aircraft would show the greatest fluxvalve heading error. The error is calculable. The rate of heading error incorporation depends on the limiting precession rate and the length of τ. aircraft turns. An aircraft flying relative to a spherical rotating Earth flies a curved path in space and in consequence there will be a central force acting to displace the pendulously suspended fluxvalve. Coriolis Error. When established on a given heading for approximately 5τ the entire error would be included in the gyro-magnetic compass heading display. latitude.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 26 Effect of a Change in H on the Time Constant GYRO-MAGNETIC COMPASS SYSTEM ERRORS Fluxvalve Tilt Error 44. 46. All of the horizontal accelerations which cause fluxvalve tilt can cause heading errors in a simple uncompensated gyro-magnetic compass system.1.2 . Accelerations are caused by coriolis. Slow prolonged turns at high speeds generate the greatest errors. Page 51 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3. and can be compensated automatically. dip and track. depending on groundspeed. linear changes of velocity and fluxvalve vibrations. vehicle movement (rhumb line). little of the error is displayed since the time spent in the turn is minimal. 45. Fluxvalve induced heading errors will not appear immediately in the displayed heading of a gyro-magnetic compass. Fluxvalve induced errors due to tilt can be limited by switching the system to an unslaved directional gyro mode whenever turns are sensed by suitable detection devices.
Failure to update the variation value will result in small hang-off errors. or simply as velocity lag. 48. Apparent azimuth gyro drift due to Earth rotation can be countered by correcting the gyro at a rate of 15 sin lat° /hr. Transport Wander. if an aircraft on North banks to starboard to correct a small error. and decreases with an increase in τ. This tilts the fluxvalve which rotates the meridian to port.2 . c. A correction can be applied in a similar manner to the coriolis error. the outer gimbal must rotate to maintain orientation of the rotor axis. the magnetic meridian rotates in the same direction. Fluxvalve Vibration. Fluxvalve vibration results in a heading oscillation. To remove this error variation must be applied to the output of the detector unit before the gyro error loop so that both the gyro and fluxvalve give directional information relative to true North.1. The incidence of this error depends upon the angle of bank and the angular difference between the spin axis and the longitudinal axis and as in most systems the spin axis direction is arbitrary relative to North the error is not easily predicted. Gyro drift may be due to: a. Real drift can only be reduced by the incorporation of a high quality azimuth gyro having a low real drift rate. This is known variously as hang-off error.2. or through a constantly biased gyro. the output from the fluxvalve is in terms of magnetic North. at any given time there must be an increment of error present. Hang-off Error 50. Although the error disappears when Page 52 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3. The new false meridian is chased until. To compensate for transport wander due to the convergence of geographic meridians the gyro must be corrected at a rate equal to: U tan lat± /hr where U = East-West groundspeed 60 The correction can be applied manually or through a computer using inputs of groundspeed. Vehicle Movement Error. Thus. Gimbal Error 51. The cyclic pattern is repeated and the amplitude can be as great as 6°. Real Drift. However although the gyro can be compensated in this way for the apparent change in the direction of geographic North. Another way of looking at this is to imagine that the magnetic meridian rotates clockwise. On levelling out. heading and latitude. Northerly Instability 49. Starboard bank of the aircraft induces starboard tilt. The amplitude of the weave tends to increase with an increase in dip and aircraft velocity. Weaving can thus be reduced to a certain extent by increasing the time constant of the compass system. The indicated heading changes and the aircraft is banked to port to regain a northerly indicated heading. The aircraft continues to turn and eventually reaches the false meridian. and although it will be compensated for by the precession loop at a rate dependent on τ. The value of variation can be inserted manually or by means of an automatic variation setting control unit. The latter technique employs a mass imbalance in the gyro which constantly precesses the gyro at a predetermined rate. Northerly instability or weaving is a heading oscillation experienced in high speed aircraft attempting to fly straight and level at or near a heading of magnetic North. the mean of which is not the actual mean heading. When a 2 degree of freedom gyroscope with a horizontal spin axis is both banked and rolled. and this causes an under reading of the heading. Whenever flying a true or magnetic rhumb line the aircraft must turn to maintain a constant track with reference to converging meridians. Gyroscopic drift is a constant source of error signal in a gyro-magnetic compass system. b. usually to compensate for an appropriate latitude for the aircraft's area of operation. stand-off error. upon resuming level flight. Since the gyro slaving loop tends to average fluxvalve headings over a period of time. the acceleration displaces the detector from the local horizontal plane and the entire resultant heading error would appear in the displayed heading after about 5τ. say 51° N. the fluxvalve senses the true meridian and starts to precess the gyro towards it. Earth Rate. automatically from a computer using GPI latitude. thereby inducing a heading error at the outer gimbal pick-off. The effect can be limited to small values by careful design of the pendulous detector damping mechanism and through consideration of the location of the detector in the aircraft. Therefore as the aircraft moves over the Earth there will be a difference between fluxvalve and gyro since the variation is changing (unless the aircraft is flying along an isogonal). the gyro would eventually be precessed to the erroneous fluxvalve mean heading. As with coriolis error. The correction can be supplied through a manually set latitude correction mechanism.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 47. However this leads to a sluggish response and a large hang-off error (para 50). the sensor detects the true meridian again and precesses the gyro to starboard.
1° and 2°. Variation and Deviation Errors 54. Page 53 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:43 2002 Heading 3.1. Fig 27 depicts some of the methods of error reduction. Note that corrections may be made “up” or “down” stream of the gyro or a combination of both.5°. there are disadvantages to all approaches.25° A Refined Compass System 55. 56. The computer supplies the quantities for Earth rate and meridian convergence to the error detector.1° with an overall system error of perhaps 0. producing a small error in computed position.2 .2°. The following description applies to Fig 27: a. Compass Swinging Errors 53. Different methods of correction are possible for some of the errors depending on the whims of the individual manufacturer and the users considerations of experience and accuracy. Setting of variation and deviation is likely to be accurate to 0. Hang-off. Therefore.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the aircraft is levelled. the rate of gyro drift sensed is reduced considerably and hang-off results from only random drift. It is not possible to obtain absolute accuracy in compass swinging. but they might be considered to vary between 0. 3-2-1-2 Fig 27 Ideal Gyro-magnetic Compass b. Over the UK the uncertainty at height is considered to be within 1° but the value varies both with height and locality. Typically each synchro might be expected to a have an error in the order of 0. it will have accumulated in any GPI equipment. Coriolis and Vehicle Movement Accelerations. Overall system accuracy is lowered by the errors in the synchro systems. This shows in a compass swing as a D or E error. The corrections for coriolis and vehicle movement are applied at the fluxvalve by reducing or increasing the output from the athwartships spokes. There are no reliable statistical data on the errors in charted values of variation.2. and even refined methods are considered to be only accurate to 0. Transmission Errors 52.
1. d. Operation on DG. Gimbal error is eliminated by the use of a vertical gyro coupled with four gimbal suspension to keep the azimuth gyro and the azimuth pick-off synchro horizontal. thus reducing weaving. e. f.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. Northerly Instability. Variable gain in the precession amplifier maintains the value of τ constant. The fluxvalve monitor and the computer rate of change variation are cut out when on DG.2. The accuracy of the heading then depends on random drift error. 3-2-1-2 Fig 23a Step Function 3-2-1-2 Fig 23b Linear Function Page 54 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:43 2002 Heading 3. A compensation is applied to counter coefficients D and E. Gimbal Error. the error in the gyro correction terms and the statistical error ie transmission error. Coefficient D and E. for variable H.2 .
1.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 23c Limited Linear Function Heading Page 55 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:43 2002 Heading 3.3 .2.
A heading index registers against the outside edge of. The reciprocal of the track set is indicated by a track index tail on the centre display assembly. and rotates with. b. the compass card. The index can be manually set relative to the compass card by a select heading knob which is marked with a symbol representing the heading index and is located at the lower left-hand corner of the instrument.2. Display and Features 2. Track Index and Counter. The bar moves left or right of the centre index to indicate deviation from the selected track when TACAN or ILS Page 56 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:44 2002 Heading 3. Heading is indicated at the top of the display by a rotating compass card moving against a fixed 'V' lubber mark. Although installations will vary slightly between aircraft types. the compass card. Heading Index. which is on the centre display assembly. A 3-digit display of the selection is given on a track (COURSE) counter at the top right of the display. A track index. When the compass system is set to the directional gyro mode the compass select flag appears with the letters DG displayed. functions in a similar manner and is able to handle more services.1. e. registers against the inside edge of. and rotates with. employing a coloured liquid crystal display. The selector knob is marked with a symbol representing the track index. The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) is an instrument for displaying both the compass system and the radio navigation aids in an aircraft (usually TACAN and VOR/ILS). c.3 . The index can be manually set relative to the compass card by a selector knob at the lower right-hand corner of the instrument. Deviation Bar.Horizontal Situation Indicators Introduction 1. An electronic version. The card is graduated at 5° intervals and is marked alphanumerically at 30° intervals with the numerical annotations being in tens of degrees. d. A deviation bar and a fixed scale of two dots either side of a centre index are on the centre display assembly. Compass Select Flag.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Chapter 3 . a typical conventional display is illustrated in Fig 1 and the features are described below: 3-2-1-3 Fig 1 Horizontal Situation Indicator a. Heading.
The pointer is driven by the ILS equipment and indicates the vertical position of the ILS glidepath relative to the aircraft.2. UHF and VHF homers and specialist navigational aids. l. Displays and Controls. The bar indicates the relative position of the chosen track as selected by the track index. Pushing the TM switch associated with the instrument configured for ILS will transfer the ILS information to the other instrument. a white flag is displayed in the 'to' or 'from' window. Track Select Knob. In helicopters. b. A yellow bar obscures the counter when range information is invalid.3 . A pointer to the left of the compass card moves over a fixed vertical scale consisting of two dots above and two dots below a circle (representing the aircraft). When enabled by the Heading Select Pushbutton. An orange flag with black diagonal stripes appears when the power to the HSI has failed or when an invalid signal is transmitted from the compass system. eg if the pointer is above the circle the aircraft is below the glidepath. To/From Indication. 6. the TACAN radial can be set on one instrument and the ILS QDM on the other. TACAN Bearing. TACAN. A Transfer Mode (TM) switch enables the course selector display of one instrument to be transferred to the other. Range to a TACAN or DME beacon in nautical miles is shown on a 3-digit counter at the upper left corner of the instrument. A mode select panel will be available to each pilot position with buttons for selection of each available feature. g. Heading Select Knob. Conversely the 'from' flag shows white whenever the bearing from the TACAN beacon is 90° or more from the selected TACAN radial. h. Heading Select Pushbutton. ILS Localizer or TACAN Bearing Warning. k. a TACAN radial set on the track index and the bearing pointer locked on to a TACAN beacon. When first switched on or after a power break the EHSI will have no mode indicated in the bottom right hand corner. Operation of the controls annotated on Fig 2 may depend upon the mode selected. Therefore. With TACAN selected. a. Fig 2 shows a typical instrument in VOR mode. Power Failure Warning. for example. The relevant Aircrew Manual will set out the precise operation of the system. display colours may vary depending upon which mode is selected. The 'to' flag is displayed whenever the bearing from the TACAN is less than 90° from the selected TACAN radial. There is a slight ratchet effect to give positive feel. rotating the Heading Select Knob sets the heading bug.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 information is selected. The magnetic bearing to a TACAN ground beacon is indicated by a green pointer head when read against the compass card. Glidepath Deviation Pointer. The 'to' window is adjacent to the track index and the 'from' window is adjacent to the tail of the track index. It receives inputs from the aircraft compass. A red flag appears below the COURSE counter when the ILS localizer or the TACAN bearing information is invalid. depending on aircraft fit. VOR/ILS and. the numbered items described in the key are displayed only when the appropriate inputs are valid. A positive press of the Heading Select Pushbutton of at least 0. A red flag appears above the glidepath deviation scale when the glidepath information is invalid. The knob is normally disabled 5 sec after its last rotation.1. The EHSI can be configured to provides more information than the HSI and employs a colour active matrix liquid crystal display. ELECTRONIC HSI (EHSI) Description 3. i. A brief description of each is given below.1 sec is required to enable the Heading Select Knob. j. TACAN Range. c. In different installations. rotation of the Track Select Knob allows the track Page 57 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:44 2002 Heading 3. Glidepath Warning. the EHSI is also linked to the hovermeter. When enabled by the Track Select Pushbutton. The TACAN bearing and radial are also displayed when ILS is selected. The tail of the pointer indicates the TACAN radial. f. Two triangular indicator windows. In most cases. Mode Select Panel 4. Displays 5. 'to' and 'from' are on the centre display assembly.
Double Bar Pointer (VOR Bearing).Wind Speed Readout. The key to Fig 2 describes the numbered indicators shown on the diagram for VOR/ILS mode. The direction fr om which the wind is blowing is shown by a yellow diamond. The ar rowhead on the single bar pointer indicates the bearing of the TACAN station locked on.Lubber Line.7.8. functions and colours of the displayed features may change from those depicted. The associated track digital readout (10) follows the pointer setting.Track (Course) Pointer. The pointer clears if a TACAN station is not locked on or if the compass input fails. Positive feel is given by a slight ratchet effect. Aircraft Symbol.6.4. the symbol represents aircraft orientation against the steering pointer or deviation bar.5. The TACAN/DME readout is a digital display which shows the slant range to a lo cked on TACAN or DME station.2. one click of the ratchet equating to 1 degree change in selected track. T he compass card indicates gyro-compass heading in conjunction with the lubber line (2). Wind speed to the nearest knot is shown by a yellow digital display. Functionality.2. A positive press of the Track Select Pushbutton of at least 0. The card rotates clockwise as the aircra ft turns left.1. In other modes the names.VOR Mode Selected 1. The sensor automatically adjusts the display brightness in daylight. The knob is automatically disabled 5 sec after its last rotation. f. d. The display clears wh en there is no source data or if the compass input fails. 3-2-1-3 Fig 2 EHSI . The bug clears if the compass input fails. The cross end of the Track Pointer indicates th Page 58 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:44 2002 Heading 3. The appropriate Aircrew Manual should be consulted for precise details. Track Select Pushbutton. The diamond clears when there is no source data or if the compas s input fails. The arrowhead on the double bar pointer ind icates the bearing of the VOR station locked on. h.Wind Direction Indicator. the card freezes and a red HDG FAIL caption is superimposed. The aircraft symbol is always aligned pointing towards the heading lubber line at the top of the instrument.3 . The lubber line is the index against which heading is shown on the compass card. The pointer clears if the VOR receiver is not locked to a station or if the compa ss input fails.9.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 pointer to be set to the required track. A separate manually operated dimmer sets the brightness for night operations. If the compass fails. g.Compass Card.TACAN/DME Range Readout.Single Bar Pointer (TACAN Bearing). Mode Displays. When a navigation mode is active. the display shows 4 dashes. Most coloured symbols are cleared when the service is not activated or the compass input fails.Heading Bug. e. Integrated Light Sensor.3. The heading bug is set by the Heading Select Knob to indicate the required heading.1 sec is required to enable the Heading Select Knob. When not locked on.
The deviation bar shows track deviation left or right of that selected on the Track Pointer (9). The compass system accurately defines the magnetic meridian and the bearing plate is then aligned with. 3-2-2-1 Fig 1 Mk1A Instrument. The sighting telescope is sighted along the datum line and the bearing of the line of sight is read off from the bearing plate through a microscope. A further version.1 . A Mk2 version was produced which improved upon the Mk1 by being partially waterproofed and provided with luminescent ‘Betalights’ for night operation. where the aircraft compass heading is used as an input to a navigation system this datum is provided by a more accurate Watts Datum Compass. the aircraft should be turned towards the bar until the bar centralizes and then on to a new heading to keep the bar in the centre. To return t o track.14. and locked to. Objective-End View Showing Tripod Mounting 3-2-2-1 Fig 2 Mk1A Instrument. However.10.‘From’ Flag. Alignment Chapter 1 .Track (Course) Deviation Scale. denotes the model produced for use in industry.12. The ‘From’ Flag is a white d otted arrowhead which is displayed once the aircraft has passed over or abeam the locked station.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 e track selected.‘To’ Flag. the aircraft compass heading is read with the aid of a Precise Heading Test Set (PHTS) which permits the aircraft heading to be recorded to an accuracy of 0.05°. In order to calibrate an aircraft compass system it is necessary to have an accurate heading datum.Track (C ourse) Deviation Bar.2. the intermediate dots indication ±5°. which is normally only graduated at 1° intervals. A Prismatic or Landing Compass may be used for this purpose. The instrument consists essentially of a compass system. The sel ected mode (VOR in the example) is displayed provided the service is on and functioning.Datum Compasses Introduction 1. this meridian. a bearing plate. However. the Mk 3. after which it is replaced by the ‘From’ Flag. with improved waterproofing and no artificial lighting was developed and this is in general use within the RAF today. the Mk1A.11. and a sighting telescope. The readout shows the track selected on the Track Pointer (9). The outside dots represent full scale deflection (±10° ). WATTS DATUM COMPASS MK1A Principle 2.13. In order to overcome the accuracy limitations of the aircraft compass display.Mode Annunciator.Selected Track (Course) Readout.2.15. All Marks are similar in operation. The ‘To’ Flag is a white arrowhead which is displayed until the aircraft pas ses over or abeam the locked station. This Chapter will describe only the Watts Datum Compass Mk1A and the PHTS. following the decision to delete the ‘Betalights’ a revised version. This may be either a Mk1 or Mk1A version. The scale comprises two white dots to the left and right of the centre of the heading p ointer (9) creating a scale over which the Track Deviation Bar (11) moves. Showing Bowden Cable Release Page 59 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:44 2002 Alignment 3.
are enclosed within an aluminium body.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-1 Fig 3 Mk1A Instrument. The three parts of the instrument. Side View General 3. effectively prevent ingress of moderate rain and allow the instrument to be used in such conditions. and telescope. with the necessary controls being mounted externally.1 . Waterproof seals on each joint or orifice. the compass. A three-screw levelling base supports Page 60 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3.2. azimuth circle (bearing plate).
The instrument is illustrated in Figs 1-3. The magnet which. be moved about its vertical axis by a small adjustment screw. fitted with an artificial sapphire jewel bearing. which prevents it from being pressed in. is mounted on the same spigot as the compass box and is tilted with it. swings between two copper damping blocks.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the body and provides the tripod mounting point for the instrument. or by operating a Bowden cable release which can be screwed into the centre of the knob. for collimation purposes. On the external face of the compass casing is a metal shield through the centre of which the compass caging control passes. In either case the pressure operates a lever which depresses the leaf spring and lowers the magnet on to its pivot. being out of focus. The compass consists of a magnet. A mirror above the magnet pivot faces the lens and can. A leaf spring normally keeps the magnet lifted off its pivot and presses its centre boss against a forked bracket above the pivot. A red-painted screw on the shield conceals the access to the mirror adjustment screw. When all systematic errors have been eliminated the Watts Datum Compass can be aligned to the magnetic meridian to an accuracy of ± 0. The compass is aligned with the magnetic meridian when. only its image in the mirror is apparent. Page 61 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3. with an index mark on its lower edge. The shield. in a containing box (Fig 4). Compass 4. The compass box is mounted on a horizontal spigot so that it may be tilted to allow for dip. 3-2-2-1 Fig 4 Mk1A Compass Box 5. The compass can be tilted up to 10° either side of the horizontal position and locked in position by two screws in the shield. carries an aluminium vane with vertical fine wire filaments at each end. 7.2.02° (50% error). This accuracy will deteriorate in windy conditions since a surface wind speed in excess of about 15 knots will cause vibration of the uncaged compass system. The compass box is closed at its North end by a ground glass window and at its South end by a convex lens. with the magnet on its pivot. the North filament and the image of the South filament reflected in the mirror form one continuous vertical line seen through the convex lens. is not directly visible to the observer. The lock does not prevent the use of the Bowden cable release.2. A safety lock on the caging knob. 6. when lowered on its pivot. The compass can be uncaged either by pressing the knob in the centre of the shield.1 . is engaged by turning the knob anti-clockwise. The convex lens is focused on the North filament and so the South filament.
The mirror can be tilted by the elevating screw on top of the casing and will allow the line of sight to be varied by 25° in a vertical plane. The instrument can be used if sufficient artificial lighting is available (eg flood lighting) but this is not recommended. 3-2-2-1 Fig 5 Telescope Optical System 9. two prisms. The azimuth circle and the upper casing (which covers the compass box. and an eye-piece. With Page 62 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3. it is likely that the operator’s performance will be degraded in such conditions. Azimuth Circle 12. and reading microscope with its index) are mounted independently on the vertical axis of the instrument and each is provided with a clamp and a tangent screw. from 5° depression to 20° elevation. consisting of a vertical line with a short crossline in the centre.1 . A soft rubber eyepiece is provided for comfort. The accuracy of compass deviation measurements using the Watts Datum Compass depends not only on the accuracy of the datum instrument. The telescope gives an erect image with x 6 magnification and a field of view of 8°. This last factor is independent of the datum equipment and is likely to cause the largest error. but also upon the precision of the instrument alignment with the aircraft’s datum points.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Sighting Telescope 8. The azimuth circle is read against a fixed index line through a variable focus microscope. is provided for accurate alignment. 13. Beneath the objective lens is an oblique mirror which deflects upwards the light entering the telescope window. Ambient illumination is provided by a ground glass window situated below the compass system. telescope. The azimuth circle is made of glass and is graduated at intervals of 0.2. The telescope optical system (Fig 5) consists of an objective lens looking vertically downwards. 10. Although the Watts Datum Compass can be used in moderate rain. and the accuracy with which the aircraft compass can be read. A green clear glass anti-glare filter may be swung across the eye lens when required. Wind speed in excess of about 15 knots is liable to cause the aircraft to rock and it is inadvisable to attempt an accurate swing under such conditions. A sighting graticule. and thus they should be avoided whenever possible.1° with every degree mark numbered. 11.2. A fixed focus prismatic telescope enclosed in the main portion of the upper casing is used to define the line of sight.
the azimuth circle is fixed to the base of the instrument and the upper casing can be rotated relative to the base of the instrument.1° is needed.2. The dustproof instrument case consists of a green fibreglass box and lockable lid. THE PRECISE HEADING TEST SET Introduction 18. The spirit levels are sealed against rain. 1 screwdriver. 3-2-2-1 Fig 6 Instrument Case and Accessories Page 63 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3. 14. In carrying out a compass swing. It is a cast aluminium plate fitted with a circular spirit level for initial setting-up and has two machined rods to register with the base plate. b. neither of which is sufficiently accurate. and slide along. c. Base 15. while the upper set has milled screw-heads coloured silver. A triangular spring plate retains the base plate to the instrument. The instrument and accessories rest in moulded compartments within the base and lid. Instrument Case 16. Graduations on the levels are provided at intervals corresponding to 2 minutes of arc. The tangent screws enable fine adjustments to be made to the locked positions after their respective clamps have been tightened.2. The case houses the following accessories (Fig 6): a. The levelling of the instrument is indicated by two tubular spirit levels mounted on the upper casing to the right of the sighting telescope. In order to differentiate between the two sets of clamps and tangent screws. It is also essential that the compass system is synchronized before any readings are recorded. 19. A hole in the centre of the base plate is threaded to accept the tripod head bolt. In addition. the lower set has fluted screw-heads coloured yellow. which is determined using the Watts Datum Compass. the ball end of each resting in a corresponding groove in the triangular base plate.1 . it is necessary to know the magnetic heading indicated by the aircraft compass to a high degree of accuracy. most compasses are synchronized by reference to a ·•/+ annunciator or to a rudimentary centre-reading voltmeter. The tripod head provides the platform upon which the instrument is mounted. can be adjusted by means of lock-nut screws under the level housing. Plumb line. The lower casing of the instrument is supported by three levelling screws. Most compass displays are only graduated at 1° intervals and this is unsatisfactory for compass calibration purposes. 2 Bowden release cables. one parallel to the line of sight and the other at right angles to it. the rods of the tripod head.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the upper clamp loose and the lower clamp tightened. A hook is suspended in the hollow handle of the bolt for the attachment of the plumb line. where a precision of ± 0. a metal protective cap for the head is secured by the bolt and handles are provided for carrying in the closed position. Abbreviated instructions for the use of the instrument are engraved on a plate inside the lid of the instrument case. in addition to the actual magnetic heading of the aircraft. When the tripod is not in use. d. A longitudinal slot through the head carries the captive attachment bolt for the instrument and permits nine inches of lateral adjustment. The levels. The under surface of the base plate has a machined flat and groove to register with. 3 spanners. Tripod 17.
for example. b. The PHTS is in the form of a hinged rectangular box which opens to reveal the controls and indicators (Fig 7). B-X3-C. which are part of the test harness. A five position function selector switch is mounted above the voltmeter. There are two switch positions against the B-X3-C marking and the use of this switch depends on the type of compass being calibrated. B-X1-C. the voltages present at the adjustable potentiometers in the remote correction unit (ie the deviation correction voltages for coefficients B and C being fed to the flux valve detector coils). 23. the facilities provided by these positions are: a. The right-hand half of the PHTS contains a centre-reading voltmeter whose scale is graduated 3-0-3. B and C. Centre-reading Voltmeter. Controls and Indicators 21. c.1 . 24.2. ie when the needle is central. On some compass systems.05°. The voltmeter can be centred by turning a zero-adjuster screw. there is also a calibration certificate and a calibration graph which allows corrections for instrument error to be made to the heading counter readings. and an accurate centre-reading voltmeter. In either case the voltage indicated is one third of the actual voltage (as implied by the X3 marking). the compass is synchronized. B-X3-C and B-X1-C. only the left-hand. On some compass systems. The voltmeter is used to read the voltages present at the slaving amplifier annunciator output (ie the state of synchronization) and. the voltmeter shows the DC voltage output from the slaving amplifier. On other compass systems. Function Switch. 22. because of the design of the test socket the heading readouts on the PHTS would be 180° removed from the actual heading. an indication of 2 volts represents an actual measurement of 6 volts. B position is used and selection between B and C voltage displays is made by inserting the red and white probes. allow the display of the respective DC voltage corrections to the flux valve detector coils set in at the B and C potentiometers of the remote corrector unit. The right-hand window indicates tenths of a degree and can be read to an accuracy of at least 0. Heading Counters. The left-hand window indicates whole degrees of compass heading from 000° to 359°. Change-Over Switch. The two-position change over switch permits this anomaly to be Page 64 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 20. The left half of the PHTS has two windows displaying a veeder counter indication of compass heading. The positions are marked SYNC. into the sockets adjacent to the B and C potentiometer correction dials as appropriate. on some compass systems. The Precise Heading Test Set (PHTS) is designed to overcome these shortcomings by providing a display of compass heading by means of veeder counters which can be read to 0. thus.05°. When SYNC is selected.2. the two positions. SYNC. These two switch positions operate in the same manner as the B-X3-C function except that the displayed voltage equates to the actual correction voltage set in at the potentiometers rather than one third of the value.
and H can therefore be considered to be the directive force acting upon the sensor. Because of the variation in the position and type of test sockets on the various compass systems. are provided to allow connection of the set to the compass system by means of a cable harness. Test Cable Harness. decrease. Chapters 3 and 4 will outline the method used to determine the magnitude of. The Z component is significant only in that it contributes to the magnetism induced in the magnetic material of the aircraft. Fluxvalve units use only the H component to sense the direction of the local magnetic meridian. or act to deviate this directive force. A magnetic sensor influenced only by the Earth's magnetic field will detect the direction of that field at its position.2. the PHTS must be calibrated at regular intervals. ie compass swinging. Except at the magnetic equator the Earth's magnetic field is inclined to the Earth's surface. and reduce. the sensor will also be influenced by the numerous magnetic fields associated with the aircraft. The difference between the direction of the horizontal component of the Earth's field. is known as deviation. Deviation can vary with the position of the sensor in the aircraft. these errors. Two sockets. 3-2-2-2 Fig 1 The Earth's Magnetic Field Resolved Page 65 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:46 2002 Alignment 3. Corrections to be applied to the PHTS heading counter readings should be extracted from this graph and applied to each reading.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 corrected if necessary. Reference should be made to the precedures for the particular aircraft/compass system to ensure that the correct cable harness is used.2 . a different cable harness is required for each type of compass. and with the passage of time. The total field (T) can be resolved into two components. depending on whether the resultant field direction is to the East or West of the Earth's field. and the direction of the horizontal component of the resultant field. Calibration 26. Results of the calibration are recorded in the form of a graph on the front of the left-hand half of the set.Magnetic Compass Deviations Introduction 1. a horizontal component (H) and a vertical component (Z) as shown in Fig 1. The Earth's Magnetic Field 2. It is annotated 'East (positive)' or 'West (negative)'. 3-2-2-1 Fig 7 Precise Heading Test Set Alignment Chapter 2 . 25. the angle of inclination being known as dip. Like all items of test equipment. This chapter will review the causes of deviation. with change of geographical position of the aircraft. Other horizontal magnetic fields will increase. one on each half of the PHTS.2. with aircraft heading. It will as a result indicate the direction of the resultant of the Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic field produced by the aircraft and experienced at the sensor position. If installed in an aircraft.
2. 3-2-2-2 Fig 2 Change in the Magnitude of the X and Y Components with Change of Heading Page 66 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:46 2002 Alignment 3.Y. X. The values of H and Z vary with magnetic latitude.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3. 4.2. and Z. an X component along the fore-and-aft axis and a Y component acting athwartships. It is usual and satisfactory to consider only the situation of the aircraft in a level attitude in which case the three components.2 . The H component can itself be resolved into two components relative to the aircraft axes. and for any given geographical location the X and Y components vary with aircraft heading (eg the whole of the H component will equate to a positive or negative X component when the aircraft is aligned with the magnetic meridian. starboard and downward respectively.Y and Z components are considered positive when acting forward. or to a positive or negative Y component when the aircraft is at 90° to the meridian . correspond to the three major aircraft axes. By convention the X.see Fig 2).
or structural testing of the aircraft. 7. a permanent field and a temporary field. electrical currents. the hard iron.2 . The many elements of hard iron together form a permanent magnetic field of irregular shape. Soft Iron. The temporary magnetism may be induced by the Earth's field. Although permanent magnetism can change slowly with time. The Effect of the Hard Iron Field 8. analogous to the X. the effect is as if a permanent magnet were fixed to the aircraft. An aircraft's magnetic field is derived from innumerable pieces of magnetic material. these changes are ignored in the general consideration of compass deviation. in order to make a reasonable analysis of the effect of aircraft magnetism on the Earth's field. Y and Z components of the Earth's field. Q and R. This field can be resolved into three component vectors. Magnetic components of instruments permanently installed in the aircraft are included in the general designation hard iron. This magnetism may have been acquired during manufacture. However. servicing. each of which will have a different intensity of magnetization and a different capacity to retain magnetism. 3-2-2-2 Fig 3 Resolution to the Hard Iron Field Page 67 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:46 2002 Alignment 3. Magnetic material of the aircraft structure which has acquired permanent magnetism is described as hard iron. aligned with the aircraft axes as shown in Fig 3. The hard iron field at the sensor position is therefore constant in strength and direction relative to the aircraft axes. or during the flying. it is convenient to make a somewhat arbitrary division of the magnetism into two constituents.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 The Aircraft's Magnetic Field 5. due to what is known as hard iron and soft iron respectively. P. Magnetic material in which temporary magnetism is induced while in the presence of external fields is described as soft iron. Hard Iron. 6. and weapons or cargo. and rather more rapidly as the result of a lightning strike.2. The effects of electrical currents and payload is reduced to negligible proportions by the careful selection of the sensor position. but with an orientation relative to the aircraft axes that does not change with heading.
2.2.2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 4 Deviating Effect of +P 3-2-2-2 Fig 5 Graphs of Deviation due to P Page 68 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:46 2002 Alignment 3.
is to produce zero deviation on East and West and maximum deviation on North and South (Fig 6). The variation of the deviation due to P is in the form of a sine function as shown in Fig 5. The fore-and-aft vector. on North or South the vector merely changes the magnitude of the directive force (Fig 4).2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 9. The effect of the athwartships vector. ie: ±µ = ± max £ sin µ where δθ = deviation on heading θ and δmax = deviation on heading 090° or 270° 10. P.2 . will have the greatest deviating effect on H when the aircraft is on an East or West heading. Q. ie in the form of a cosine function (Fig 7): ±µ = ± max £ cos µ where δθ = deviation on heading θ and δmax = deviation on heading 000° or 180° 3-2-2-2 Fig 6 Deviating Effect of +Q Page 69 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3.2.
Page 70 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 7 Graphs of Deviation due to Q 11.2 . The vertical component. R.2.2. exercises no deviating effect when the aircraft is in a level attitude.
eY. for components X and Y Table 1 Soft Iron Components Inducing Field Soft Iron Field Components Fore-and-af Athwartships t aX dX bY eY cZ fZ Vertical gX hY kZ X Y Z 14. However the soft iron field will distort the hard iron field. and the horizontal components of these fields will act as deviating forces at the sensor. The product of this maximum deviation in degrees and the appropriate trigonometrical function of heading will give the deviation produced by that pair on that heading. The two hard iron horizontal components (P and Q). The heading of the aircraft. and as as the vector representing each of these fields can be resolved into three component vectors coincident with the aircraft axes. Once coefficient B has been determined. this is illustrated in Fig 8. can be grouped into four pairs. and the soft iron can be considered as a single fixed block. If the deviations δE and δW due to P and cZ are measured on East and West. and kZ) need no further consideration. the vertical hard iron component (R). The size of the deviation for any particular pair of components is a maximum on the headings for which the appropriate trigonometrical function is a maximum. As the hard iron field is constant relative to the airframe. Y and Z. Magnetism will be induced in the aircraft's soft iron both by the Earth's field. the components X. b. hY. the deviation due to P and cZ on any compass heading can be obtained from the equation Page 71 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3. cZ. and the vertical soft iron components (gX. there are a total of nine soft iron components. The hard iron thus has an element of magnetism induced into it by the soft iron. permeability and location in relation to the sensor. and by the hard iron field. The total deviation due to P and cZ is the algebraic sum of the deviation due to P and cZ separately. The maximum deviation is termed a coefficient and is assigned an identifying letter to indicate the pair of components to which it refers.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 The Soft Iron Field 12. Y. Each is given a two letter designator as shown in Table 1. of the Earth's total field.2 . As the magnetic sensor only detects the horizontal components. the value of coefficient can be determined from: ±E ¡ ±W 2 Coe±cient B = The deviations must be given their correct signs. As the inclination and total Earth field strength (T) vary with position.2. The direction in which the soft iron deviating field acts determines the sign convention of the components. c. X. dX. the component is annotated positive if it acts forward or starboard on aircraft headings in the North-West quadrant. of the Earth's field is considered to induce a soft iron field. X. and fZ). Thus the total deviation will depend on the magnitude and sign of the constituents. The amount. the field induced by the hard iron in the soft iron is constant. each of which exhibit a sinusoidal variation with heading. of the soft iron. The amount of deviation depends upon: a. Each component will induce a three-dimensional field in the soft iron. 13. bY. Coefficients 15. As each of the three components. Coefficient B is due to components P and cZ. ie the two sources of deviation are in reality inseparable. together with the six soft iron horizontal components (aX. Y and Z. Coefficient B. 16. which is the dominant effect. The geographical location. and Z will vary. These are constant for any given aircraft.2. Soft iron magnetism will be induced by all three components. the members of each group producing deviations which vary as a sine or cosine function of heading.
the variation of each with heading being a cosine function.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 ±µ = B sin µ 3-2-2-2 Fig 8 Combined Graphs of Deviation due to P and cZ 17. Each component varies as a function of the sine of twice the compass heading as illustrated in Fig 10. Coefficient C.2 . Coefficient C is the resultant of components Q and fZ. In a similar manner to coefficient B. δSW. it can be shown that: ±N ¡ ±S 2 Coe±cient C = and that the deviation due to Q and fZ on a heading θ is given by: ±µ = C cos µ Graphs showing the variation of total deviation due to positive and negative values of Q and fZ are shown in Fig 9.2.2. Coefficient D is due to components aX and eY. δSE. Coefficient D. the maximum deviations occur on the intercardinal headings. δNW due to aX and eY on the intercardinal headings are measured then the value of coefficient D can be found from: 3-2-2-2 Fig 9 Combined Graphs of Deviation due to Q and fZ Page 72 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3. If the deviations δNE. 18.
2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 10 The Components of Coefficient D: aX and eY Coe±cient D = (±NE + ±SW) ¡ (±NW + ±SE) 4 The deviation on a heading θ due to aX and eY can be obtained from the equation: ±µ = D sin 2 µ Page 73 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3.2 .2.
2. or varies as the cosine of twice the heading (Figs 12 and 13). this function is the cosine of twice the heading.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 19. If equal. the deviation is constant.2. 3-2-2-2 Fig 12 Combination of Deviation due to Equal Components of +bY and -dX Page 74 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3. Coefficients E and A are due to components bY and dX. The result of adding the two components depends on their equality or otherwise as follows: 3-2-2-2 Fig 11 The Components of Coefficients E and A: bY and dX a. Each component produces a deviation which varies with heading in the form shown in Fig 11.2 . Coefficients E and A. displaced to one side or the other of the zero axis.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 13 Combination of Deviation due to Equal Components of +bY and +dX Page 75 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3.2 .2.2.
2. δS. The maximum values of deviation occur on the cardinal headings.2 . If the deviations δN. and δW on the cardinal headings are measured. If unequal. the value of coefficient E is given by: (±N + ±S) ¡ (±E + ±W) 4 Coe±cient E = The variable deviation due to bY and dX on any compass heading can be found from: ±µ = E cos 2 µ 3-2-2-2 Fig 14 Combination of Deviations due to Unequal Components of +bY and +dX Page 76 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3. Coefficient E. there is a constant deviation and one which varies as the cosine of twice the heading (Figs 14 and 15). δE. The variable part of the deviation is represented by the coefficient E and the constant part by the coefficient A.2. 20.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b.
2 .2.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 15 Combination of Deviations due to Unequal Components of +bY and -dX Page 77 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3.
These errors are usually greater than those due to induced magnetism. C. the effects of any field will be negligible. can be grouped according to their similarity of effect to produce five coefficients.2.2 . D. In addition to deviations due to the permanent and induced magnetism of the aircraft. or if the transmission synchros are out of alignment. Electrical Fields. A. but it is unnecessary to differentiate between the sources of error and both are included in coefficients D and E. The two hard iron horizontal components. P and Q. they are both included in the term coefficient A.2. eY. with magnetic effects being termed Real A. and the six soft iron horizontal components. providing the sensor is in a remote part of the aircraft. b. in practice. but for deviation analysis it is calculated from observations on eight or twelve headings. Although the effects can be determined by calibrating the aircraft with and without the appropriate circuits operating. The effect is identical to that of coefficient A. impedance and voltage imbalances in the flux valve and synchros can cause errors of the sin 2θ or cos 2θ form. thus: Coefficient A = 1/8 (δ N + δ NE + δ E + δ SE + δ S + δ SW + δ W + δ NW) Other Sources of Deviation 22. Direct currents will create fields which have a similar effect to hard iron magnetism. The deviation due to any set on a compass heading θ can Page 78 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 21. the greater the accuracy. which represent the maximum deviations caused by the individual sets of components. cZ. bY. B. c. dX. It can be determined by taking the average of the deviations measured on any number of equally spaced headings. Coefficient A. Transmission Errors. deviations may be caused by the following: a. Index or Alignment Error. With remote indicating compasses. in practice it is not necessary to distinguish between them. aX. Coefficient A represents the constant deviation due to the vectors bY and dX. an error constant for all headings will be present. the more headings. and although the errors may be distinguished by the term Apparent A. Total Deviation 23. For the initial correction of a compass before calibration coefficient A is normally determined from observations on four headings. If the sensor is not correctly aligned with the axis of the aircraft. and E. and fZ.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 then be determined by multiplying the coefficient by the appropriate trigonometric function of the heading. thus: ±N=A+C+E ± NE = A + B sin 45± + C cos 45± + D ±E=A+B¡E ± SE = A + B sin 45± ¡ C cos 45± ¡ D ±S=A¡C+E Page 79 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3.2. An expression for the total deviation on each cardinal and intercardinal heading can be obtained by substituting the value of the heading into the total deviation equation. However if the total deviation is measured on the eight headings at which the individual maxima occur. eg B sin θ for P and cZ. Although the previous discussion has considered the components of total deviation separately. the values of all of the coefficients can be obtained by analysis of the total deviation equation. The total deviation (δ) on any heading (θ) is then the sum of these individual expressions. 25.2. thus: δ = A + B sin θ + C cos θ + D sin 2 θ + E cos 2 θ This addition is shown graphically in the example of Fig 16.2 . 3-2-2-2 Fig 16 Graphs of Components Deviations and Total Deviation 24. they cannot in practice be measured individually as they act simultaneously.
In either case the ratio of the hard iron deviating force to the Earth's directive force will alter.2.1°. If the magnetic latitude of the aircraft is changed the directive force. Expressions for the coefficients can be deduced as: A = 1/8 §± 1 B = (±E ¡ ±W) 2 C= 1 (±N ¡ ±S) 2 D= 1 [(±NE ¡ ±SE) + (±SW ¡ ±NW)] 4 1 E = [(±N ¡ ±E) + (±S ¡ ±W)] 4 Having determined the five coefficients it is possible to calculate the total deviation for any compass heading.0 − 1.5 = +3. Suppose the value for total deviation on a compass heading of 060° is required given that the coefficients are: A = +2. B = − 1. Soft Page 80 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3.3 + 1.1° and the magnetic heading of the aircraft will be 063.0 + (−1. the hard iron component will change.5 × 0. Over a long period of time. D = + 0. H.0°. δθ = A + B sin θ + C cos θ + D sin 2 θ + E cos 2 θ ie δ60 = +2.0 cos 60°) + (0.2 .5 sin 120°) + (−1.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 ± SW = A ¡ B sin 45± ¡ C cos 45± + D ±W=A¡B¡E ± NW = A ¡ B sin 45± + C cos 45± ¡ D There are therefore eight independent equations from which to determine the five unknown coefficients.5) + (0.87) + (3.5) = + 2.5°.0°. from which the value of the total deviation on heading 060° can be confirmed as + 3.0 cos 120°) = + 2. 26.87) − (1.1 Thus on compass heading 060° the total deviation is taken as +3.5 + 0.0°.0 × −0. The examination of aircraft magnetism in this chapter has assumed a constant Earth field an a constant hard iron component of aircraft magnetism.1° Changes in Deviation 27.5° and E = − 1. Example. C = + 3.5 sin 60°) + (3. resulting in a change to the deviation angle.4 + 0. Fig 17 shows the graphs of the individual coefficients and the total deviation curve.0 − (1. will change.2. or if for example the aircraft is left on one heading for some weeks.5 × 0.0 × 0.
The correction and calibration procedure is known as compass swinging. 2. B and C are corrected. Ideally. If the coefficients can be reduced in size. and indeed in most cases only coefficients A. and the accuracy requirements stipulated by the user which will depend on how important the magnetic compass is to the aircraft's primary navigation system. Finally a lightning strike can radically alter an aircraft's magnetism. In practice it is impossible to reduce the coefficients entirely. except under exceptional circumstances.3 . if all the coefficients could be reduced to zero. 3-2-2-2 Fig 17 Graph of Total Deviation Alignment Chapter 3 . This is achieved by setting up. by means of a corrector device. After correction the compass is therefore calibrated so that the residual deviations can be determined and recorded. Whenever the accuracy of the compass is in doubt as a result of airborne observations or aircraft maintenance Page 81 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3. The accuracy with which deviations are measured and corrected depends upon the accuracy to which it is possible to read both the compass and datum instrument during the swing. the deviation curve would become a straight line coincident with the central axis. Compass swinging is carried out only on the following occasions and. Responsibility for the calibration and adjustment of aircraft compasses is promulgated in General and Administrative Instructions (GAI).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 iron components will also change with latitude as the horizontal and vertical components of the Earth's field vary. magnetic fields which are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to those caused by the components of aircraft magnetism.Compass Swinging Procedures Introduction 1. and the total deviation curve will correspondingly be reduced in amplitude. Occasions for a Compass Swing 3. the curves will be flattened and more nearly approach the central axis of the graph. in weather conditions clear of persistent rain and winds of 15kts or less: a. In chapter 2 it was shown that the value of the deviation coefficient determines the amplitude of the deviation curve for the component represented by that coefficient. The purpose of compass correction is to approach this condition of zero deviation as closely as possible by reducing the values of the coefficients.2.2. ie there would be no deviation.
There are four types of compass swing but only the refined swing will be covered in detail: a. Electrical Swing. In southern England the diurnal change varies from about 0. unless the total work carried out is of a minor nature and a waiver has been obtained from the relevant support authority. When the aircraft has been struck by lightning. Types of Compass Swing 4. The Compass Base 5. It must be large enough to take all types of aircraft likely to use it bearing in mind the radii of the aircraft's turning circles. the swing (other than an electrical swing) must be carried out in an area free from magnetic fields other than that of the Earth. Refined Swing. and the position of any sighting rods on the aircraft and their path during the swing.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 procedures known to affect accuracy.2. whether towed or taxied during the swing. it is possible to carry out an airborne compass swing using either celestial information or. inertially derived heading as a datum. the appropriate demagntization procedures laid down by the operating authority must be followed. The base must be clearly and permanently marked to show the base centre. the datum compass circle and areas of magnetic anomalies. The Admiralty Compass Observatory has the overall responsibility for the survey of compass bases. eg Doppler. The standard swing is used where the compass system is not used as an input to other navigation or weapon aiming systems. c.25° in the summer to about 0. d.07° in the winter.25° at 1.5m. A Watts Datum compass is used to provide the datum headings and the calibration swing is carried out on twelve headings. The procedure for the refined swing is detailed in paras 10 . To ensure that the deviations derived from a compass swing are caused only by aircraft magnetism. The procedure is otherwise similar to that used in the refined swing except that the calibration swing is carried out on only eight headings. 6. or Class 2 provided any anomalies are less than ±0. Standard Swing. the heading is simulated by a Compass Calibrator which applies a DC current to the secondary coils of the detector unit. a special survey is required.5m above ground level. The refined swing is used when the compass is used as a source of heading information for navigation or weapon aiming equipment. Compass bases are classified as Class 1 if there are no known magnetic anomalies in excess of ±0. drainage systems.13. The electrical swing is essentially the same as the refined swing except that instead of physically moving the aircraft onto the appropriate headings. Changes in Variation. 9. b. the central area within which the aircraft's sensor should remain. reinforced concrete. In this case. Although compass swinging is normally carried out on the ground. Air Swing. Before delivery of an aircraft from a Maintenance Unit to a user unit. more normally. Diurnal changes in variation may vary from a few arc minutes close to the magnetic equator to many degrees close to the magnetic poles. 7. a compass base should be sited such that its use does not interfere with normal aircraft movements on the airfield and its surface should not preclude its use in wet weather. It is unusual for there to be any natural ferrous deposits on an airfield. a Medium Landing compass is sufficient. b. particular attention must be paid to compass accuracy and. unless a compass swing forms part of the pre-delivery schedule. The aircraft is aligned with the magnetic meridian and unlike conventional swings the area used for calibration need not be free from magnetic disturbances. their effect with and without current flowing must be assessed. 8. provided there is magnetic stability. if necessary. Before delivery of an aircraft from a Storage Unit to a user unit.2. For training or specific calibration purposes. f. and any ferro-magnetic interference is therefore most likely due to buried scrap metal. d. On acceptance by a user unit when the aircraft has been delivered from Industry. Although a Watts Datum compass can be used as the datum.1° at 1. Magnetic storms are usually associated with sunspot activity. e. Although the frequency of such storms is only about once per year. Changes in variation may occur through diurnal changes and magnetic storms.3 . the cardinals and intercardinals. Electro-magnetic interference may be caused by electrical cabling and if such cables cannot be avoided or re-routed. Magnetic Anomalies. In addition to the need to be free from extraneous magnetic fields. If a base is to be used for aircraft which have magnetic detectors significantly below 1. wire fences or conduit for electrical cabling.5m above ground level. they may last Page 82 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3. c.
record the aircraft and datum compass readings. ´ ³ j. record the aircraft and datum compass readings. Head the aircraft on North. After the corrections have been made to the compass system. The necessary accuracy and limits of the swing are stipulated by operating authorities. Calculate coefficient B ± E ¡ ± W 2 i. The data from each correcting swing is entered in the appropriate page of the Compass Calibration Log (RAF F712A). 12. Head the aircraft on East.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 several hours or even days. e. A Watts Datum compass is used to provide the datum heading and great care must be taken to ensure that both the datum and aircraft readings are read simultaneously and to the limits of accuracy. Head the aircraft on South. f. Head the aircraft on West.2. Apply coefficient B (sign unchanged) to the resultant compass heading after correcting for coefficient A.30°. The refined swing is used for those installations where the compass is used as an input to other navigation or weapon aiming equipment. When there are no coefficients to be corrected the calibration swing may start. Apply coefficient A to the compass reading (sign unchanged) and correct the compass. d. record the aircraft and datum compass readings.2. ³ ´ h.5°. The Calibration Swing. 3-2-2-3 Fig 1 Compass Calibration Log Entries for Correction and Calibration Swings Page 83 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3. The compass must be allowed to settle after each change of heading before the reading is taken. and can alter the variation by up to 0. The purpose of the correcting swing is to reduce all the correctable coefficients to within the limits set. the results of the calibration swing are used as the basis of a Fourier analysis of the swing (see Chapter 4). and the 50% error of an observed deviation to less than ±0. The Refined Swing 10. but in general coefficients should be reduced to less than 0. The procedure is as follows. all headings being within 5° of those stated: a. g. A typical record of correcting and calibration swings. record the aircraft and datum compass readings. is shown in Fig 1. Calculate coefficient C ± N ¡ ± S 2 Turn the aircraft onto South. The Correcting Swing. c. 11. entered on RAF F712A. Sum the deviations algebraically and divide by four to find coefficient A. The deviations obtained from this swing form the basis of the Fourier and accuracy analyses which are described in Chapter 4. Calculate the deviations. 13.3 . RAF F712A. b. apply coefficient C (sign changed) to the compass reading and correct the compass. and with the aircraft still on East correct the compass.5° in the UK. The swing may have to be repeated several times to achieve the required accuracy. The aircraft is moved through a twelve point swing and the datum and compass readings are recorded every 30°.
sin 2θ and cos 2θ.The Analysis of the Compass Swing THE FOURIER ANALYSIS Derivation of the Coefficients 1.2. A more accurate method is needed. 2. It can be shown that division of this sum by n.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Alignment Chapter 4 . and n is the number of observations.4 . Table 1 .Value of Functions of θ Hdg (θ) a sin θ b cos θ c sin 2θ d cos 2θ e Page 84 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:50 2002 Alignment 3. cos θ. The results can be summarized by the equations: A = §± n C = 2§± ncos µ E = 2§± cos 2 n sin B = 2§± n 2µ D = 2§± µ sin 2 n µ where δ is the observed deviation on heading θ. only two readings were used. and the results algebraically summed. B and C.2. Chapter 3 described how the coefficients can be found. The purpose of the Fourier Analysis is to extract from a set of observations the most accurate assessment of the deviation coefficients and residual deviations. at 30° intervals. but in two cases. D and E. The observed deviation on each heading is multiplied by the sine of that heading. For convenience these values have been extracted and are listed at Table 1. 3. Coefficient A is derived from the sum of the deviations and the number of readings. The greater the number of readings used the greater will be the accuracy of the derived coefficients. ie n = 12. In Chapter 2 it was shown that the deviation caused by coefficient B is a function of the sine of the heading. twelve readings have been accepted as the practical figure. As the band of error only decreases as the inverse square root of n. is incorporated the Compass Calibration Log which is used for the Fourier Analysis. gives coefficient B. As an aid to calculation a table of values of sin θ. Similar calculations may be done to find 2 coefficients C. where n is the number of headings.
+1.94.The Derived Coefficients Hdg (θ) 1 Observed Deviation (δ) 2 0 −0. To Calculate the Coefficients. From Fig lb. Dividing column 2 by n. 5. Σδ cos θ.9° and −2.87 +0. Table 2 is an extract of those columns of the Compass Calibration Log used for the calculations.01.50 +0. +1.50 −1.6°.50 +0. +0.0e . the observed deviations every 30°. These results are entered in the form. and columns 7.00 +0.50 4.5°.50 −0.87 +1.00 +0. +1.0°.50 Page 85 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:50 2002 Alignment 3.1°.4 . gives the calculated coefficients: A = −0. The observed deviations are entered in column 2.6°.00 +0.87 0 +0. are: −0.87 −0.87 −0.50 +0.50 +1. c. D = +0. C = −0.00 −0.50 0 +0.87 −1.87 −0.5 0 δ sin θ 7 δ cos θ 10 −0. +0.87 +0.93.5°.50 −1. starting at 0°.87 0 −0. Σδ sin 2θ and n Σδ cos 2θ.00 −0.00 +0.3°. Σδ.50 −0. At Fig 1b is the total deviation curve derived from the component curves at Fig 1a.87 +0.2.50 0 δ sin 2θ 13 δ cos 2θ 16 −0. Observed Deviations. 13 and 16 by 2 .2. and the columns are then totalled to obtain.4°. E = +1.87 +1. 3-2-2-4 Fig 1 Deviation Graphs Table 2 .5 0 −0. 10. and multiplied by the values shown in columns b. −3.50 +1.50 0 −0.49.00 −0.50 −0.87 0 −0.5°. B = +1.87 0 +0. Σδ sin θ. −1.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 0 +0.50 ±0.00 −0. d and e of Table 1. These deviations are used in the Fourier Analysis.5°.50 −0. −3. +1.87 +0. +0.97.87 −0.87 −1.
5 300 −3.95 −1. The coefficients are multiplied by their associated trigonometrical functions from Table 1.50 −0.45 210 +0.99 +1.49 −0.79 6 +1. The Calculated Deviation Curve.94 +0.50 −0. In effect. A convenient form for the breaking down and building up processes is the Compass Calibration Log (Refined Swing).01 60 +1.50 +0.82 −0.01 +0.70 +3.81 +0.47 0 +0. 8.71 +1. Table 3 is an extract of the columns of the Compass Calibration Log used for the process of finding the calculated deviation curves and the composite curve.30 +0.93 +0.6 Sums −5.50 −0. 14 and 17 are complete.30 +1.50 −1.5 120 +0.65 6 +0.49 −0.39 +1.01 −0.82 0 +0.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 30 +1.50 −0.96 +0.26 −0.81 +0.3 150 +1. cos.87 −1. Table 3 .01 The Calculated Deviations 6.0 90 +0.52 +0.99 0 −0.93 −0.0 180 +1.93 +0.97 +0.70 0 −1.22 0 +3.49 −0.39 +2.81 −0.49 −0.99 −1.01 −0.50 +1.97 +1.52 −1.49 −0. These totals are the end result of the Fourier Analysis .82 0 −0.65 240 −1.15 −0.50 +1.07 90 +0.82 +0.99 180 +1. etc).05 6 +1.71 −1.30 +6.49 0 +0.5 210 +0.50 0 −0.49 −0.55 +0.87 0 +0.26 +5.50 −1.47 300 −3.01 +0. If sufficient readings are available.15 +0.50 +0.26 −5. 11.47 0 −0. The second part of the Fourier Analysis is to find the calculated deviations.50 +3. but by calculation.95 −2.50 +1.49 −0.59 6 −0. In Chapter 2 the composite curve was found by visually adding together the coefficient curves as in Fig 1.55 −0.49 −0.71 B sin θ 8 C Cos θ 11 −0.30 +11.37 150 +0. Any periodic function (the compass swing period is 2π) can be broken down into sinusoids of different amplitudes (the coefficients) and phases (sin.50 Page 86 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:51 2002 Alignment 3.87 +0.41 30 +1. Summary of the Fourier Analysis 8. The Fourier Analysis uses a similar process.4 .9 330 −2.The Calculated Deviations Hdg (θ) 1 Calculated Deviation 3 0 −0.6 240 −1.the calculated deviations which are used to plot the deviation curve and to complete the aircraft deviation card.87 0 −0.4 270 −3.26 +0. this is the reverse of the first process: having made the most accurate assessments of the coefficients they are used to determine the most accurate deviation curve.71 +0. When columns 6.47 +0.99 A 6 −0.2.22 +3.49 −0.47 120 +0.82 +0.41 270 −3.50 +0.49 +0. 7.82 0 −0.50 −0. the derived parts of the original can be built up again to give the most accurate assessment of the function.49 −0. each line is summed and the totals entered in column 3.96 +0.1 60 +1.50 0 −0.97 −1.9 Divisors 12 Coeffs −0.82 D sin 2θ 14 E cos 2θ 17 +1.2.47 0 +0.
The Effect of Carriage of Stores.99 0 −0. No observed deviation differs from the next by more than 1° .05± . ie A = ¡0. or 1. The probable error formula then becomes: Single r §D2 reading " = §0.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 330 −2. Fig 2 shows a completed form for the swing used in the Fourier Analysis.82 0 +0. Probable error equals 0.5°.50 0 THE ACCURACY ANALYSIS Introduction 9. and X is the mean of all the readings. Further Applications of Statistics 13.43 Page 87 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:51 2002 Alignment 3.49 −5. Fig 3 also shows a completed form. use is made of the formula: q 2 " "A = pn and for coefficients B. As the compass calibration n method does not provide a mean.4 εA. where D is the difference between the corresponding observed and calculated deviations and s is the number of unknowns (ie the coefficients). Statistical Analysis of the Swing 2 11. Column 4 is D. Column 5 is D . where σ (sigma) is the standard deviation.14 +0. Fig 4 shows another set of observed deviations where consecutive readings change by as much as 1.06 +0. But examination shows that the rapid changes are due to large coefficients D and E.81 0 −0.4 . "A = §0. It will be useful to summarize the following terms which are used in a Fourier Analysis.61 Sums −5. D and E of the formula: "B to E = " n. 10.20. Column 4 confirms this.674 n ¡ s.a result is only considered as being significant when it is at the 95% probability level.5° .C.88 −0. differences which arise because the aircraft and datum instruments are being used at or beyond their accuracy limits. A B −0. The Meaning of the Probable Errors.05° means that any single observed deviation has an evens chance of being within . the calculated deviation is used instead. and enables one swing to be compared with another.49 §0. and one would therefore expect half of the differences to be within ±0.2. The probable error (ε) is the difference between the mean of a series of observations and any single observation which will not be exceeded on 50% of occasions.at first sight a good swing. The probable accuracy of the single reading is better than the accepted maximum of ε = ± 0.014± . The figure for ε of ±0. Normally the standard deviation is found q § (X ¡ X)2 from: ¾ = § . But examination of the e values shows that the swing gives coefficients and calculated deviations that are meaningless: the coefficients all stand an evens chance of equalling zero. The coefficient's probable errors provide a means of comparing one compass swing with another form of correlation test.29 −0.2. The analysis is based on the differences between the observed and calculated deviations. A further statistical limit must be explained .14± . Thus for the figures used: " = §0. where X is the particular reading. 14. To show how statistics can be used to compare one swing with another the effect of a load of bombs will be considered.88 −0.05 +0. The accuracy analysis gives a statistical assessment of the reliance that can be placed on the results of the swing.05° of the calculated deviation. 2σ or 3ε. To find the greatest probable error of coefficient A. The following two sets of figures may be compared.02± ie B.674 σ. 12.D and E are within §0.02± " of their stated ¯gures. C.05°. and coefficients which can be corrected are less than the accepted maximum of 0.11 −0.at first sight a bad swing. "B to E = §0.
153± This figure becomes significant at the 3e level ie 0.81 +0.4 .Example 2 Page 88 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:52 2002 Alignment 3. This is done by finding the square root of the sum of the squares of the probable errors of the coefficients: q "2 + " 2 1 2 "D = To use the figures shown: q "D = § 0.459°.459°.24 −0.16 −0.2.114 −0. Therefore it can be said that the bombs have no effect on the aircraft's magnetism because no difference exceeds 0.43 At first sight there are large differences in the values of the coefficients B to E.1142 + 0. 3-2-2-4 Fig 2 Compass Calibration Log .25 ±0.40 −0.2. and there is a better than 19 to 1 chance of being right.45 +0.Example 1 3-2-2-4 Fig 3 Compass Calibration Log .67 = ±0.36 +0.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 C D E ε εB to E +0.28 = ±0.1022 = §0. But first the probable error (since all the figures are at the 50% level) of the differences must be found.102 +0.24 ±0.
4 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-4 Fig 4 Compass Calibration Log .2.2.Example 3 Page 89 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:54 2002 Alignment 3.
The turn indicator is used to indicate the rate at which the aircraft changes heading. in a spin it always indicates the direction of yaw.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-4 Fig 1a Component Deviations 3-2-2-4 Fig 1b Deviation Graphs Manoeuvre Chapter 1 . The slip indicator Page 90 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:54 2002 Manoeuvre 3. The instrument is also invaluable while spinning.2.1 .Turn and Slip Indicators Introduction 1. a rate 1 turn (of 3 degrees per second) is the standard turn during procedural instrument flying.3. The turn and slip indicator comprises two instruments in the same case.
The instrument consists of a rate gyro mounted with its spin axis arthwartships. primary (or direct) bearing-induced precession will tilt the gyro further to the right with respect to the casing. where the X (roll). 360° per min. The scale is non-linear. Principle of Operation 3. primary bearing-induced precession will tilt the gyro to the left with respect to the casing. so increasing the spring tension and causing increased secondary precession until a balance is once again restored. The turn indicator measures the rate of turn about the yaw axis and movement about the pitch axis.Simplified Construction Errors 4. gyro axis cross-coupling can cause a torque to be applied such that the indicated rate of turn will Page 91 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:55 2002 Manoeuvre 3. However. the calibrations representing standard rate turns (Rate 1. Pitching Error. 540° per min). In fact. extending the spring which exerts an anti-clockwise torque.3. the gyroscope has no freedom to move independently about its Z axis. Rate 3. however. but a state of equilibrium will be reached when the rate of turn of the aircraft equals the rate of secondary precession induced in the gyroscope. At equilibrium the tilt angle of the gyroscope within its casing is related to the aircraft rate of turn and the dial can be calibrated accordingly. The construction of a basic turn indicator is illustrated in Fig 1. Rate 2.1 . As gyro speed is critical to accuracy. would not. THE TURN INDICATOR Construction 2. and Z (yaw) gyro axes are shown. The gimbal is damped and gimbal stops prevent instrument damage at high turn rates. Conversely. ideally produce any gyro precession. a banked turn to the left. Y (pitch). in respect of Fig 1. This freedom is. which coincides with the gyro spin axis. and with only one gimbal such that it has freedom in roll only. Movement of the gimbal is transmitted to a pointer on the instrument face via a reverse gearing. This gearing is so arranged that gimbal tilt to the right causes the pointer to move to the left and vice versa. 3-2-3-1 Fig 1 Turn Indicator .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 shows whether or not corrective rudder is required to achieve balanced flight. reducing spring tension and reducing the rate of secondary precession until it matches the aircraft turn rate. Consider. if the aircraft rate of turn decreases. the gyro's rigidity causes it to remain spatially fixed. any change is sensed by centrifugal switches which control the DC motor. This torque in turn produces a secondary (or indirect) precessionary force about the Z axis in the direction in which the aircraft is starting to turn. When the instrument casing rotates around the X axis. if the aircraft is simultaneously yawed and pitched nose up. 180° per min. If the aircraft rate of turn becomes faster than the secondary precession rate of the gyroscope. limited by a restraining spring connecting the gimbal to the outer casing.2.
Summary of Turn and Slip Indications 9. but electrical faults or excessive bearing friction may produce under-speeding. more right rudder is needed). together with the correct sense of rudder movement required. the ball will be displaced towards the low wing. If the aircraft is slipping inwards (ie the relative airflow is coming from the inside of the turn). centrifugal force acts on the ball in addition to gravity.2. badly damped. balanced flight the only force acting on the ball is gravity. Conversely if the aircraft is skidding outwards (with the relative airflow coming from the outside of the turn). θ. In a properly balanced turn. Conversely. the pilot will be countering the rudder-induced yaw with opposite bank. needle. 8. 3-2-3-1 Fig 2 Operation of Slip Indicator 7. The tube is tilted with respect to the outside world and gravity takes the ball to the lowest position of the tube (Fig 2b). The slip indicator consists of a ball mounted in a curved. Gyro Speed Errors. and in some circumstances can cause full scale deflection of the indicator.1 . and the ball will be in the centre of the tube (Fig 2a). The angle of tilt.3. THE SLIP INDICATOR Operation 6. In all cases the corrective action is to move the feet to 'kick' the ball back to the centre (ie if the ball is to the right of the tube. When the aircraft is in straight. of a rate gyro is given by: µ = Rate of turn £ I! where I = Moment of inertia of the gyro and ω = Angular velocity of the gyro Thus if the angular velocity (rotor speed) of the gyro is altered a different angle of tilt is generated by the same rate of turn. and the resultant of these two forces causes the ball to remain in the centre of the tube (Fig 2c). with nose down pitch. An over-speeding gyro is uncommon because of the speed governing system. Fig 3 summarizes various situations that the turn and slip indicator can show. If the aircraft is in straight but unbalanced flight. the ball will be displaced towards the high wing. clear tube filled with a damping liquid. This will be manifest as under-reading and an oversensitive. The error is dependent on the rate of yaw and the rate of pitch.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 exceed the true rate of turn. the instrument will under-read. 3-2-3-1 Fig 3 Indications of Turn and Slip in Flight Page 92 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:55 2002 Manoeuvre 3. The error is unlikely to be corrected until the rate of pitch is significantly reduced and as a consequence it may continue to indicate a turn in one direction while the aircraft turns in the other. and in extreme cases may indicate zero regardless of actual turn rate. 5.
3.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-3-1 Fig 2a Straight and Balanced Flight 3-2-3-1 Fig 2b Side-slip Page 93 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:55 2002 Manoeuvre 3.2.
Attitude Indicators Page 94 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:55 2002 Manoeuvre 3.2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-3-1 Fig 2c Balanced Turn Manoeuvre Chapter 2 .3.2.
Modern attitude indicators usually include the elements of the Turn and Slip indicator (see Chap 1) within the instrument. Fig 2 illustrates an attitude indicator (note the integrated Turn and Slip indication). In both cases supplementary indication of bank angle is presented by the position of a gyro stabilized pointer against a fixed bank angle scale at the bottom of the display. This reference may be provided either by a direct reading attitude indicator (or artificial horizon).2 . some form of attitude reference is required. In order for an aircraft to be flown accurately and safely. gyro based. Indication of pitch and bank attitude may be presented in one of two ways. This chapter deals with the self-contained. 2. Fig 1 shows an artificial horizon in various attitudes. In older instruments (the artificial horizon). The principle component of an attitude indicator is an air or electrically driven displacement gyro with its spin axis maintained vertical to the Earth by gravity sensing devices.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Introduction 1. the aircraft is represented by a fixed symbol and the horizon by a bar stabilized parallel to the Earth's surface. direct reading instruments. without reference to the natural horizon. 3-2-3-2 Fig 1 Artificial Horizon Indicators Principle of Operation 4. or by displays driven by outputs from other aircraft equipment such as inertial systems. In more modern displays (the attitude indicator).2. Fig 3 shows the arrangement of the artificial horizon gyro and its Page 95 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:56 2002 Manoeuvre 3. 3.3. The areas of the ball above and below the horizon are typically coloured blue and brown respectively. the horizon bar is replaced by a moving 'ball' marked with a horizon line and with graduated pitch angle markings. The principle of operation of both instruments is similar.
The outer gimbal is pivoted to the front and rear of the instrument case parallel to the aircraft's roll axis (XX). The inner gimbal forms the rotor casing and is pivoted to the outer gimbal ring parallel to the aircraft's pitch axis (YY). The aircraft symbol is fixed to the front glass of the instrument.3. all three axes of the gyro are mutually at right angles when the aircraft is in straight and level flight and are coincident with the three aircraft axes.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 gimbals.2 .2. This arrangement ensures that with the gyro spin axis maintained vertical to the Earth. 3-2-3-2 Fig 2 Attitude Indicator 3-2-3-2 Fig 3 Artificial Horizon Principle Page 96 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:56 2002 Manoeuvre 3.
6.movement of the gyro unit relative to the outer gimbal producing correct sense movement of the ball by a direct drive consisting of either a wire loop (as shown). Attitude indicators are therefore equally sensitive at both low and extreme pitch angles. but the pitch mechanism is greatly improved . relative to the aircraft symbol. or gearwheels. with reduced sensitivity at high pitch angles. Any change in pitch attitude will result in the instrument case and the outer gimbal rotating around the YY axis of the gyro. Fig 4 shows the general construction of the attitude indicator. 3-2-3-2 Fig 4 Attitude Indicator Principle Page 97 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:56 2002 Manoeuvre 3. producing the correct sense of horizon bar movement.2. taking the aircraft symbol with it.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 5. The major drawback to this arrangement is that it results in a non-linear scaling in pitch.2 . Any change in bank attitude will result in the instrument case rotating around the XX axis. A pin attached to the gyro housing moves in a slot in the horizon bar. In some instruments the movements are also sensed electrically so that attitude information can be transmitted to other aircraft equipment. Bank is indicated in exactly the same manner as described for the artificial horizon.
It may also be selected following start-up when errors in attitude indications are apparent. To prevent the generation of significant gyro verticality error with high acceleration. transport error. zero pitch attitude may result from a 180° roll or from a 180° pitch manoeuvre.3. The gyro spin axis is kept vertical by a pendulous system which responds to Earth's gravity and thus initiates the necessary correcting torques (which can be compensated for axis cross-coupling during turns) either mechanically or by controlling the operation of air jets or electric torque motors. 8. For example an inverted flight. However if accelerated flight below the cut-off limit is maintained. This force will displace the pendulous system and the torque generated by the erecting system will cause a misalignment of the spin axis to produce a verticality error. Turning and Acceleration Errors. Controlled Precession 11. 10. level. flight when this facility is used.2. influenced by factors such as axis cross-coupling and gyro precession. Page 98 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:56 2002 Manoeuvre 3. After extended periods of manoeuvring the gyro may have very large verticality error or it may be toppled. a cut-off device can be incorporated to inhibit the erecting system above a pre-determined level of horizontal acceleration. but they can be reduced by the use of compensating design and construction features. and internally generated torques due to any gimbal imbalance or bearing friction. considerable verticality error can be built up. To provide accurate indications the gyro spin axis must be maintained vertical to the Earth and therefore correcting torques must be applied to compensate for Earth rotation. irrespective of how any particular attitude is achieved. To restore the gyro to its normal operating position as quickly as possible.2 . a fast erection mechanism is fitted which applies high-rate precessing torques to erect the gyro with respect to the instrument casing. Acceleration errors cannot be fully eliminated. Fast Erection. starting from wings level flight. which may affect indications in both pitch and roll. 9. The aircraft must therefore be in unbanked. It is necessary that the attitude indication should be consistent and coherent over the full flight envelope of an unrestricted manoeuvrability aircraft.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Control of the Gyro Spin Axis 7. A pendulous system responds not only to Earth's gravity but also to any acceleration force that the aircraft experiences.
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12. In both cases the outer gimbal is required to rotate 180° relative to the airframe. During a 180° roll manoeuvre, the rotation of the airframe and instrument case around the gyro-stabilized outer gimbal provides the necessary inverted flight indication. To retain the correct attitude display during a 180° pitch manoeuvre however, a rapid 180° rotation of the outer gimbal has to occur just before passing the vertical (otherwise the outer gimbal axis would become coincident with the gyro spin axis, the condition of gimbal lock, leading to topple). The means of achieving this is known as Controlled Precession. 13. Inner gimbal resilient stops are incorporated in the instrument to cause the pitch rotation of the airframe to apply a torque to the gyro, about the inner gimbal YY1 axis, at about 85° of pitch. This causes the gyro to precess, forcing the outer gimbal to rotate. After 180° of rotation the continuing pitch rate of the aircraft results in the inner gimbal moving away from the stop. However, if the aircraft is held in the vertical, during a stall turn or climbing roll for example, the instrument may topple.
14. Many aircraft have instrument panels inclined from the vertical in normal cruise flight. Zero pitch attitude indication is restored by adjusting the linkage to the indicator to correct for the tilt. However the inner gimbal stops are intercepted early in dive and late in climb relative to the attitude of the airframe. This geometric offset produces errors, known as geometric errors, in the displayed attitude which vary as a function of the true pitch and bank angles. If the aircraft is looped or rolled inverted the pitch error is twice the panel tilt angle. At intermediate bank angles the geometric error in pitch increases from zero at 0° bank angle, to tilt angle at ± 90° bank angle, and twice tilt angle at 180° bank angle. The geometric error in roll cannot be expressed so simply but in any case is < 5° at pitch angles less than ± 30°. In manoeuvres involving large pitch or bank angles geometric errors can combine with limitations in the controlled precession system to produce a significant error in the displayed attitude.
Chapter 3 - Accelerometers
1. An indicating accelerometer is an instrument used in aircraft to provide a visual indication of acceleration components in the direction of the aircraft Z axis (Fig 1). In addition auxiliary pointers are provided which preserve a reading of the maximum and minimum accelerations sustained during any period; these can be reset as required.
3-2-3-3 Fig 1 Aircraft Axes
2. The purpose of the instrument is to indicate loadings due to manoeuvre and turbulence, so that excessive loadings may be avoided.
Page 99 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:57 2002
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3. Although the accelerometer gives a reasonably accurate indication of the accelerations encountered in flight, indications of the instrument with respect to accelerations of extremely short duration, such as landing shocks, should be treated with caution since the accuracy under these conditions is dependent on the damping characteristics and no generalization is possible. 4. The instrument should be mounted on a rigid part of the aircraft structure in the cockpit. Accurate results cannot be obtained from accelerometers mounted on anti-vibration mountings which would tend to reduce the effect of accelerations on the instrument.
Principle of Operation
5. An accelerometer depends upon the displacement of a mass under the influence of an acceleration. Fig 2 illustrates the principle of operation, although other mechanisms may be used. The mass-weight, suspended between 2 springs, is free to move along the aircraft Z axis and is coupled to a main shaft so that when vertical acceleration forces along the Z axis are imposed on the mass, the main shaft is caused to rotate. The linear movement is thus converted to the rotary movement of a set of three pointers, one to indicate instantaneous acceleration and the other two to remain at the maximum indications, plus or minus, until reset manually.
3-2-3-3 Fig 2 Accelerometer Mechanism
6. A cranked lever is attached to the shaft, and the horizontal arm of this lever is interposed between positive and negative pointers so that they will be moved when the shaft rotates, and will remain in their new positions on the return of the shaft to the neutral position. The recording pointers may be reset to the neutral position when desired. A device is fitted to damp out vibrations and prevent violent pointer fluctuations under short period accelerations. 7. Fig 3 shows a typical cockpit display. 8. The cockpit accelerometer should not be confused with the aircraft fatigue meter. This instrument will normally be installed outside the cockpit (often in the undercarriage bay) to monitor cumulative acceleration forces on the airframe. Details of the
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fatigue meter may be found in this volume, Pt 4, Sect 4, Chap 2, Para 15 and in Vol 1, Pt 1, Sect 2, Chap 2, Para 12.
3-2-3-3 Fig 3 Accelerometer Display
Chapter 4 - Stall Warning and Angle of Attack Indication
1. For any given configuration, an aircraft will stall or depart from controlled flight once a specific angle of attack (AOA) is exceeded. In straight and level flight this angle of attack will be reached at a particular airspeed for a given aircraft weight, but since there will be variations in aircraft weight both during and between flights, there is no simple correlation between airspeed and angle of attack. During manoeuvre the situation becomes considerably more complex, and the critical angle of attack can be induced by the pilot at almost any airspeed. The airspeed indicator is therefore of limited use in warning the crew of the approach to this potentially dangerous situation, and some other means must be devised. 2. The pilot of an aerodynamically unsophisticated aircraft will usually be given warning by the onset of airframe buffet which can be felt through the control column. However, in modern, more complex, aircraft this is less likely to be the case, and moreover the situation is more difficult to recover if the limit should be exceeded. It is therefore necessary to have a system which will warn the crew of the onset of departure, either by artificially inducing buffet on the controls, or by giving some audio or visual indication, or both, once a designated AOA is exceeded. 3. Whereas a simple stall warning device can give adequate warning to the crew, it cannot indicate the margin of safety that exists at any time. Furthermore, in high performance aircraft it is usually desirable to fly at the optimum angle of attack for any stage of flight. Such aircraft are often therefore fitted with an AOA indexer to indicate when the aircraft is flying at the optimum approach AOA regardless of aircraft weight, and this may be replaced by or supplemented with an AOA gauge to enable the aircraft to be flown efficiently during other stages of flight.
Simple Stall Warner
4. A typical simple stall warning device comprises a forward facing vane, edge on to the airflow, mounted on the leading edge of the wing. The vane is spring loaded to the central position and in flight the vane is held in place by air pressure when the
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AOA is safe, but is pushed upwards when it is not. This upward movement operates a micro-switch which triggers an audio or visual stall warning device in the cockpit, or can be used to initiate a stick shaker or pusher.
Airstream Direction Detector (ADD)
5. Where a more sophisticated system is needed, some form of airstream direction detector (ADD) is employed which measures the direction of the localized airflow striking it, and relays this information to an indexer, gauge, warning device, or any combination of these. A simple example may consist of a trailing aerofoil, mounted on the outside of the aircraft, which aligns itself with the direction of the local airflow. 6. A paddle type of ADD is illustrated in Fig 1. A cylindrical casing carries a central shaft which is free to rotate through a restricted angular range (typically 50°). The shaft protrudes through one end of the casing and through the aircraft skin to form a probe into the local airflow. Two rows of forward facing slots are cut near the outer end of the probe, and each row is connected by internal ducts to two paddle chambers located within the casing. Operating in these chambers are paddles which are attached to the central shaft. Pressure from one of the ducts acts on both paddles to induce clockwise rotation of the shaft while pressure from the other duct similarly induces anti-clockwise rotation. Thus, if the pressures in the two ducts are equal, the probe will not rotate. This equal pressure state can only occur if the two rows of slots are equally disposed about the direction of the local airstream. In conditions of misalignment the pressure in one duct will be greater than in the other, and the paddles will be caused to rotate until the probe is once again aligned with the airstream, whence the pressures will be equalized and the probe will stop rotating. Thus, providing that there is sufficient airflow to operate the system (typically above 50 kts), the probe will follow any changes in the direction of the local airflow. 7. The position of the central shaft relative to the casing, and therefore to the aircraft, is transmitted to potentiometer assemblies by means of wiper arms, and the output voltage, which is related to AOA, may be used to operate the particular aircraft indicators or warning devices. In some installations two ADDs are provided to add a measure of redundancy, and so that the output voltage from the two can be compared, and the higher taken, to provide an additional margin of safety. 8. An ADD can only measure the direction of the local airflow, and not the AOA explicitly, although changes in this measured direction reflect changes in AOA. Accordingly, an AOA gauge is marked in arbitrary units (usually 0 - 30) rather than in angles (of attack).
3-2-3-4 Fig 1 Paddle Type of Airstream Direction Detector (ADD)
NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Control Systems
Chapter 1 - Remote Indication and Control
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Both DC and AC systems are used and these are discussed below. By convention the first shaft is known as the input shaft and the second. These remote indication systems translate movement of a shaft into electrical signals by means of a transmitter unit or transducer. rudder and elevator positions.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Introduction 1. It is often used where a simple pointer and scale is adequate.1 . The movement of the first shaft is duplicated by the receiver which positions a second shaft. Direct mechanical linkage is often not suitable because of the distance involved or the resulting poor accuracy. Only small torques are developed such as is required to move a light pointer over a graduated scale. many occasions when the accurate remote control of the position of a heavy load is required (eg remote rotation of a radar scanner). The transmitter (see Fig 2) consists of a continuous resistance ring (toroidal potentiometer) having three fixed tappings A. Instances frequently occur in aircraft instrument systems when the angular motion of a shaft has to be accurately reproduced at some other location. 5. To provide the necessary torque servomechanisms (ie amplifiers and servomotors) are normally employed. eg remote indication of flap. The input shaft carries two spring loaded sliding contacts or wipers diametrically opposed in contact with the potentiometer. 3. The Desynn Transmission System is a simple transmission system with low torque characteristics which is used for the remote indication of angular position.1. B and C spaced 120° apart which are connected to the receiver. DF bearings or the position of a radar scanner (see Fig 1). 7. the output shaft. or to repeat the reading of an instrument at a remote point. 2. A number of different devices are used to give remote indication of angular position or to control the movement of heavy loads from a distance. The wipers are fed via slip rings and brushes Page 103 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:58 2002 Control Systems 3. electrically connected. thus giving the remote indication of the first shaft's movement. Simple systems may be employed consisting of a transmitter and receiver. This is adequate for the remote indication of. however. There are. The Transmitter. The accuracy of the system is approximately ± 2 °. which is electrically connected to a receiver unit located in the desired position. In these cases a remote electrical indication system is often employed. for example. 3-3-1-1 Fig 1 Simple Electrical Remote Indication 4.3. DC SYSTEMS Desynn Transmission System 6.
Desynn Operation. B and C in the transmitter. The receiver (see Fig 2) consists of three high resistance coils whose axes are spaced 120° apart. When DC is applied to the transmitter wipers. The magnitude and polarity of each tapping point voltage varies according to the position of the wipers and thus. The three coils are connected to the tapping points A. This operation is shown in Fig 3a and b: a. B and C produces a variation in the current flowing in the stator coils and rotation of the resultant magnetic field in sympathy with the rotation of the input shaft. 9. The rotor magnet remains aligned with this field at all times and so rotates in synchronism with the input shaft.1. 8.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 with DC. Thus.3.1 . The resultant magnetic field in the receiver. current flows from A through coil A in the receiver then divides equally at the star point with half the total current flowing through coil B and half through coil C back to the transmitter. with which the rotor magnet aligns itself. The rotor magnet aligns itself with this magnetic field. is compounded from the vectors representing the individual fields. the change of voltages at A. if the input shaft is rotated. with a permanent magnet rotor pivoted at their centre carrying a pointer. as the voltage at A differs from that at B and C by the same amount. 3-3-1-1 Fig 2 Desynn Transmission System 3-3-1-1 Fig 3 Operation of Desynn Transmission System Page 104 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:58 2002 Control Systems 3. In Fig 3a the voltage distribution around the potentiometer is such that point A is at +24 V while B and C are both at +8 V. B and C produce a current flow in the three stators of the receiver and a resultant magnetic field is produced. The Receiver. the voltages at the tapping points A.
The vectors show that the resultant magnetic field also rotates through 120° clockwise and the rotor shaft aligns itself along this new axis. a step-by-step or M-type transmission system can be used. Page 105 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:58 2002 Control Systems 3. the resultant field at the receiver and hence the rotor magnet take up corresponding positions. the drum consisting of two segments each spanning an arc of 150° separated by two sections of insulating material each extending over 30°. The transmitter is basically a drum type switch. the voltage distribution around the potentiometer is such that current flows from B through coil B in the receiver then divides equally to flow through coils A and C back to the transmitter. If a pointer. Where moderate torque is required to rotate fairly substantial indicators or comparable devices. moving over a calibrated scale. In the M-type system the transmitter is modified considerably from that used in the Desynn system but the receiver operates on the same principle. If the input shaft is rotated through 120° in a clockwise direction as shown in Fig 3b. 11. The outer end of each coil in the receiver is connected to one of the three pick-off brushes in the transmitter. More than one receiver may be operated from a single transmitter. The two metal segments are connected to opposite poles of a suitable DC supply and three pick-off brushes are disposed around the drum at intervals of 120° (see Fig 5). The receiver unit is similar to that in the Desynn system.3. although the rotor may be either a permanent magnet or a laminated soft-iron core. The essential features of a simple M-type transmission system are shown in Fig 4. The amount of torque produced by the Desynn system is limited by the amount of current which can be taken by the low resistance toroidal potentiometer before overheating occurs.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b. remote indication of the position of the input shaft is immediately available. 12. Thus if the wipers in the transmitter are placed in any position by the input shaft. M-Type Transmission System 10.1. is attached to the rotor.1 .
At the receiver.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 4 M-Type Transmission System 13. System Operation. brush 2 is disconnected by the insulated segment and brush 3 is positive. a. The resultant field. 3-3-1-1 Fig 5 M-Type Drum Transmitter c. In position 1 of the input shaft. equal currents flow through coils 1and 3. b. Magnetic fields F1. F2 and F3 are produced and vector resolution produces the resultant field as shown. Rotation of the input shaft through 30° clockwise ( position 2 in Fig 6 ) produces a condition where brush 1 is negative.3.1. brush 1 is connected to the negative supply and brushes 2 and 3 to the positive. F2 and F3 now produces a resultant field which is seen to have rotated through 30° clockwise in sympathy with the input shaft. Resolution of fields F1. These polarities are applied to the three coils in the receiver so that the current divides through coils 2 and 3 with all the current flowing through coil 1. again following Page 106 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3. The condition after a further 30° rotation of the input shaft is shown at position 3. while coil 2 carries no current. Operation of the M-type transmission system is shown in Fig 6.
The permanent magnet rotor.1. A 60:1 gearing system is commonly used. giving 24 steps of 15° each. Greater sensitivity can be achieved by gearing up the input shaft to the transmitter shaft. is now rotated 60° from the initial position.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the input shaft. The latter does not suffer from brush wear and is preferred when the rotation rate is high. The rotor of the the receiver may be either of the soft iron (inductor) type or a permanent magnet. There is a change of pick-off brush polarity at one or other of the brushes each time the. The receiver is geared down by an equal ratio if a 1:1 output to input ratio is required. These are commutator and eccentric cam type transmitters. the rotor lines up in one position only. Since this type of rotor is non-polarized it is possible for it to align itself in either of two positions 180° apart. ie when the laminations are in line with the resultant flux. 14. The receiver rotor aligns itself with the axis of the resultant field and hence the angular movement of the input shaft. The fact that the receiver rotor in an M-type transmission system only moves in 30° (or 15°) steps is a disadvantage. Although a 60 times increase in Page 107 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3. input shaft is turned through 30°.3. Types of Transmitter. Due to the relatively strong magnetic field produced by the magnet. the transmitter shaft completing 60 revolutions for each revolution of the input shaft. Types of Receiver. the rotor torque is considerably higher than that of the induced type and. Synchronization of Transmitter and Receiver. The former is a development of the drum transmitter and gives 24 x 15° steps. 3-3-1-1 Fig 6 Operation of M-Type Transmission 15. For certain purposes. may be used to improve the sensitivity of the system. which is more commonly used. being polarized. 16. the 30° step is too large and a modified system.1 . Two other types of transmitter are in common use in M-type transmission systems. The inductor rotor is built up of iron and aluminium laminations and continuously aligns itself with the axis of the resultant field in the stator to offer the path of lowest reluctance. but only in discreet steps of 30°. does not suffer from this ambiguity.
Because of frictional and resistive losses. by Henry's Law. Because the TX stator windings are in closed circuit with the TR stator windings a current flow occurs which. into which the receiver can "lock" and still follow the M-type sequence.3. and the actual construction is shown in Fig 8. The TX and TR rotors differ in that the TR rotor is normally fitted with a mechanical damper to prevent oscillation.1 . Accuracies. Torque synchros. Torque Synchro Operation. A similar field. but presents problems in the transmission of actual shaft position. each separated by 6°. Fig 7 shows a diagrammatic representation of a torque synchro system. energized by the AC supply. Resolver synchros. The basic torque synchro consists of a transmitter (TX) and a receiver (TR). Control synchros. parallel to the 3-3-1-1 Fig 7 Basic Torque Synchro System Page 108 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3. must be of such a direction and magnitude as to produce a field associated with the TX stator which is equal in strength. Torque Synchros 19. The TX rotor. In all but one of these positions. 17. the output shaft will be out of synchronization with the input shaft. One revolution of the transmitter shaft now represents a rotation of 6° of the input shaft producing 12 steps of 0. The AC systems are self-synchronous (hence the name .synchro) and are divided into four groups: a. but in the opposite direction to the TX rotor inducing field.1. c. both of which are very similar. AC systems are generally preferred for high accuracy applications and also where servomechanisms are involved. This accuracy is adequate for the remote transmission of shaft rotation rates such as analogues of ground speed. and a rotor which is a single winding energized by an AC supply. AC SYSTEMS Introduction 18. The operation of torque synchro is shown in Fig 9. Differential synchros. 20. Each has a stator made up of three windings. b. The application of the DC systems described above is limited to the remote indication of shaft position and the transmission of moderate torques to remote indicators or other devices. eg heading.5° each (with a 30° step transmitter) and there are 60 different positions in the full 360° movement of the input shaft. the possibility of ambiguity is introduced. the accuracy of M-type transmission systems is seldom better than ±1°. has an associated alternating field which cuts the windings of the TX stator coils producing an induced emf.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 sensitivity is obtained in this case. d. Initial course synchronization is therefore necessary and this is normally achieved by manual adjustment before the transmission system is used. star connected at 120° to each other.
1 .1.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 8 Construction of Torque Synchro 3-3-1-1 Fig 9 Operation of the Torque Synchor Page 109 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3.
Control Synchro Accuracy. If it is required to move heavier loads a control synchro.1 . all the field directions simply reverse and the system remains in alignment.3. the control synchro accuracy is independent of load. 21. proportional to the angular displacement from the null position. The induced error signal is amplified and fed to one phase of a two phase servomotor which drives the output shaft of the CT rotor. The presence of both rotor and stator fields within the TR causes the rotor to turn to align its field with that of the stator and thus with the fields of the TX stator and rotor. 24. currentceases to flow and the fields collapse. Page 110 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3. When the CT rotor is at 90° to the CT stator field there is no induced emf (or error signal) in the rotor: the rotor is said to be in the "null" position. The TX and TR rotors are energized by the same AC supply and thus have associated magnetic fields. is produced in association with the TR stator. Torque Synchro Accuracy. they induce equal but opposite emfs in the two stators. If a high degree of accuracy is required the load must be limited. The motor drives the output shaft and the CT rotor until the induced error signal is zero. The control transmitter (CX) rotor is AC energized. the phase of this induced emf depending upon the direction of displacement. Control Synchro Operation. employing a separate servomotor to provide the necessary torque amplification. but not the control transformer (CT) rotor. A complete control synchro system is shown at Fig 12. If the CX rotor is displaced. NOTE: Current flow is continuous in the control synchro. induces an opposing field in the CX stator. may be used. An emf. The stator coils are of low impedance and any rotor misalignment produces sufficient current flow to produce reasonable torque. fed from an AC supply.1. The circuit current causes a magnetic field associated with the CT stator and parallel to the CX rotor field. As the two rotors reach alignment. the current magnitude being limited by employing high impedance stators. Typical accuracy figures are 16 minutes of arc. The CX rotor. the direction of movement being determined by the phase of the error signal. As the phase of the AC supply changes. The operation of the control system is shown in Fig 11. The second phase is supplied by the same AC source supplying the original CX rotor input. both have three-winding stators and single-winding rotors. produces an alternating field which. Using a suitably powered motor. 23. is induced in the rotor. A control synchro system is shown at Fig 10. Control and torque synchros are similar. As the torque synchro approaches synchronization. Control Synchros 22. by Henry's Law. the CT field alignment will change and the CT rotor will no longer be in the “null” position. the field structure collapses and the available torque falls off. lightly loaded torque synchro accuracy is approximately ± 1°.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 TX rotor field.
1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 10 Control Synchro System 3-3-1-1 Fig 11 Operation of a Control Synchro System Page 111 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:00 2002 Control Systems 3.1.3.
1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Page 112 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:01 2002 Control Systems 3.1.3.
3-3-1-1 Fig 14 Action of the Differential Synchro Page 113 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:02 2002 Control Systems 3. An emf is induced in the TDX rotor coils by the TDX stator alternating field.1. Differential synchros may be used to add or subtract two shaft rotations.3. The differential synchro (CDX) consists of a three-winding stator and a three-winding rotor. Shaft rotation 1 is fed to the TX rotor in the normal manner causing an induced field associated with the TDX stator parallel to the TX rotor field. The operation of a differential synchro within a torque synchro is illustrated in Fig 14 (the operation within a control synchro system is similar).1 . The CDX becomes a TDX when used in a torque synchro system.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 12 Complete Control Synchro System 3-3-1-1 Fig 13 Differential Synchro System Differential Synchros 25. The control system in Fig 13 includes a CDX. 26. Differential Synchro Operation. Shaft input 2 is fed to the TDX rotor.
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eg two could be used. 27. The same vector may be expressed in northings and eastings in cartesian form.1. their windings are different because of the different system current flows: torque systems have zero current flow when aligned. 3-3-1-1 Fig 16 Resolver Synchro Page 115 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:04 2002 Control Systems 3. Resolver Synchros 28. The resolver synchro consists of a stator and a rotor. 3-3-1-1 Fig 15 Relationship Between Polar and Cartesian Co-ordinates 29. in tandem. but the modes of operation are slightly different. Although the operation of both TDX and CDX are identical in theory.1 . Use of Resolvers. A magnetic field is also induced in association with the TR stator coils and alignment of the TR rotor takes place as explained above (para 20). Application of Differential Synchros. both having two orthogonal windings. together with the equations relating one system to the other. Similar resolvers are used to convert from polar to cartesian and vice versa. Co-ordinate Systems. Polar co-ordinates (range and bearing) b.3. The two co-ordinate systems are shown in Fig 15. The resolver synchro is illustrated in Fig 16. the current flow produces a magnetic field associated with the TDX rotor which opposes the field in the TDX stator. The resolver synchro is used to convert one co-ordinate system to the other. Several differential synchros can be included in a system. Cartesian co-ordinates (distances X and Y along orthogonal axes). Ground speed and track define a vector in polar co-ordinates. to add variation and drift to magnetic heading to give an output of true track. whereas control systems have continuous current flow. The relationship of one point to another may be defined in either of two ways: a.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 The TDX rotor coils are connected to the TR stator coils and. consequently.
the associated fields combining to produce a stator field of magnitude R at an angle θ (R and θ are analogues of groundspeed and track).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 30. Resolver Synchro (Resolving). A similar resolver is used to convert cartesian to polar co-ordinates. 3-3-1-1 Fig 17 Conversion of Polar to Cartesian Co-ordinates Page 116 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:04 2002 Control Systems 3.1. the voltages induced in the stator windings are proportional to R cos θ and R sin θ. In the resolving mode.1 . The rotor field has components of R cos θ (northings) and R sin θ (eastings) along the stator winding axes. In this example R (an electrical analogue of groundspeed) is applied.3. as an AC voltage. to one rotor winding. The rotor is then turned through angle θ (track). In this position a field proportional to R is produced in association with this rotor winding and hence a p voltage analogue x2 + y2 of groundspeed may be obtained. the resolver synchro converts polar to cartesian co-ordinates eg ground speed and track to northings and eastings. 31. The Y and X co-ordinates (northings and eastings) are fed to the stator windings as AC voltages. Resolver Synchro (Compounding). It is therefore driven to a position at 90° to the stator field and the output shaft is turned through the angle θ. thereby deriving track. One of the rotor windings is connected to an amplifier and servomotor in the same manner as a control receiver (CT). but in this case additional components are needed as shown in Fig 18. the other rotor winding lies parallel to that field. When the CT connected rotor winding is at 90° to the total stator field. The operation of the resolver synchro (resolving) is shown in Fig 17.
φ Page 117 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. eg northings and eastings relative to true North represented by R (ground speed). R cos θ (true northings) and R sin θ (true eastings) both fed as voltage analogues to the stator coils. Resolver Synchro (Differential).1 . There are three inputs. then required outputs are R cos (θ + φ) and R sin (θ + φ) as illustrated in Fig 19. The operation of the differential resolver synchro is shown at Fig 20. If the angle between true North and grid North is represented by φ.3. multiplied by cosine and sine θ(true track) may be required as grid northings and grid eastings.1. 33. Operation of Differential Resolver Synchro. It is often necessary to produce the sine and cosine of the sum of two angles multiplied by a given value.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 18 Conversion of Cartesian to Polar Co-ordinates 32.
two of the sub-fields are 3-3-1-1 Fig 19 Action of a Resolver Synchro (Differential) shown to be additive and two subtractive.3. R cos θ cos φ − R sin θ sin φ = R cos (θ + φ).1. Output voltages taken from the rotor coils are analogues of Rcos (θ + φ) (grid northings) and Rsin (θ + φ) (grid eastings). R sin θ cos φ − R cos θ sin φ = R sin (θ + φ).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 (convergence) is fed as a shaft rotation to position the rotor coils relative to the stator. eastings and desired track. Thus the differential resolver synchro redefines cartesian co-ordinates about a new datum direction. The outputs would then be distance gone along and across desired track. From Fig 20. 3-3-1-1 Fig 20 Operation of Differential Resolver Synchro Page 118 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. two parallel to each rotor coil. The sub-field values are: a. The versatility of the device may be illustrated by imagining inputs of northings. b. The fields associated with the stator coils may be resolved into 4 sub-fields.1 .
Table 1 summarizes the remote indication systems discussed in the preceding paragraphs. Table 2 summarizes the pertinent detail of the various types of synchro mechanisms. Provides moderate torque. sufficient to drive small mechanisms: accurate to about ± 1°. Provides only sufficient torque to operate small instruments: gives remote indication of dial readings to an accuracy of about ± 2°.1 . AC.3. Typical use is to rotate the scanning coils in a CRT in synchronism with a radar aerial.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 SUMMARY Summary Table 34. DC. Table 1 .1. M-Type Torque Synchro Page 119 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3.Summary of Remote Indication Systems System Desynn Remarks DC. Provides only sufficient torque to operate small instruments: efficient and accurate to within ± 1°: often used to transmit data such as radar bearings to the place where the information is required.
Gives an electrical output that is dependent on the error in alignment between driving shaft and load shaft. Control Differential Synchro AC. eg to combine a DF loop reading and a compass reading to give true bearing. Accuracy about ± 6' arc.1. and for conversion of one to the other: can also be used in a manner similar to that of a control synchro.Synchro Details Component Code Torque TX Transmitter Torque Receiver TR Inputs Outputs Mechanical rotation Electrical from of rotor stator Electrical to stator Mechanical rotation from rotor Electrical to stator Electrical from and mechanical rotor rotation of rotor Electrical to stator Mechanical and rotor rotation from rotor Mechanical rotation Electrical from of rotor stator Electrical to stator Error signal to servo loop Electrical to stator Electrical from and mechanical rotor rotation of rotor Mechanical rotation Electrical from of stator and rotor stator Electrical to stator and mechanical rotation of stator Error signal to servo loop Uses Transmits angular information Operates low torque equipment Transmits the sum of angular inputs Provides low torque equipment with the sum of two angular inputs Transmits angular information Control position of servo mechanism Transmits the sum of two angular inputs Transmits the sum of two angular inputs Provides a position servomechanism with a control signal which is the sum of two angular inputs Resolves polar co-ordinate inputs to cartesian co-ordinate outputs Compounds cartesian inputs to polar outputs Torque Differentil TDX Transmitter Torque Differential Receiver Control Transmitter Control Transformer Control Differential Transmitter Control Transmitter with Rotatable Stator Control Receiver with Rotatable Stator TDR CX CT CDX CXB CTB Resolver Synchro RS (Resolving) Electrical to rotor and mechanical rotation of rotor Electrical to stator Electrical from stator Resolver Synchro RS (Compunding) OR Arc/Tan Resolver Electrical from rotor and mechanical rotation of rotor Page 120 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. Control Synchro AC.1 .3. The error signal is normally used as the input to a control system driving a heavy load. As for the torque synchro.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Torque Differential Synchro AC. but provides summation of two input shaft angles. Gives an electrical output in the form of sine and cosine values of the sum or difference of two input angles. Resolver Synchro AC. Used in computers to give either cartesian or polar co-ordinates of an input. but provides summation of two input shaft angles. Table 2 . Resolver Differential Synchro AC. As for control synchro.
its pattern of operation must follow a particular sequence. To define a servomechanism (or servo) properly. At least one.1. A lightly applied movement at the input could control the position of a heavy load.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Resolver Synchro RS (Differential) Electrical to stator and mechanical rotation of rotor Electrical from rotor 3-3-1-1 Fig 3a Redefines cartesian co-ordinates about a new datum direction 3-3-1-1 Fig 3b Control Systems Chapter 2 . It could not only transmit the information over considerable distances. The receiving elements of the control transmission system are members of a large family of control devices known as servomechanisms. The transmission systems described in Chapter 1 of this Section included many devices capable only of remote indication on light pointers. but its receiving element included parts which released much greater power at the output than was available at the input. could do more than this. however. Page 121 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. however.2 . 2. the control transmission system. will now be examined.Servomechanisms Introduction 1.3. all of which have this ability to amplify the input force. This sequence. which need not involve remoteness of control.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Simple Control System 3. 6. 7. 8. or when the operator cannot read the load position or if the changes of input are too rapid for him to follow. Several courses of action are possible but perhaps the simplest and most obvious is to brief an operator to watch the load movement. In order to control the position of a radar scanner or other heavy load. 5. The link between the load and the comparison device is known as feedback. at any rate during his first few attempts. The voltage would then be regulated by the difference between the load angle and the input angle. Since restraining torques increase with speed. A simple automatic system can be designed to work in precisely the same way as the operator. The control element. move the control element by an amount proportional to the required angle. The voltage to the amplifier is called the error signal and it is usually produced within the error detector. applies the input to a power amplifier. perhaps a variable resistor. in turn. 3-3-1-2 Fig 1 Elements of Control System 4. finally bringing it to rest. 10. This control system. When the input is moved a voltage proportional to this angle is applied through the amplifier to the motor. The motor accelerates at a rate compatible with the load inertia and with restraints. moves the load. In other words he would. He could slow the motor down as the load closed on the required position by drawing back on the control element. then an automatic system must be used. an arrangement such as that in Fig 1 could be put together.1. is controlled by a device of this type. the difference between the load angle and the input angle is called the error and the comparison device is termed the error detector. which drives the motor in the required direction. Automatic Control System 9. and not its position. A block schematic diagram of the automatic system is illustrated in Fig 2. Once the possibility of prolonged operation is envisaged. The load position is fed to some device which compares it with the input and the difference between them regulates the voltage to the amplifier.3. until it reaches a steady speed with the driving torque equal to the restraining torques. such as friction. Clearly the load will not stop at the required position unless some further action is taken. The motor. however. it can only be used when the operator can see the load and when fatigue on his part is unlikely. The essential features are as follows: 3-3-1-2 Fig 2 Automatic Control System Page 122 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3. The control element could be calibrated with a scale indicating the angle through which the input is turned. His actions would probably be such as to allow high speeds for large load movements and low speeds for small movements. is not automatic. the load speed.2 .
when the error signal disappears and movement stops. Production of an error signal proportional to θo − θi. amplifier. It has power amplification and closed loop control. d. Subtraction of θi.3. It is actuated by the error since the net input to the amplifier is the error signal and not a voltage representing the input angle. 11. Control of the amplifier output by the error signal. but may be found in other forms.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 a. and motor. There are two main classes of servomechanism . Types of Servo 14. c. error detector. θi. Application of the input angle. 13.position control servos and speed control servos: a. Servomechanisms 12. To be classed as a servomechanism. The new load position is fed back to the error detector and the sequence b to g continues until the error is zero. Control mechanisms in which this loop can be identified are known as closed loop systems. b. Power amplification. it is fully automatic and capable of continuous operation. Closed loop control.1. b. Error actuation. Movement of the load by the motor in a direction which reduces the error. The input also will normally be an angle or position. Feedback of the load position. e. from θo to produce the error. Position control servos are used to control the angular or linear position of a load. θo to the error detector. c. f. while those which do not have feedback are known as open loop systems.2 . to the error detector. Page 123 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3. Control of the motor movement by the amplifier output. g. an automatic control system must be capable of continuous operation and have: a. Thus the system in Fig 2 is a servomechanism. The automatic control system described operates by continuous cycling of the load position through the loop formed by the feedback. Position Control Servos.
2 . is applied to the resolver synchro together with gyro heading. Gyro heading is the load position.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b. but is limited to low power applications. Speed control servos are used to control the speed of a load. Thermostatic control of a gas oven uses the servo principle.The Gyro-Magnetic Compass 18. It is illustrated in Fig 3 with the servo terms added to assist the reader in identifying the features enumerated in para 10. but more often a hybrid AC/DC servo. Servomechanisms of either classification. In general the AC system is capable of greater accuracy and stability. 3-3-1-2 Fig 4 GM Compass System Page 124 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3.1. will be found when heavy loads are involved. In this case the input will not normally itself be a speed. Fig 4 shows the arrangement of a typical gyro-magnetic compass and Fig 5 illustrates the same system in block form. combining the merits of both. The precession coils replace the servomotor. θo and the resolver synchro is the error detector. The error in gyro heading actuates the system. 19. however. can be operated by AC or DC power supplies. 3-3-1-2 Fig 3 Servo Elements of Control Synchro EXAMPLES OF SERVOMECHANISMS Position Control Servo . The DC servo is used in high torque situations. The compass is therefore essentially a servomechanism. The classification into position and speed control servos is a convenient one in view of the applications of the servo principle met in normal service equipments. and the fact that a second servo is used to provide the load position feedback is a matter of design convenience. 15. Whatever the feedback method. The synchro control transmission system has already been mentioned as an example of a servomechanism. the servo can control many things not embraced by these terms. Speed Control Servos. Indeed some systems use a direct mechanical link for the feedback. the servo principle can be identified in all gyro-magnetic compasses. being actuated by the error in oven temperature. Indeed. θi. the input and output may take so many forms that it is common practice to use non-committal descriptions such as input demand for θi and load behaviour for θo. inputs are usually in the form of voltages or shaft angles. 17. 16. and the gyro spin axis is the load. Magnetic heading. In general. the control of the concentration of a solution in a chemical process is another example.3.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-2 Fig 5 GM Compass System Servo Outline Speed Control Servo The Velodyne 20.3. The situation calling for a speed control servo in navigation equipments is most commonly that of converting a voltage representing airspeed or groundspeed into an angular velocity.1. A shaft turning at this angular velocity can then be used to display distance gone. the Velodyne Page 125 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3. The device used is called a velodyne and its components are illustrated in Fig 6. 3-3-1-2 Fig 6 Speed Control Servo.2 .
It is intended. so that θi and θo may represent positions or speeds. The motor is therefore controlled by the difference in voltages and will speed up or slow down until the difference is zero. Vo. The discussion which follows applies equally to the position servo and the speed servo. The servo illustrated in Fig 7 will be chosen as the model. The descriptions given in the preceding paragraphs of servo action are rather superficial. 23. Nevertheless a suitable choice of components can ensure an input-output relationship which is very closely linear over the operating range.3. is required. The input voltage Vi is applied through a power amplifier to turn a servometer which accelerates the load towards the required speed. This is a special type of generator which gives a voltage proportional to its speed of rotation. Page 126 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3. Comparison between the load speed and the input voltage is made possible by converting the speed into a voltage. 3-3-1-2 Fig 7 Simple Servomechanism 25. The tachogenerator output. to discuss some of the more sophisticated members of the family and before this can be done the behaviour of the simple servo must be studied in greater detail.2 . and are on occasion ambiguously termed in order to avoid difficulty. In practice the equality of voltages is never quite reached and a small residual difference is necessary to counter friction. The conversion is effected by a tachogenerator coupled to the output shaft. 22. It can be very small and absorbs little power since only a voltage.1. For simplicity Fig 7 will be taken to be a position servo. however. PERFORMANCE OF SERVOMECHANISMS Introduction 24.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 21. is fed back to be subtracted from Vi at the amplifier input. with negligible current.
and. it acts only on the inertia of the load which therefore accelerates at a rate proportional to the error. since there is nothing to stop it.2 .3. The first is known as a step input. the other when it suddenly moves at a constant speed. Two important factors affecting response are the form which the input change takes. 27. Two types of input change will be covered. until it reaches zero with zero error. One important point must now be emphasized. Since. It has so far been assumed that if the input moves to θi the load will simply follow. for the load acceleration is in one sense only and that is to increase its velocity. 31. now reverse in sense to slow down the load. and the various restraints. Further. which act on the output. 30. until the input suddenly changed to θi. and from there the performance is repeated. therefore. the components operate symmetrically about the null. Saying that the acceleration is zero at zero error simply means that the load has reached a steady speed when we require it to be stationary. 3-3-1-2 Fig 9 Oscillating Response to a Step Input Page 127 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3. one when the input suddenly changes to a new position. But this is not a satisfactory state of affairs. friction etc. the torque applied to the load. 29. the pattern of deceleration is a mirror image of the original acceleration. the second a ramp input. 3-3-1-2 Fig 8 Types of Input Step Input No Friction 28. it keeps moving past the required position. Both are discussed without considering restraints in the first instance. The response of a servo is the pattern of behaviour of the load when a change is made to the input condition. An error signal proportional to θo− θi appears at the amplifier input and the motor is energized to null the error. its response being a reproduction of the input movement.1. however. The load stops when it has overshot by the initial error. These are now considered in turn. The resulting load oscillation about the demanded position is illustrated graphically in Fig 9. the names deriving from the curves of input against time shown in Fig 8. As the error reduces so the acceleration reduces. The paragraphs which follow will show that matters are not as simple as this.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Response 26. The error signal produced. The torque delivered by the motor to the load is directly proportional to the error. For this discussion we will assume that the input and output were aligned at θo.
When its speed exceeds that of the input the position error starts to decrease. eddy currents. exceeds the input speed and an overshoot results. or settling time.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Ramp Input . and luckily. The error signal grows as the lag increases. Once the output has settled it has reached the steady state. however. building up the acceleration. In the early stages of the ramp. The load speed. That the outcome is a continuous oscillation can be easily imagined from this point. Various inherent factors act to oppose the load movement. kinetic friction. they include static friction. 3-3-1-2 Fig 10 Oscillating Response to a Ramp Input Effect of Restraints 33. while the error signal is small.No Friction 32. The oscillations are known as transients and they are effective during the transient response period.3. Page 128 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3.2 . the load accelerates slowly and lags behind the input. The description of the response can be followed in Fig 10. air resistance. Lumping them all together for the moment the general effect is to reduce the amplitude of each successive swing until gradually the output becomes steady. the acceleration reduces and the load reaches a constant speed at zero position error with no error signal. restraints on the load have a stabilizing effect. viscous lubricants and many others. The oscillatory responses are obviously not desirable. Eventually the load speed equals the input speed but since a substantial position error exists it continues to accelerate.1.
the greater part is due to viscous friction. and since this increases with speed the error is generally reckoned to vary directly with speed.1. One of these is that power is wasted. however. therefore an error must exist. For most modern servos the coulomb friction is very small. Fig 11 shows the effect of coulomb friction on the response to a step input. but. another is the introduction of error in the steady state. known as the dead space. and the error necessary to overcome the friction is known as velocity lag. 3-3-1-2 Fig 12 Response with Viscous Friction to Ramp Input Page 129 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3. for a torque which overcomes it must be generated before any movement of the load takes place. the width of which depends on the amount of coulomb friction. Viscous friction does not produce a dead space in the step input case since it has no value when the speed is zero.3. An error signal must be produced to overcome this.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 34. or damping. Coulomb friction may be considered small compared with viscous friction during a ramp input. they do have certain detrimental effects. In the steady state the load is moving with constant speed. While restraints are beneficial in stabilizing. Examination of the various restraints present would show that their effect is in part due to a small constant magnitude force known as coulomb friction and in part to viscous friction which increases with speed 3-3-1-2 Fig 11 Response with Coulomb Friction to Step Input 36. the response. The load comes to rest somewhere within a band of error. it also contributes to this error. It does. of course. To provide this torque the load error must reach some finite size. Steady State Errors 35. The response is illustrated in Fig 12 . The resistance due to coulomb friction tends to degrade the sensitivity of a servo. However. it is therefore being resisted by viscous friction. and its effect is often neglected. 37. and any errors less than this will not be corrected.2 . produce a similar effect when the ramp input is considered.
Viscous Damping 40.3. Two methods commonly employed are described. It is evidently desirable to reduce the number of oscillations. This method is simply a controlled increase of the inherent viscous damping to achieve the required response. Friction damps the oscillation. but leads to dead space and velocity lag.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Summary 38. For many applications the simple servo using its inherent friction for damping is perfectly adequate. The simple servo oscillates in response to either a step or ramp input. Time and energy are wasted during this period. 3-3-1-2 Fig 13 Eddy Current Damper Page 130 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3.1. and bearing wear is increased. This is usually the case for small position servos.2 . and also the response time. One device in use is the eddy current damper shown in Fig 13. IMPROVEMENT OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE Introduction 39. but when large loads are involved the transient response is unsatisfactory.
however.3. is optimum damping which gives the smallest settling time. They can be controlled by adjusting the current flow to the electromagnets. Using only inherent friction light damping is achieved. Slightly less damping than this.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 41. Thus to remove the transient oscillations completely a considerable velocity lag must be expected.1. Too much extra viscous friction will produce a very sluggish response and the system is heavily damped. The degree of damping which just prevents any overshoot is known as critical damping. This simple device consists of a thin disc of metal with high electrical conductivity (usually aluminium) which is attached to the output shaft. A snag arises. Eddy currents are induced of magnitude proportional to the field strength and to the disc velocity. These eddy currents set up magnetic fields which act against the inducing fields and forces opposing the disc rotation are created. to allow one small overshoot.2 . It spins between the poles of electromagnets mounted round its periphery. Varying degrees of damping can be applied. Most designs are aimed at this condition. 3-3-1-2 Fig 14 Degrees of Damping . These forces are closely proportional to the disc velocity. The effect on the transients for a ramp input can be similarly adjusted to produce optimum damping.Step Input Page 131 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3. Fig 15 illustrates the response for two degrees of damping for a ramp input. 42. coulomb friction being ignored for simplicity. Fig 14 shows some of the stages. for any increase in viscous friction also increases the velocity lag. and therefore provide parallels to the inherent viscous forces. 43.
Examining these statements we see that the damping effect is produced by reducing the motor torque in the desired proportion. but it has the great disadvantage of wasting energy. 3-3-1-2 Fig 16 Velocity Feedback Page 132 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 Control Systems 3.2 . It does so by applying a force at the motor output proportional to the output speed. 3-3-1-2 Fig 15 Degrees of Damping .3. Since a voltage with negligible current is required the additional output load can be neglected. Velocity feedback damping acts in this way. therefore.1. The second method attacks this problem. The feedback voltage is provided by a tachogenerator on the output shaft. Motor torque can be lowered by cutting off part of the amplifier output. 46. and a simple way of doing this is to cut down the error signal. that is it must be proportional to the output speed. but power no longer wasted. If.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 44. Viscous damping acts by absorbing motor torque. while the friction force applied to do so is the cause of energy waste. We therefore feed back a voltage proportional to the load velocity and apply it in opposition to the error signal at the amplifier input.Ramp Input Velocity Feedback Damping 45. The arrangement is shown in Fig 16. The response achieved by additional viscous damping can be made adequate. the motor torque can be reduced in the same proportion by some means other than an opposing force the damping action will be retained. For effective damping the reduction must be on the lines indicated by viscous friction.
Transient response can be improved in two ways. DR Position Computing Chapter 1 . Components 2. but of the two velocity feedback is to be preferred since power is not wasted.1 . and is therefore not described in this chapter. A storage system is built into the equipment. In this case the steady state velocity of the load imposes a signal on the amplifier input which must be cancelled in some way if the steady velocity is to be maintained. 48. permitting the freezing and correction of the position counters. controls the 28V DC supply to the motors and transmitters within the GPI. Heading transmission becomes operative as soon as the compass is switched on. and transmission of drift and ground mileage occurs a few seconds after the Doppler is switched on. but for a different physical reason.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 47. which is at the bottom of the unit. All controls are on the face of the indicator (Fig 1). which means that an error must exist. is mounted remotely. Latitude/ Longitude.Ground Position Indicator (GPI) MK 4A Introduction 1. Page 133 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 DR Position Computing 3. Velocity feedback increases velocity lag just as did the viscous friction method. Main Switch. The Ground Position Indicator Mk 4A is an electromechanical computer designed for use with Doppler radars and remote indicating compass systems. It also controls the transmission of groundspeed to the instrument. It has no controls. Varying degrees of damping can be achieved by adjustment of the feedback and much greater precision is possible than with viscous friction. Both increase velocity lag in the response to ramp inputs. Summary 49. The ON/OFF switch. The latter is used in conjunction with a servo system to provide a power drive of track angle. and ground distance gone by M-type transmission from the Doppler tracker unit. The cancellation can only be made by an equal error signal. an indicator unit and an amplifier unit. The inputs are heading by M-type transmission from the heading reference. or Along/Across track co-ordinates. Once again optimum damping is sought.3.2. by applying extra viscous friction or by velocity feedback. drift transmitted by synchros from the Doppler aerial. Indicator 3. There are two components. The output is the computed position in Northing/Easting.
allowing it to deal with normal drifts of up to 36° relayed from the Doppler. A compass rose on the face of the instrument carries two pointers.5° but allowing the system to appear to be synchronized every 6°. To stop this continuous rotation. The pointer indications are accurate to about 0. When this happens the drift conditions in the GPI may differ by more than 36° from the drift input from the Doppler eg. The track pointer then follows the heading. the drift on the Doppler indicator should be inched until its drift indication is within 36° of that on the GPI. This is because the azimuth resolving mechanism has a null position every 72°. 3-3-2-1 Fig 1 Controls on GPI MK 4A Page 134 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 DR Position Computing 3. Doppler drift of 20° port and GPI drift condition of 20° starboard. The heading must then be resynchronized. The heading pointer is synchronized with the compass master indicator by the use of the knob at the left-hand side of the compass rose. the continuous rotation will stop and the track pointer will be pulled into synchronization. In these circumstances. both pointers will be driven continuously round the dial in one direction. Synchronization should be carried out with the drift servo powered (ie Doppler switched on). The servo-motor used in the azimuth resolving mechanism has sufficient power to overcome the power of the heading repeater motor. The input of heading is by M-type transmission and would normally be in 30° steps. To improve the accuracy the heading is passed via a 60:1 gearing reducing the steps to 0.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4. as soon as the Doppler is switched on. If the drift servo is not powered the track pointer will remain stationary until it lags by 36° from the heading.1 . while the other has a single arrow indicating heading.2. dragging the track pointer along 36° behind the heading pointer.5°. and therefore both pointers are driven continuously in one direction by the servomotor. Heading and Track Indicator. One of these has a double arrow to indicate track.3. A limiting stop in the azimuth synchro unit then engages. lagging or leading by an amount equal to the drift reading on the Drift and G/S indicator. but when more than 36° of drift is presented to the mechanism it tries to reach a null position in the wrong direction.
b. and adjusts the counter shutters to give the correct presentation. The range obtainable on this setting is 4. The two counters give degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude. and the other drums give the number of whole degrees. A/A SET TRACK.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 5. When A/A is set. but they give nautical miles gone along and across any track which has been set on the set track drum. The three presentations are: a. Slipping of a secant gear in the resolving mechanism usually causes errors in latitudes above 70° North or South. the minute mark moves with the shutter. with an overshoot of approximately 200 nm. and any reading must be delayed until the changeover is complete.2. At the zero changeover. The normal North/South counters record distance along the selected track. A three-positioned switch in the centre of the indicator allows a selection of any one of three types of position presentation.000 nm on each counter. increasing East for Page 135 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 DR Position Computing 3. the counters appear the same as for GRID. The range on each counter is 400°. the counters increasing North. Movement of the switch applies the appropriate form of drive to the counters. LAT. It must be noted that a change of presentation in flight requires a complete counter resetting. c. the East/West counters record distance across track. GRID. Presentation Selection Switch.1 . LONG. The minutes are read on the right-hand drum against a mark on the shutter. Position is indicated as nautical miles travelled in North or South and East or West directions from any point at which the counters have been set to zero.
Should 200 nm be exceeded. A further inherent source of error is backlash in the transmission and resolution gear. The knob is divided into four by projecting points at 90° intervals. whereupon the indicator lamps light. 6. Very accurate compass calibration and precise alignment of the M-type transmission system. To store information. The handle is then inserted in the lower keyway (E/W) and a similar procedure carried out with reference to the other cross and dot indicator.000 feet at 45° N is an overreading of approximately 0. The track set on this control does not affect the track pointer on the compass rose. 8. Backlash error is kept to a minimum by ensuring that the GPI reset knobs are at their central position when not in use.080 feet multiplied by the cosine of the latitude is equal to one minute of longitude. These assumptions are true only at sea level at latitudes 47°42' N and S. The East/West counters are marked R (right) and L (left) respectively.000 knots. Instrument Error. Care should be taken when change of presentation is made. and the position shown on the position counters remains constant. 11. and only manual unstorage is available. since the locking device can be forced and this will result in unserviceability of the GPI. NOTE: The storage indicator markings cover a range of 160 nm for each component. the knob being pulled out for manual control. the NORMAL/ FIX switch is turned to FIX. The drifts and groundspeed values supplied by Doppler are accurate to about 0. the counter affected would be 400 nm in error after unstoring. Latitude and Altitude Error. which is likely to occur at latitudes higher than 70° N or S. b. 10. which continues to give the true track of the aircraft. A handle. Page 136 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 DR Position Computing 3. Counter Resets. With electrical resetting. Should the automatic system fail. A locking device prevents movement of the drum from its zero position unless the A/A presentation is chosen and also prevents return of the presentation switch to GRID or LAT. two hand reset knobs and two drum indicators which are illuminated by concealed lamps at all times when any information is in store. and at any other latitude or altitude must introduce errors. Counter resetting can then be carried out.5 revolution of the indicator drum. Despite the inherent accuracy of the GPI Mk 4A the ultimate accuracy depends on the quality of the inputs. The rate of automatic unstore is equivalent to approximately 3. The cross and dot indicator nearest to this keyway shows the direction in which the handle must be turned. latitude and altitude error. LONG. This high rate of reset permits a rapid change of the counters when selecting a different position presentation. in fact.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 distance to the right of the set track and West for distance to the left. deviation and coriolis effect are necessary to minimize heading error. and setting this knob scale against a fixed datum mark above the knob allows very accurate track setting. If the 160 nm figure is exceeded. appears through a window in the lower right-hand corner of the GPI face. shown in its stowed position in Fig 1. When the switch is put back to NORMAL.1 . On manual resetting.5% and track resolution is accurate to within 0. The accuracy of the true heading input is much less than that of the drift and is. Storage System.7% respectively. A knob alongside each set of counters controls both manual and electrical resetting. A distance of 6. presentation) per minute. together with careful application of corrections for variation. will increase the instrument error. LONG. Distance resolution is accurate to within 0. At all altitudes and latitudes the length of a nautical mile is 6. and input error. Set Track Drum and Knob. one revolution of the knob representing 4°.2. and 0. The design of constant-scale measuring instruments such as the GPI Mk 4A is based on the assumptions that: a. The overall error at 50. Resetting of the counters can be carried out either manually or with the aid of an electric motor. altitude error always causes an overreading in distance while latitude error causes overreading in high latitudes and underreading in low latitudes. The drum is rotated by a setting knob near the window. Input Error. is inserted in the upper keyway (N/S). corresponding to 0. manual unstoring can be carried out.3°. the greatest source of error. and numbered every 10°. when the indicator lamps will go out. electric motors automatically feed all the stored mileage into the position counters until the storage is cleared.5 degrees. Errors 9. 7. Slipping of the secant gear. and a line dividing dots from crosses indicates the neutral position. The GPI Mk 4A is subject to instrument error.3. there is no indication of the correct unstore direction and large errors may be introduced.080 feet and is equal to one minute of latitude. rotation of the knob gives a corresponding rotation of the indicator dials. although in effect 200 nm can be stored. These errors are maximum at high altitudes and in high and low latitudes. A drum marked off at two-degree intervals.25%. rotation of the knob gives a rate of reset of about 700 nm (on A/A and GRID presentations) or about 70° (on LAT. The storage system is controlled by the NORMAL/FIX switch. until the drum has been returned to zero. 12.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 13. Operation 14. the counters should then read zero at destination.1 nm North and 14. b. Set the GPI counters to take-off co-ordinates and the Doppler distance gone counter to zero. Switch on and synchronize the compass. LAT/LONG is the most commonly used and versatile mode of operation. described in relation to the example illustrated at Fig 2 is as follows: 3-3-2-1 Fig 2 Changing from LAT/LONG to A/A Track Page 137 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:09 2002 DR Position Computing 3. a. A/A track presentation permits immediate checking of track-keeping accuracy and of distance to go.3. the counters freeze. System Error. Return counters to zero and switch off GPI. 15. Switch to NORMAL and note that both storage lights go out together as the drums reach their neutral positions. 17. and a dot or cross appears on each storage drum. Note the time. The process. Doppler and the heading reference are used together in a particular type of aircraft. Operation in Flight. and simultaneously switch on the GPI and the Doppler distance gone counter. With doppler groundspeed readily available frequent and accurate revision of ETA can be calculated. e. b. j. Check that the distance gone counter reads 20 nm and that the GPI counters read 14. h. Set NORMAL/FIX switch to NORMAL and GPI main switch to OFF. but tactical considerations may favour the use of an alternative presentation. Switch off GPI. Take-off. The error which concerns the operator is that which arises when the GPI Mk 4A. Circumstances may arise when a change from LAT/LONG to A/A track presentation is required in flight. by setting the South counter to read that distance before take-off.1 . Switch to FIX and note that both storage lights come on. f. When a single track is to be flown.1 nm Left. Synchronize heading and track pointers with compass. k. i.2. The following drills apply to the GPI Mk 4A in any installation. Set presentation selection switch to A/A and the track drum to the value indicated by the heading and track pointers plus 45 degrees. n. an error growth rate of 6 nm/hr would be typical. g. 16. o. The GPI counters can be set so that the actual distance to go is shown. c. Pre-flight. Set zero drift and 600 kt groundspeed on the Doppler. a. Exactly two minutes after switching on in g switch off the GPI and the Doppler distance gone counter. Carry out Doppler switching on procedure as appropriate. As aircraft becomes airborne switch on GPI and distance gone counter. m. Switch GPI main switch to ON and check N/S and E/W electrical resetting in both directions. switch on Doppler. l. Set the presentation switch and track drum as required for flight. d. Immediately before take-off check that the GPI heading repeater is still synchronized with the heading reference.
DR Position Computing Chapter 2 . switch from LAT/LONG to A/A track and set the track drum to 0. This chapter will provide an overview of the variant (T9447-D).Drift. it is not intended to be a User Manual.Mach Number and True Outside Air Temperature (which are processed in TANS to calculate TAS). c. however should these fail. Present Position. c. Manual Inputs . d. or manually inserted. For the DR position at 1006 measure the distance off track (10R and distance to go (605 nm). Between 1000 and 1006. navigation calculations will continue using air data information together with the last stored. combined into a single unit. Sensor input values and computed navigation variables. The Tactical Air Navigation System (TANS) comprises a digital computer. e. 3.3. Page 138 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:09 2002 DR Position Computing 3.From the GM compass system. The computer will normally operate using Doppler inputs. Along and Across Heading velocity and Vertical velocity. and a display and control unit. b. Continuously predicted steering information from present position direct to a previously inserted waypoint. The inputs for this variant are: a. value of wind velocity. Magnetic Variation. d. c. Switch to Normal. Doppler Inputs . Air Data Inputs .75°. Wind Velocity. At 1006 switch to fix. Plot the GPI position at 1000 and DR ahead for 6 mins. There are a number of variants and sub-variants of TANS which use different inputs and produce different outputs. b. and Time. 2. set 605 on the N/S counters and 10R on the E/W counters.Start and Waypoint Positions.2 . track and wind velocity. The TANS computer uses these inputs to calculate and display the following information: a. The computer is a general purpose type with a fixed program designed to resolve navigation problems. Heading .The Tactical Air Navigation System (TANS) Introduction 1.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 a. b. eg heading.
DESCRIPTION Display and Control Unit 5. The display comprises 2 lines of 9 alpha-numeric digits. When the TANS is not in the OP mode the extreme left-hand digit(s) flash. Page 139 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:09 2002 DR Position Computing 3. b. The purpose of the control switches is as follows: a. Power is switched on or off by a spring loaded toggle switch which must be pulled outwards and up to provide the necessary 28V DC to the equipment. ON/OFF Switch. and 20 nm/hr in the Air Data System (ADS) mode. Accuracy. Modes are selected by rotating a four position switch marked: (1) L/L. and push button keyboard are all mounted on the front panel of the TANS unit as illustrated in Fig 1.3.2 . Navigation Mode Switch.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4. All information stored in the TANS is lost if the power is switched off. the decimal point is not indicated and its position varies with each display format. The display. Control Switches 7. fail lamps. The TANS computer has a 6 nm/hr error growth rate when fed by Doppler inputs.2. 3-3-2-2 Fig 1 TANS Computer T9447D Front Panel TANS Display 6. Position L/L selects latitude and longitude format for position display (Fig 2). control switches.
3-3-2-2 Fig 5 INT Display Page 140 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3.2. The INT (Intercept) position selects a display which shows the heading required to reach a selected waypoint and the time it will take to reach it (Fig 5). Position B-D selects a format which displays present position as a bearing and distance to an inserted location (Fig 4).3.2 . 3-3-2-2 Fig 3 Grid Display (3) B-D. 3-3-2-2 Fig 4 B-D Display (4) INT. The GRID position selects grid coordinates format for position displays (Fig 3).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-2-2 Fig 2 L/L Display (2) GRID.
The equipment is normally operated in the LAND position but the SEA functions are designed to compensate for Doppler spectrum distortion when flying over the sea. eg start-up and taxiing. Mach number. The SEA-S (Sea Smooth) position is normally only used in helicopter installations when flying over a smooth sea. the TANS will update present position using heading plus Doppler inputs. The ADS (Air Data System) position isolates the Doppler from the computer and TANS will operate using the remaining sensor inputs and either the last wind velocity stored by the computer or a wind manually entered by the operator. In the DOP (Doppler Operation) position. even if the Doppler lock is to false values. and the TANS will automatically revert to ADS mode using heading. Display Dimmer Switch. The DIM switch controls the brilliance of displays. the Sensor Fail light will illuminate but the system will not automatically switch to DOP. If the sensor light illuminates steadily the selected input source (ie Doppler or ADS) is invalid but the other source is still available. If the ADS inputs should fail. illuminated keys. iii. A Sensor Fail lamp is situated to the right of the Sensor Switch and operates as follows: (1) Flashing. If the sensor light flashes there are 3 possibilities: i. This is a 3 position switch used in conjunction with the Sensor Fail lamp and controls the sensor inputs to the computer as follows: (1) DOP. ii. With DOP selected. The heading input has failed. This possibility can be avoided by switching manually to ADS until correct Doppler lock is achieved. b. and the stored value of wind velocity. if the Doppler loses lock. (2) S/Y. If the Doppler regains lock.3. Page 141 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3. If no fault exists in the circuit the lamp will extinguish after present position (latitude and longitude) has been entered in the computer. A Computer Fail lamp (marked FAIL) is situated above the DIM control. (2) Steady On. and with the Doppler 'ON' and locked on. the mode must be selected manually. The S/Y (Stand-by) position is used when no inputs are required to be fed to the TANS. temperature. e. It also illuminates approximately 10 seconds after switch on to check the lamp circuit. Computer Fail Lamp. The SEA-R (Sea Rough) position is used when low level winds exceed force 3 on the Beaufort scale (7-10kts).2. It compares Doppler and ADS velocities to guard against a Doppler runaway and will revert to ADS if the 2 velocities are markedly different. It illuminates in the event of computer malfunction. d. Land/Sea Switch. the Sensor Fail light will illuminate. (3) ADS. at low level and in light wind condition. The sensor switch is at stand-by thus inhibiting both Doppler and ADS velocities.2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. Fail Lamps 8. and fail lamps. Sensor Switch. Both ADS and Doppler inputs have failed. In this situation the light will extinguish so long as the ADS information remains valid. Sensor Fail Lamp. Two lamps are used as follows to indicate failures in the system: a. the light will extinguish and the equipment will again use the Doppler information.
(1) One short press will clear the last entered digit. The GL (Grid Lock) key is used to enter present position. ENT and CLR keys. into the computer. FIX. The numeric keys are numbered 0 . ie True IN. Data entered will be valid from the instant of pressing ENT. in grid coordinates. e. E. i. Variation should be set only if the heading input to TANS is magnetic. when entering other data it need only be depressed for about 1 second. h.2. j. The STR (Steer) key permits the selection of steering facilities. k. Once the correct position is displayed ENT must be pressed to input the information into the computer. The Navigation Mode switch must be set to the appropriate position when displaying or entering waypoint information. If data modes are required consecutively there is no need to press DTA each time. f. Aircraft movement is stored whilst in FIX and pressing OP or DTA will release the FIX mode and present position updating will recommence. The entering sequence for information other than present position is initiated by the SET key which must be pushed before selecting the function to be updated.9) may be stored. Functional Key 10. VEC. W. b. All keys have integral lighting. The VAR (Variation) key is used to set or display magnetic variation. WP. increase their brightness when pressed to indicate the function selected. 3-3-2-2 Fig 6 VAR Display c. with the exception of the OP. The variation value and sense is shown on the top line of the display as illustrated in Fig 6. The WP (Waypoint) key is used in conjunction with the numeric keys to insert and/or display information relating to waypoints. 6. Up to 10 waypoints (labelled 0 . When present position is to be entered the ENT key must be held depressed for about 3 seconds (to guard against accidental insertion of wrong information). or the last digit on the right if no digit has been entered. VAR. CLR. The VEC (Vector) key permits the entry or display of waypoint vector (course and speed). SET.9. g. (Present position displayed. In conjunction with the numeric keys the DTA (Data) key is used for setting and displaying selected data modes. In either case the display will blink momentarily once the position or data has been entered. ENT.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Computer Keyboard 9. and S respectively. and 8 are additionally labelled N. Page 142 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3. All bearings and headings displayed will be magnetic. The functional keys. 11 provide functional control and 10 are used to insert numerical data. continuously updated). Mag OUT.3. 4. The ENT (Enter) key is used to enter data which has been keyed in via the numeric keyboard. and keys 2. the display will clear completely. True OUT. OP. DTA.2 . STR. The nine functional keys operate as follows: a. (2) If the key is depressed for 2 seconds. The FIX key freezes the present position display which may then be amended (eg to a fix position at that time). The CLR (Clear) key is used in 2 ways when entering new information on the display. GL. The keyboard has 21 press-button keys. The OP (Operation) key may be pressed at any time to restore normal operation. d. Mag IN.
The computer resumes the averaging process should Doppler inputs become available again. Leading zeros must always be entered but trailing zeros may be omitted. DTA 2 gives wind direction (°T or °M) and speed (kts) as in Fig 8. 3-3-2-2 Fig 9 DTA 3 Display Page 143 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3. the display freezes and the computer uses the indicated wind. Speeds have no decimal places. DTA 3. therefore care must be exercised to ensure that latitude figures are always preceded by N or S and longitude and grid coordinates by E or W. The various displays are accessed by pressing the DTA key plus the appropriate numeric key (which is then displayed in the left-most position on the top line) as follows: a. The data displays are used to show the values of sensor inputs and calculated navigation variables.3. If Doppler inputs become invalid.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Position Format 11. Track and Groundspeed. The wind velocity must be manually input if operating in ADS mode. With valid Doppler inputs the wind displayed is the average wind found over the preceding 2 minutes. Wind Velocity. calculated from either Doppler or ADS information. thus an angle <360° indicates port drift and an angle >000° indicates starboard drift. Data Displays 12. 3-3-2-2 Fig 8 DTA 2 Display c. DTA 1. The TANS will only accept inputs in the correct format. Drift is calculated about a datum of 360°. which may be updated manually via the keyboard.2. For each display format the decimal point changes position.2 . 3-3-2-2 Fig 7 DTA 1 Display b. Heading and Drift. bearings and headings have one. DTA 3 (Fig 9) displays heading and drift angle. and distances have two. The DTA 1 display (Fig 7) shows track made good and groundspeed. DTA 2. Decimal place positions vary and users need to be aware of the format they are trying to enter or read.
3-3-2-2 Fig 12 DTA 6 Display Page 144 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3. DTA 5. 3-3-2-2 Fig 11 DTA 5 Display f. Roll and True Air Speed.2. DTA 4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 d.3. Doppler Along and Across Velocity. The DTA 4 display (Fig 10) shows roll angle (if available) on the top line and TAS on the bottom line. Pitch and Mach Number. DTA 6. DTA 5 (Fig 11) indicates pitch angle (if available) on the top line and Mach number on the bottom line. The DTA 6 display (Fig 12) gives Doppler Along Velocity on the top line and Across Velocity on the bottom line.2 . 3-3-2-2 Fig 10 DTA 4 Display e.
2. Time and Static Air Temperature.2 . 3-3-2-2 Fig 15 DTA 9 Display Page 145 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:11 2002 DR Position Computing 3. DTA 7 (Fig 13) displays Angle of Attack on the top line and Vertical Speed on the bottom line. Angle of Attack and Vertical Speed. The top line indicates the direction and the bottom line the speed of this correction. The DTA 8 display (Fig 14) presents the Surface Motion Compensation that is applied to the Doppler. DTA 9.3. Surface Motion Compensation. DTA 7. 3-3-2-2 Fig 13 DTA 7 Display h. DTA 8.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 g. When DTA 9 is selected (Fig 15) the elapsed or clock time is displayed on the top line and static (true) outside air temperature on the bottom line. 3-3-2-2 Fig 14 DTA 8 Display i.
This conserves available power to maintain the data store. The basis of inertial navigation is the measurement of a vehicle's (aircraft's) acceleration along known directions.3. Velocity and Distance.3.1 . and again to obtain distance travelled along the sensitive axis. Relationship between Acceleration. velocity and position are obtained by continuously measuring and integrating vehicle acceleration. Operation of the TANS 14. Inertial Navigation Principles Chapter 1 . once to obtain velocity along the sensitive axis. The velocity achieved and the distance travelled by a vehicle accelerating from rest at a constant rate are obtained from the following equations: 1 2 at 2 v = at. The accelerometer outputs are integrated. If the Computer Fail lamp illuminates. it will be necessary to switch off and then switch on and start the procedure again. are self-contained and are capable of all-weather operation. The appropriate Aircrew manual should be consulted to obtain the operating procedures for any particular variant or sub-variant of TANS.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 OPERATION Power Supply 13. The TANS power unit is designed to absorb transient power fluctuations. Accelerometers detect and measure accelerations along their sensitive axes (input axes). During start up and taxi. when such fluctuations are most likely.Principles of Inertial Navigation Introduction 1. 3. and s = where. If the DC voltage is too low the data store may be corrupted. BASIC PRINCIPLES Acceleration 2. In an inertial navigation system. Inertial navigation systems. a = acceleration Page 146 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:11 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. the display may go out.
is called the Local Vertical Reference Frame.dt. the accelerometers sense part of the gravity acceleration. Earth rate 'Ω' and the radius of the Earth ‘R’. the double integration of acceleration with respect to time (Fig 1). A simple INS. Since most accelerometers are designed to measure acceleration along one axis only. is illustrated in Fig 2. Platform Control. eg in weapon aiming applications. if vehicle velocity and displacement are to be defined in a given plane.3. therefore. Three single degree of freedom gyros are normally used. ie local North. Conventionally. the sensitive axes must be kept perpendicular to the gravity vertical. Effect of Earth Rotation and Vehicle Movement.3. 8. Other reference frames can be used. 5. another rotation about East. Gyro Stabilization. but the local vertical is the fundamental mechanization and is the one primarily considered in this Chapter.dt. and s= Z Z a. two accelerometers are required for inertial navigation in a two dimensional plane. Additionally. Latitude 'φ'. The gyros used to stabilize the platform are rigid in space and must therefore be corrected for Earth rate and transport wander to make them "Earth stable". and the third rotation about the vertical. Measurement Axes.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 v s t = velocity = distance = time Aircraft accelerations are not constant. An INS operating in the local vertical reference frame must maintain its alignment relative to Earth directions. However. and this alignment must be maintained if the correct accelerations are to be measured. one gyro detects rotation about the North axis. this platform is not inherently stable. In aircraft systems the accelerometers are usually mounted with their input axes aligned with North and East.1 . and must be integrated to obtain velocity and distance: Z v= a. which are used to motor the platform back to its correct orientation. the accelerometers must be corrected for the effects of coriolis acceleration and the central acceleration caused by rotating the platform to maintain alignment with the local vertical reference frame. 7. or s = Z v. and any tendency for the platform to rotate with the aircraft must be detected and opposed. capable of solving the navigation problem. velocity East ‘U’. Gyros are therefore mounted on the platform to detect platform rotation and control platform attitude. The reference frame defined by these directions. otherwise. local East and local Vertical. proportional to change in platform attitude. Simple INS. Other annotations are self-explanatory and the individual INS components are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. The accelerometers are therefore mounted on a platform which is suspended in a gimbal system that isolates the accelerometers from aircraft manoeuvres. they must be capable of maintaining that orientation during aircraft manoeuvres. 3-3-3-1 Fig 2 A Simple Inertial Navigation System Page 147 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:11 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. Once the accelerometers have been aligned in the chosen reference frame. Acceleration must be measured along two axes. velocity North is annotated ‘V’.dt The basic principle of inertial navigation is. 3-3-3-1 Fig 1 Principle of Inertial Navigation 6. usually orthogonal. 4. The platform control unit computes and applies the gyro and accelerometer correction terms from calculated values of ground-speed and latitude and stored values of Earth radius and Earth rotation rate. The platform rotations detected by the gyros are used to generate error signals. A third vertically mounted accelerometer must be added if vertical velocity is required. Moreover.
the mass will move relative to its neutral position until the spring tension balances the displacing force.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 ACCELEROMETERS Basic Principles 9. These requirements cannot be accommodated in the simple accelerometer of Fig 3. High sensitivity could be achieved by the use of weak springs. If the instrument is accelerated along its longer axis.1 . −6 10. The accelerometer is the fundamental component of an INS. but this would necessitate long springs to achieve the required range and the resulting Page 148 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. Its function is to sense acceleration (a) along its input axis and to provide an electrical output proportional to sensed acceleration. The deflection of the mass is proportional to the acceleration. a high sensitivity (typically 1 x 10 g). The spring and mass arrangement illustrated in Fig 3 shows the basic principles.3. and a linear response.3. A pick-off system could be arranged to provide an electrical output that was the analogue of the acceleration. An inertial grade accelerometer requires a wide dynamic range (typically ± 20 g).
The initial deflecting force is proportional to the acceleration experienced since the mass is constant (F = ma). A basic pendulous force balance accelerometer is shown schematically in Fig 4. some of which are more applicable to other than aircraft INS (eg ballistic missile systems). A number of accelerometer designs have been developed to overcome these shortcomings.1 .3. Pendulous Force Balance Accelerometer 12. The pendulous mass is free to move only along the sensitive axis and accelerations perpendicular to this axis have no effect. The restoring force is proportional to the current through the restorer coil and is equal and opposite to the initial force.3. Alternatively strong springs could be used to achieve a wide range but this would deny high sensitivity. ie the restorer current is proportional to the acceleration. When the instrument is accelerated along its sensitive axis the pendulous mass is deflected and the deflection is sensed by the pick-off. A current flows through the restorer coils such that a force is exerted on the displaced mass to restore it to the central position.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 instrument would be too large for use in a practical INS. the pendulous mass is central and no pick-off current flows. In aircraft applications the 'Pendulous Force Balance Accelerometer' is the most common type. With the case horizontal and the instrument at rest or moving at a constant velocity. 3-3-3-1 Fig 4 Basic Pendulous Force Balance Accelerometer Page 149 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. 3-3-3-1 Fig 3 Simple Spring and Mass Accelerometer 11.
3-3-3-1 Fig 5 Cross-Coupling Error Page 150 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. θ. Alternatively the error. ay θ.3. If the pendulum is displaced from the null position. Cross-coupling.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 13. Fig 5 shows the situation where the pendulum has been displaced through a small angle. The input (sensitive axis) IA is rotated through the same angle. Cross-coupling error can be minimized by ensuring that the accelerometer platform is maintained horizontal and by using a high gain feed-back loop so that the displacement of the pendulum due to accelerations is kept small. It should be noted that when the input axis is displaced from the horizontal it will sense a component of the acceleration due to gravity. If the instrument is accelerated along the displaced axis the acceleration will have horizontal and vertical components ax and ay and the measured acceleration will be: ax cos µ + ay sin µ If θ is small and measured in radians this becomes: ax + ay µ The acceleration that should have been measured is ax and the term ay θ is an error known as cross-coupling error. The element has its centre of mass displaced from the centre of buoyancy. the pendulum.1 . and in the plane of. either by an acceleration or by tilting of the platform. Pendulous Accelerometer Errors 14. Instead of the flexure support system the pendulous element may be floated. thus producing a couple in the presence of a linear acceleration.3. can be calculated and corrected. The accelerometer is sensitive to accelerations along an axis perpendicular to. then the sensitive axis no longer coincides with the designed fixed input axis.
If the platform is misaligned as in Fig 6 and accelerated in a North/South direction. Accelerometers are arranged.3. the north sensitive accelerometer will not detect the full acceleration and the east accelerometer will detect an unwanted component.1 .3. components of the vibration may act along the input axis causing the pendulum to deflect and thus register erroneous accelerations. to measure accelerations in specific directions. Displaced Orientation. 16. below the natural frequency of the accelerometer loop. 3-3-3-1 Fig 6 Accelerometer Misaligned Performance Characteristics Page 151 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. mutually at right angles. When an accelerometer is operated in a vibration environment. normally North and East. Vibropendulosity.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 15.
The sensitivity will generally be different at different levels of −6 indicated acceleration but a typical value would be 1 x 10 g. a. ie the desired scale factor in mA/g. An INS can be designed to compensate for known accelerometer bias provided the bias is stable. Linearity error is defined as the deviation from the best fit straight line drawn through a plot of the electrical Page 152 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.1 . Bias is expressed as an equivalent error in g's and is usually less −4 than 1 x 10 g.3. A typical value is 1 x 10 g. d. Fig 7 shows a typical accelerometer response and indicates the performance parameters usually referred to in technical descriptions. mechanical friction. Bias is the electrical output under conditions of no acceleration input due to residual internal forces acting on the mass after it has been electrically or mechanically zeroed. Accelerometers are required to give an accurate indication of vehicle acceleration over a wide range (typically ± 25 g) and with a high degree of sensitivity. Linearity. The width of the band of uncertainty is termed sensitivity. Sensitivity. which is not a single line but has a band of uncertainty caused by. Scale Factor. Null (Zero) Uncertainty. Ageing in permanent magnet torquers can lead to small changes in scale factor with time. It is −6 equivalent to sensitivity but with an incremental change about a zero input. It is the minimum change in acceleration input required to cause a change in accelerometer electrical output. The random drift of the accelerometer output at zero acceleration input is known as null (zero) stability. Null uncertainty is also known as bias uncertainty and is the variation in accelerometer output under conditions of zero acceleration input. The dotted straight line represents the desired response from the instrument. e. 3-3-3-1 Fig 7 Accelerometer Performance Parameters c. for example. Threshold. The ratio of the current in the torquer to the measured acceleration (mA/g) is the accelerometer scale factor. Bias. The pair of curved lines represent the actual response. b.3. f. Threshold is the minimum acceleration input which causes an accelerometer electrical output.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 17.
The velodyne is an electro-mechanical device which converts a voltage input into an output of shaft rotation proportional to the integral of the applied voltage. −5 g up to 1g and less than INTEGRATORS Function of the Integrator 18. As the motor speed increases.1 . Analogue integrators are normally electronic or electro-mechanical. Typically this would be in the order of 5 x 10 0. Fig 9 shows a schematic diagram of the velodyne. At this stage the output shaft is rotating at a constant speed. and is fed back to reduce the input voltage. The speed of both the motor and the output shaft d Φ/dt is directly proportional to the input voltage (V − V1 ∝ dΦ/dt). since the integrator must be allowed to regain its stable state periodically. The circuit diagram of the Miller integrator is shown in Fig 8. providing a voltage which is the integral of R 1 a varying input voltage (ie Vo = ¡CR V.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 output in response to a known acceleration input. The angle through which the shaft turns (Φ) is therefore proportional to the time integral of the input voltage (ie Φ R ∝ (V ¡ V1 ). The Miller integrator is therefore used to integrate spasmodic inputs.3. The Velodyne. but can integrate indefinitely.01% of applied acceleration at higher g's. the output (V1) from the generator increases. Analogue Integrators 19. The Miller integrator can only be used to integrate for limited periods of time. the motor starts to turn and drives a generator. Electronic integrators are more accurate. b. The process continues until the input is steady and is balanced by the feedback voltage.3.dt). and is therefore used for the second integration of acceleration to obtain distance travelled.dt). eg accelerations: it is not used to integrate continuous inputs. 3-3-3-1 Fig 9 The Velodyne Page 153 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:13 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. The accelerometer outputs are integrated to obtain velocity and again to obtain distance. but are capable of integrating continuously for only limited periods of time. Miller Integrator. The electro-mechanical integrators are less accurate. The accelerometer output may be in voltage analogue form if analogue techniques are used. the process being fast and accurate. 3-3-3-1 Fig 8 The Miller Integrator 21. eg velocity. A Miller amplifier circuit is an electronic integrating device. As voltage V is applied. The operation of the velodyne is described below: a. The velodyne can integrate continuously. The initial integration may be carried out within the accelerometer or by a separate integrating device. 20. or pulse form if digital techniques are used.
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22. Many inertial systems use digital computers and therefore digital integration techniques. A digital computer integrates by adding small increments of the quantity to be integrated. As the computer will be dealing with discrete quantities instead of continuous values there will be a certain amount of approximation in the integration process. The principle of approximate numerical integration is introduced in Volume 8 and developments of these techniques are commonly used.
23. The following discussion on gyroscopes complements the contents of Vol 8, Part 2, Sect 4, Chap 5. The following terms are included for clarification: a. Degrees of Freedom. In the convention used throughout this chapter, the gyro rotor axis is not counted as a degree of freedom, since it cannot be a sensitive axis. A free or space gyro is therefore defined as a two degree of freedom gyro. b. Gyro Drift. The term gyro drift describes any movement of the gyro spin axis away from its datum direction. c. Levelling Gyros. Gyros which control the platform about the horizontal axes are called levelling or vertical gyros, irrespective of the direction of their spin axes. 24. Inertial Quality. A gyro is described as being of inertial quality when the real drift rate is 0.01° per hour or less. Such low drift rates were first achieved with single degree of freedom rate integrating gyros.
Single Degrees of Freedom (SDF) Gyros
25. Rate Integrating Gyro. The rate integrating gyro achieves its accuracy by reducing gimbal friction: the gimbal and rotor assemblies are floated in a fluid. A typical floated rate integrating gyro is illustrated in Fig 10; the rotor is pivoted in an inner can (gimbal), which in turn is floated in an outer can. The outer can contains all the controls, pick-offs, torquers and heaters, etc. Rotation of the gyro about the input (sensitive) axis causes the gyro inner can to precess about the output axis, ie there is relative motion between the inner and outer cans. This precession is sensed by the pick-offs which measure the angular displacement of the inner can relative to the outer can. Thus, the pick-off output is proportional to the time integral of the input turning rate. This output signal is used to drive the platform gimbals to maintain the platform in the required orientation. The ratio of output to input (gimbal gain) is a function of rotor mass, gimbal size and fluid viscosity. A high ratio enables the gyro to detect small input rates. However, the fluid viscosity varies with temperature. Temperature must therefore be controlled to ensure a constant
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Inertial Navigation Principles
3- 3- 3- 1
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gimbal gain. With this type of gyro, it is also important to limit the inner can precession: as the inner can precesses, the rotor and the input axes are also precessed. Unless this precession is rapidly detected and opposed (the gimbal drives the platform and the gyro in opposition to the input), cross coupling errors are likely to occur. A cross coupling error is caused by the gyro sensing a rotation about a displaced input axis.
Two Degrees of Freedom (TDF) Gyros
26. Two degree of freedom gyros are used in some IN applications. SDF and TDF gyros have comparable performances, but the TDF gyro has the advantage of being able to detect movement about two axes. Since the INS monitors motion about three axes, two TDF gyros are not only sufficient, but also supply a redundant axis; the spare axis is normally utilized to monitor azimuth, The two TDF gyros must have their spin axes at right angles to each other; both axes may be horizontal, or alternatively one horizontal and the other vertical.
3-3-3-1 Fig 10 Typical Floated Rate Integrating Gyro
Table 1 - Comparison of SFD and TDF Gyros
Property Number Required in IN platform Gyro Gain Cross Coupling SDF Three Normally controlled by fluid viscosity Limited rotor axis movement minimizes cross coupling Detected by rotor axis movement 0.003°/hr to 0.1°/hr TDF Two (one redundant axis) Output = input No cross coupling - angular displacement is measured against fixed input axis Detected by gimbal axis movement As for SDF
Vehicle Movement detection capability Accuracy
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Comparison of Single and Two Degrees of Freedom Gyros
27. The single and two degree of freedom gyros are compared in Table 1.
Pick-Offs and Torquers
28. Angular movement about a gyro's sensitive axis is detected by pick-offs which generate electrical signals proportional to the movement. The action of the torquers is virtually the reverse; electrical signals proportional to the desired correcting torque are applied to the torquers which cause the gyro to precess at the desired rate. The pick-offs and torquers are usually of the induction type, and may be separate devices or combined in a single unit; in the latter type, the pick-off would use AC and the torquer DC to avoid interaction between the fields.
PLATFORMS STABILIZATION Gyro Control of the Platform
29. Platform Mounted Accelerometers. The accelerometers are mounted on a platform which is oriented to a fixed reference frame. The platform is aligned with the desired reference frame and subsequently controlled to maintain its alignment. 30. Choice of Reference Axes. A fundamental aircraft INS is aligned in the local vertical reference frame, the axes of which are shown in Fig 11. Basic stabilization procedures are described for this simple system, but in practice most RAF aircraft INS use a modified local vertical reference frame known as a Wander Azimuth System. These systems allow the azimuth gyro to wander, and the IN computer continually transforms position in the wander azimuth frame to the required Earth-fixed co-ordinates. 31. Platform Alignment. Inertial platforms are aligned in attitude and azimuth using one of the techniques described in Chapter 2. Any platform misalignment will cause errors.
3-3-3-1 Fig 11 Local Vertical Reference Frame
3-3-3-1 Fig 12 Platform Arrangement (Aircraft Heading North)
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32. Use of Gyros. The desired platform orientation is maintained by mounting reference gyros on the platform to detect changes in platform alignment. The gyro outputs are used to drive gimbal motors which return the platform to its correct orientation. 33. Platform Arrangement. The platform may be arranged as shown in Fig 12. The three gyros have their input axes mutually at right angles and aligned with the local vertical reference frame. The error pick-offs and torquers are built into the gyro cases and are not shown in the diagram. The platform is gimbal mounted to permit the aircraft freedom of manoeuvre without disturbing the platform away from its alignment with the local vertical reference frame. Each gimbal is driven by a servo motor controlled by the error signals from the gyros. 34. Control on North. The gyros in Fig 12 are arranged with their sensitive axes pointing in the directions about which rotation is to be detected. The East gyro has its sensitive axis pointing East, and is therefore capable of detecting rotation about East. On northerly headings, pitch manoeuvres are detected by the East gyro which generates an error signal. This error signal activates the pitch gimbal, thereby maintaining the platform's alignment with the reference frame. Similarly, roll is detected by the North gyro, and yaw by the azimuth gyro: the North gyro activates the roll gimbal motor, and the azimuth gyro the yaw gimbal motor. The action is summarized in Table 2.
Table 2 - Action on North
Heading Manoeuvre Yaw Pitch Roll Sensing Gyro Azimuth East North Correcting Servo-motor Azimuth Pitch Roll
3-3-3-1 Fig 13 Platform Arrangement (Aircraft Heading East)
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35. Control on East. In Fig 13, the same platform is again shown, this time heading East. The action on East is summarized in Table 3.
Table 3 - Action on East
Heading Manoeuvre Yaw Pitch Roll Sensing Gyro Azimuth North East Correcting Servo - motor Azimuth Pitch Roll
36. Conclusions. Two main conclusions may be drawn from Tables 2 and 3: a. Yaw, or change of heading, is corrected by the azimuth servo-motor which is always controlled by the azimuth gyro. b. Pitch and roll are corrected by the pitch and roll servo-motors respectively. However, the control may be exercised by either the North or the East gyros or both, dependent upon aircraft heading. 37. Change of Heading. The action of the azimuth gyro and servo-motor keeps the platform aligned with the North datum. However, the pitch and roll gimbals remain oriented to the aircraft pitch and roll axes (Figs 12 and 13). Relative motion about the vertical between the platform and the pitch and roll gimbals is yaw, and angular displacement is change of heading. A pick-off of the angular displacement relative to true North as defined by the platform, produces an output of heading.
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38. Control During Manoeuvres. On northerly headings, the North gyro senses roll and wholly controls the roll servo-motor; on easterly headings the East gyro controls the roll servo-motor. On intermediate headings, the control is shared between the North and East gyros, the amount of control exercised being determined by the heading. A sine-cosine resolver, set by the azimuth servo-motor, determines the amount of control and transmits the error signal to the appropriate servo-motor. The action is shown in Fig 14.
3-3-3-1 Fig 14 Gimbal Control Signals
PLATFORM MOUNTING Gimballed Systems
39. The stable element of the inertial platform is mounted in gimbals to isolate the platform from vehicle manoeuvres. Three types of gimbal system are in common use. 40. Three-gimbal System. Figs 12 and 13 are diagrams of a three-gimbal system. In such a system there are three input/output axes, azimuth, pitch and roll. Each gimbal imparts freedom about one particular axis, the particular gimbal being named after that axis. a. Azimuth Gimbal. The stable element is rigidly attached to the azimuth, or first, gimbal. In allowing relative motion between the stable element and the pitch gimbal, the platform is isolated from vehicle movement about the vertical axis. b. Pitch Gimbal. The pitch gimbal isolates the platform from pitch manoeuvres. c. Roll Gimbal. The roll gimbal isolates the platform from roll manoeuvres. In some installations, the pitch and roll gimbals are reversed in order of position. 41. Gimbal Lock. Gimbal lock occurs when two axes of rotation become co-linear and, as a result, one degree of freedom is lost. Fig 15 illustrates how gimbal lock can occur in a three-gimbal system. If the vehicle pitches through 90° the first and third gimbal axes become coincident, and the platform stable element is no longer isolated from yaw.
3-3-3-1 Fig 15 Gimbal Lock
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42. Gimbal Error. In a three-gimbal system (gimbal order; Azimuth, Pitch and Roll) the roll gimbal axis, which is parallel to the aircraft roll axis, assumes an angle relative to the plane of the platform stable element whenever the aircraft pitches through large angles. When this occurs, the gimbal roll axis and the plane of the levelling gyros' input axes are no longer parallel. Should the aircraft now roll, the gyros sense only a component of roll angle (roll x cos pitch angle), and the roll servo displaces the roll gimbal by an amount (roll x cos pitch angle) instead of the full value of roll angle. 43. Four-gimbal System. In a four-gimbal system the order of the gimbals is azimuth, inner roll, pitch and outer roll. The fourth gimbal is introduced to keep the second and third gimbals at right angles, thereby avoiding both gimbal lock and gimbal error. The fourth gimbal is controlled by a pick-off which detects changes in the angle between the second and third gimbals. 44. Gimbal Flip. With a four-gimbal system, heading change is picked off from the relative motion between the azimuth and inner roll gimbals. If, however, the aircraft completes a half loop and roll-out manoeuvre, the aircraft heading changes by 180° but there is no motion between the azimuth and inner roll gimbals, and the indicated heading remains unchanged. This problem is overcome by employing gimbal flip. As the pitch angle passes through 90°, the outer gimbal is driven through 180° (ie flips), tending to drive the platform through 180° about the vertical. This tendency is detected by the azimuth gyro which provides an appropriate output signal. This signal keeps the platform correctly orientated by driving the platform in opposition to the flip. One hundred and eighty degree relative motion is produced between the azimuth and inner roll gimbals and the heading output remains correct, 45. Comparison of Three- and Four-gimbal Systems. A four-gimbal system is heavier, larger and costs more than a three-gimbal system. However, since the second and the third gimbals of the four-gimbal system are kept at right angles, the aircraft has full freedom of manoeuvre without disturbing the platform. 46. Inside-out System. In the inside-out system, the azimuth cluster containing the gyros and accelerometers lies outside the gimbals. The basic inside-out system (Fig 16a) has three gimbals and is not fully manoeuvrable but the addition of a fourth gimbal permits unrestricted manoeuvre. A special case of this type of four-gimbal system (see Fig 16b) uses two TDF gyros instead of the more normal three SDF gyros. The following advantages are claimed for the inside-out arrangement: a. The replaceable parts are more accessible. b. The gimbals have less mass than in a conventional gimbal system and are more responsive to control.
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In gimballed systems the accelerometers are mounted on a stable platform which is kept in the correct orientation by torqueing in response to signals from the gyroscopes detecting movement about three orthogonal axes. Thus in a strapdown system the gimbals are effectively replaced by a computer. 49.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-3-1 Fig 16 Inside-out Platform Arrangement Non-Gimballed Systems . Gyroscopes.Strapdown Systems 47. Fig 17 shows the functional layout of a typical system. These are then converted to the geographic frame to give latitude and longitude. ie the airframe. The outputs of the accelerometers are resolved along the space axes and the cartesian co-ordinates of the aircraft position within the space frame calculated.001°/hr to 400°/sec. 48. Whereas in a gimballed system the platform reference frame rotates relatively slowly due to transport wander and Earth rate. 50. 3-3-3-1 Fig 17 Strapdown System Block Diagram Page 161 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:14 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. an advantage of this configuration is that outputs can be used for an automatic flight control system. Although conventional gyros could be used for strapdown applications the ring laser gyro is best suited as it has no moving parts and exhibits excellent linearity. 51.1 . in a strapdown system the platform reference frame. Strapdown systems commonly use a space referenced frame for the navigation solutions and then convert to a geographic frame to give the desired outputs of position and velocity. Reference Frames. This requires a very wide range of performance as the gyros may well need the capability to detect rotation rates ranging from 0.3. The integration process must therefore be carried out very rapidly to avoid large errors being induced. In a strapdown system the inertial sensors are fixed to the vehicle and their orientation within the navigation reference frame is computed using the outputs of gyroscopes which detect angular displacement about the aircraft axes. it is potentially cheaper. However. These calculations need to be carried out at very high speed and accuracy. an iteration rate of 200 Hz would be typical and a dedicated microprocessor may be required. more reliable and more rugged than a gimballed system.3. Although a strapdown mechanization is more demanding technically in terms of computing and gyroscope performance. In a strapdown system the function of the gyroscope is to measure accurately angular changes about a specific axis of rotation. The main computing task in a strapdown system is to compute the instantaneous aircraft attitude and to resolve and integrate the accelerometer outputs to obtain velocity information in a useful geographic reference frame. The platform reference frame in a strapdown system is the same as the airframe and is therefore of no use for navigation. can be rotating at very high rates. Computing Requirements.
The changing orientation of the platform also makes corrections to the accelerometer outputs necessary. Local vertical axes however are not constant. It is normal to navigate aircraft with reference to the local Earth co-ordinates of latitude.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 CORRECTIONS TO INERTIAL SENSORS Introduction 52. A rate of rotation is represented by a vector shown parallel to the axis of the rotation. longitude and height. These are the rates which are applied to the platform's axes to correct it from inertial space stabilization to local vertical stabilization. in other words they operate with reference to the constant axes of inertial space. The method used in the following discussion is that of vector analysis. Table 4 . Its length is proportional to the rate of rotation and its direction is the direction an ordinary right hand threaded screw would move if subjected to the rotation in question.3. The vector is parallel to the Earth's spin axis. This is shown in Fig 18 which shows the Earth's rotation vector. This means that the stabilizing effect of the gyros must be adjusted by the rates at which local vertical axes diverge from inertial axes.3. Aircraft INS are therefore normally aligned as described in para 30. each of the 3 axes of the local vertical reference frame has an accelerometer to detect movement along it and a gyro to provide stabilization against rotation around it. These rates are due to Earth rotation and vehicle movement as shown in Table 4.Platform Correction Terms Earth Rate North Gyro East Gyro Azimuth Gyro Ω cos φ zero Ω sin φ U R Vehicle Movement U R ¡V R tan Á 53. its length represents 15:04°/hr (Ω) and its direction is from South to North. Accelerometers and gyros are both inertial devices in that their sensitive axes extend infinitely in straight lines. 3-3-3-1 Fig 18 Earth's Rotation Vector Page 162 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.1 . For an aircraft system using local vertical Earth co-ordinates it is therefore necessary to change the orientation of the platform axes relative to inertial space in order that the accelerometers are kept aligned with the local vertical axes. It is now necessary to analyse Earth and transport rates into components affecting the local vertical axes.
and at the equator it coincides with the local North axis. in radians. This means that an INS not corrected for Earth rotation will appear to drift. at the pole. Fig 19 shows how the Earth rotation rate is resolved into vector components acting about local North and local vertical axes at intermediate latitudes. The Earth's rotation vector may be analysed into components acting about the local vertical axes at any point on the Earth's surface. Earth Rate (Ω). The component acting about local East is always zero because local East is always at 90° to the rotation vector. Fig 21 shows how a total aircraft velocity vector Vg may be resolved with 3-3-3-1 Fig 19 Earth Rate Vector Components Page 163 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. The axis of the rotation is perpendicular to both the radius and the tangent. Similarly.1 . but not topple. Fig 20 shows that any movement around the circumference of a circle equates to a rotation about the centre of the circle. ie. At the poles the rotation vector coincides with the local vertical axis.3. whereas at the Equator it will topple about local North but not drift. is found by dividing the circumferential distance A-B by the radius of the circle. the rate of rotation may be found by dividing the rate of movement from A to B by the radius. normal to the surface of the page. 55. The angle θ.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Gyro Corrections 54. Transport Rates.3.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-3-1 Fig 20 Circular Movement North and East components. This rate must be resolved into rates about the local North and local vertical axes.3. for the axis of rotation is the same: the Earth's spin axis. The quantities arrived at by this analysis are in radians per hour. Component U. however. This is achieved using the same analysis by vectors as was used for Earth rate.1 . Component V produces a rotation rate of V/R radians/hr about an axis parallel to the local East axis and through the centre of the Earth. R and R respectively. (where V is in knots and R is the radius of the Earth in nm.3. U therefore produces a rotation rate of R Cos Á about the Earth's polar axis as shown U U tan Á in Fig 22. before it can be applied to the IN platform. ie a small circle. they may be Page 164 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. acts U along a parallel of latitude.
Correction Method. The drift due to the error rate is eliminated by applying an equal and opposite correction to the gyro output axis.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 approximated to degrees per hour by substituting 60 for R in the final expressions.3. The correction is applied through a torque motor on the gyro output axis.3. Stabilizing a platform to local Earth axes requires that it be rotated relative to a spatial reference in order to compensate for the effects of Earth rotations and vehicle movement. which turns the gyro about its output axis at the same rate but in the opposite direction to the precession caused by the error rate.1 . Accelerometer Corrections 57. The resulting change in the local axes relative to spatial references makes 2 types of accelerometer corrections necessary: Page 165 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. 3-3-3-1 Fig 21 Components of Velocity Vector 3-3-3-1 Fig 22 Rotation Rates 56.
Coriolis acceleration results from the combination of aircraft velocity and the rotation of the Earth over which it flies. Central acceleration corrections must also be applied to the horizontal accelerometers because of meridian convergence. it is a direction which constantly changes with respect to the fixed axes of inertial space. the total acceleration may be resolved by vector analysis into 2 components. that is. this must be removed for purposes of navigation. An acceleration of R therefore affects the vertical accelerometer where Vg is along track velocity and R is the radius 2 2 and thus make use of the 1st of the Earth. This quantity as a correction must be added to the output of the vertical accelerometer. one affecting the North accelerometer and the other the vertical accelerometer. Pt 2. There is thus a central acceleration of R cos Á along this radius. Pythagoras' theorem enables us to convert this term to its component form R integrals of the North and East channels accelerations. must be subtracted from the output of the North accelerometer because it is caused entirely by an Eastward motion. Coriolis Acceleration. V + U Vg 2 v2 3-3-3-1 Fig 23 Axis of Central Acceleration 59. Resolution of Total Acceleration. Paras 14 . Any East component of velocity acts along a small circle of latitude whose U2 radius is R cos φ. This apparent contradiction arises because while "East" is a constant direction in terms of navigation over the surface of the Earth.3.16). We thus have an Eastward velocity component producing an output from the North accelerometer.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 a. The acceleration component R however. (See note at end of para 63). 58. Because of this inclination. These are shown in Fig 24. A body moving at a constant speed v in a circle radius r has a constant acceleration of r directed towards the centre of the circle (see Vol 8. A lateral acceleration relative to inertial references is necessary to make good a desired track measured against meridians which are themselves in motion. This is shown in Fig 23. b. Chap 2. This is a central or centripetal acceleration and affects a local vertical INS because as the platform is transported over a spherical surface it is rotated to maintain its alignment with local North and the local vertical. Central Accelerations.1 .3. Sect 4. At any instant when an INS is moving over the Earth's surface it is moving along an arc of a great circle. Central or Centripetal Acceleration. along an axis inclined at φ to the local vertical. 3-3-3-1 Fig 24 Components of Central Acceleration Page 166 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. The U2 U2 tan Á component R is contained within the vertical accelerometer correction already discussed.
this component Ω sin φ varies with latitude. The correction is given by: ½ 2h ¡1 r ¾ go where go is the gravity at the surface of the Earth and h is the aircraft latitude. however. A similar correction is applied to the vertical accelerometer because of the component of Earth rotation acting about the local North horizontal axis. therefore. the output of the East accelerometer must be adjusted in inverse proportion to the North accelerometer correction. It must. In order that a constant total velocity vector results. c. Coriolis Acceleration. be corrected for gravity. Its output must therefore. Summary Page 167 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:16 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. 62.3. −2ΩUsin φ applied to the North accelerometer. When a third accelerometer is used in the vertical channel to measure vertical acceleration for weapon aiming purposes its sensitive axis will necessarily be in line with the gravity vector. As shown in para 54 there is a component of Earth rotation which acts about the local vertical axis.1 . If there is no North component only the North accelerometer correction is applied. Gravity Corrections.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 60. be removed if the system is to produce navigation information which is correct relative to Earth co-ordinates. The corrections are given below: a. the correction is dependent on aircraft altitude. The horizontal accelerometer central corrections thus produce varying V and U components of total velocity as track angle changes relative to the converging meridians. so are U and the North accelerometer correction. Now consider an aircraft flying a great circle track at a constant groundspeed. An observer may thus be regarded as being at the centre of a rotating disc of Earth's surface. the accelerometer will sense the acceleration due to gravity as well as aircraft vertical acceleration. and centripetal accelerations. The track angle is constantly changing and. as discussed earlier. the direction of rotation being anti-clockwise when viewed from above. 61. This acceleration is the Coriolis effect and is detected by the horizontal accelerometers. ie as meridian convergence increases. b. Application. Table 5 shows that if there is no East component of velocity there is no central correction to either horizontal axis. An aircraft flying a constant track over a spherical rotating Earth follows a path which is curved relative to the constant axes of inertial space. in addition to coriolis. Because the gravity acceleration decreases as the distance from the centre of the Earth increases. this can only be achieved if there is a sideways acceleration.3. A straight track over the ground thus produces a track which is curved relative to a constant spatial direction. in the Northern hemisphere. An aircraft flying towards a given point on the horizon is therefore flying to a destination which is moving constantly to the left. Also the magnitude of the corrections to the horizontal accelerometers increases as latitude increases. 2Ω Ucosφ applied to the Vertical accelerometer. 2ΩVsinφ applied to the East accelerometer.
Earth rate (Ω) and velocity East (U) are negative.3.Gyro and Accelerometer Terms Axis North East Azimuth/ Vertical Gyros Earth Rate Transport Wander − cos Á nil − sin Á U R Central ¡U 2 tan R Accelerometers Coriolis ¡2− U sin Á 2− V sin Á 2− U cos Á nil nil go Gravity Á ¡V R U R UV tan R Á tan Á U2 + V 2 R ©2h R ¡1 ª 3-3-3-1 Fig 16a 3-3-3-1 Fig 16b Page 168 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:16 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. The gyro and accelerometer correction terms are summarized in Table 5.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 63.1 . Table 5 . That is. the signs of the azimuth gyro correction terms are reversed. NOTE: In the Southern Hemisphere.3.
Airborne Alignment. c.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Inertial Navigation Principles Chapter 2 .2 . b. Self Alignment. Accordingly much research has been carried out into rapid alignment techniques for combat aircraft. Once this initial alignment has taken place the system uses its own computed values of position and velocity to torque the stabilizing gyros at the required rates to maintain the correct platform orientation. Page 169 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:16 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.Alignment Introduction 1. A full alignment will typically take between 10 and 15 minutes and this may not always be compatible with operational requirements. The reference frame being used. 2. d.3. The fundamental aircraft INS is a local vertical North slaved system and in this case the initial alignment consists of levelling the horizontal axes and aligning the North axis with North. The time available. An INS computes the velocity and position of a vehicle within a given reference frame and unless the platform is initially aligned to that frame all subsequent computations will be meaningless. 3. Various factors affect the choice of alignment method and these include: a. Three methods of alignment will be considered in this chapter: a. The accuracy required. These two actions are carried out sequentially and are usually known as 'levelling' and 'azimuth alignment'. b. c. The amount of support equipment available. Reference Alignment. The stability of the vehicle during the alignment phase.
In practice the accelerometer outputs are zero only when the acceleration due to gravity is balanced by the accelerometer bias. a. The platform is then levelled to ± 1 by reference to the aircraft frame or to gravity using the horizontal accelerometers or gravity switches. which will be proportional to tilt. Coarse levelling and alignment is usually carried out concurrently with the rapid heating once the temperature is above about 35°C.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Self Alignment of Local Vertical Referenced INS 4. Coarse Levelling. Ψ. and so in fact there is little difference in the time taken by each method. a.3. With the aircraft stationary there should be no output from the horizontal accelerometers provided the platform is level. can be calculated. Any tilt error will cause the accelerometers to sense a component of gravity and the resulting signal. Ω cos φ sin Ψ where φ is latitude and Ψ is the angle of misalignment. b. is achieved by turning the platform in azimuth until the heading output agrees with the aircraft's best known heading. The pitch and roll gimbals are driven until they are at 90° to each other. usually about 7 minutes. Gyro-compassing. normally obtained from the gyro-magnetic compass. in practice the error signal is small and difficult to measure in the presence of noise. 8. Warm-up Period.2 .10 minutes. b. The sensed component of Earth rate is measured and since Ω and φ are known the misalignment angle. The Earth rate sensed by a misaligned East gyro depends on the cosine of the latitude and therefore gyro-compassing accuracy decreases with increasing latitude and cannot be achieved close to the poles. This phase normally takes between 3 and 4 minutes. c. The accuracy of the alignment will also depend on the real drift rate of the East gyro as this will be an unwanted component of the error signal. Open Loop Gyro-compassing. d. b. 5. Gyro-compassing or fine azimuth alignment is the final stage of self alignment and is based on the fact that if the East gyro input axis is pointing East it will not sense any component of Earth rate. The phase itself takes only a few seconds but the overall time is governed by the heating process.5 minutes. When the system is switched from the alignment to the navigate mode the platform is rotated through the computed misalignment angle. 7. An INS can align itself using the local gravity vector for levelling and the Earth's rotation vector for azimuth alignment. The majority of modern North slaved INS use open loop gyro-compassing. (± 2°). The signal from the accelerometer is fed through a high gain amplifier in order to torque the platform in azimuth until the error is nulled. the Page 170 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. 9. Coarse Alignment. is used to torque the levelling gyros. In order to overcome this problem the misalignment signal has to be filtered and averaged over time. Closed Loop Gyro-compassing. The accuracy is largely dependent on the null characteristics of the accelerometers but levelling to within 6 seconds of arc is achievable. If it is misaligned however it will sense a component. Coarse Azimuth Alignment. 6. A conventional self alignment consists of the following phases: a. Fine levelling normally takes about 1. During the warm-up period the fluid filled accelerometers and gyros are brought to the correct operating temperature (typically 70°C) by rapid heating (approx 15°C/min) and the gyros are run up. During the coarse alignment phase the platform is roughly levelled and aligned in azimuth thereby removing gross errors and reducing the overall alignment time. Fine levelling. Gyro-compassing. Self Alignment Time. Fine levelling is achieved using the accelerometer null technique. Warm-up period. This sensed component can be used to align the platform and two main methods are employed: closed loop and open loop gyro-compassing. Furthermore the time taken to achieve alignment will increase with latitude due to the reducing strength of the error signal.3. Coarse azimuth alignment. Alignment in azimuth using this method should achieve an accuracy of about 6 arc minutes in about 6 . The sensed component of Earth rate will cause the platform to tilt out of level and so the North accelerometer senses a component of gravity. The levelling loop continues to be operative during the gyro-compassing phase. Although this would appear to be a quicker method than the closed loop technique. Fine Levelling. Coarse alignment. The time taken in carrying out the full self alignment sequence depends on the accuracy required.
This method can be used as an extension of the synchro memory technique. and the ambient temperature. The transfer gyro is powered by its own batteries during the transfer. There are two main components: the datum gyro and the transfer gyro. Accuracies of around 0.2° for around 30 minutes after removal from the datum. If the aircraft frame is rigid and immobile the output is accurate and repeatable to a few minutes of arc but in practice it is very difficult to ensure that the aircraft does not move by a few minutes of arc. The transfer gyro method permits rapid alignment and. The computed lateral displacement is assumed to be entirely due to platform misalignment in azimuth and the gyro is torqued until the error is removed. a typical INS will self align in 10 . In UK latitudes. The most time consuming phase of the self alignment sequence is the gyro-compassing phase and several methods of fine alignment have been developed which use some form of external reference. An accuracy approaching 0. The transfer gyro is an azimuth gyro which is located on the datum gyro base plate by dowels. After gyro-compassing the HUD is used to measure the relative bearing of a distant object. The accuracy of the system is about 0. Runway Alignment. provided this is above 5°C. of which between 6 and 9 minutes will be attributable to the gyro-compassing phase. 14. 13. The alignment is carried out with the gyros running at half speed and at the ambient temperature. Once heating is complete the gyros spin-up to their full speed.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 latitude.2° can be achieved by this method and the technique has the advantage of being independent of external facilities or support equipment. Reference Alignment 10. As the true heading of the aircraft is known the true bearing of the object can be calculated. At lift off the aircraft is held as close to the centre line as possible and the accelerometer outputs are processed in a small computer to provide along and across distances.3. The datum gyro is mounted on a firm protected base and is used to establish North by gyro-compassing. As soon as this is done the heading error is torqued out and rapid heating is commenced to bring the system to operating temperature. which cuts out the platform heating phase and reduces the gyro spin-up time. The INS can then be shut down and the aircraft can be moved providing that when it is necessary to carry out the alignment it is returned to within a few feet of its original position and the object is within the HUD field of view. Transfer of the heading to the aircraft takes about 15 seconds. Transfer Gyro Alignment b. A pure INS cannot self align in flight as an external reference is required to distinguish between movement induced and misalignment induced accelerations. Airborne Alignment 15.2 . starting at a temperature between 0°C and 15°C. 12. The INS is then slewed until the heading output agrees with the calculated heading.15 minutes. Provided the aircraft is not moved the platform may be realigned subsequently by torqueing it to the stored azimuth. This may be operationally restrictive and some systems have a rapid align mode which reduces the time but at the cost of some accuracy. The following methods will be discussed: a. Synchro Memory Alignment c. Any across track discrepancy is attributed to azimuth misalignment. Page 171 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. If the true bearing of a distant object is known the HUD can be used to measure the relative bearing of the object from the aircraft and the true heading can then be calculated. fix monitored INS may be mechanized to perform airborne alignment automatically by comparing the INS track-made-good with the track-made-good determined from the fixing. Runway Alignment 11. These methods are in general less accurate than self alignment and usually rely on support equipment or specially located aircraft pan. Head-Up Display (HUD) Alignment. Airborne alignment can also be achieved in doppler/inertial mixed systems by comparing the doppler and inertial velocity outputs. The accuracy depends on the time allowed for measuring the misalignment angle but the system can be switched from 'align' to 'navigate' after about two minutes. it is particularly suitable for use in the field.3. Azimuth errors may be corrected during the take-off run if precise runway heading and take-off distance are known. Synchro Memory Alignment.2° should be attainable by this method. Head-up Display Alignment d. Transfer Gyro Alignment. The platform may be gyro-compassed at any convenient time and the azimuth obtained stored in a synchro memory system. The transfer gyro is aligned to North by reference to the datum gyro and is then carried to the aircraft and used to align the aircraft azimuth gyro. The transfer gyro takes about 20 minutes to align to the datum after which it is ready for immediate use. However. Although the alignment time is reduced to about two minutes this must be balanced by an accuracy reduction by about a factor of two. as it is portable.
Imagine a pendulum whose bob lies at the Earth's centre.3. If the suspension point were accelerated around the Earth. the bob lags behind the suspension point in the opposite direction to the acceleration (Newton's First Law). This period is known as the Schuler period after Dr Maximilian Schuler who discovered the properties of the Earth pendulum.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Inertial Navigation Principles Chapter 3 .4 minutes (obtained by substituting the Earth radius in feet for L in the equation above).4 minutes.4 minutes. A platform mounted on the suspension point tangential to the Earth's surface. The oscillation period would be 84. an analogue of the Earth pendulum of period 84. the pendulum would start to oscillate. A platform is said to be "Schuler Tuned" if its oscillation period is 84. and g is the gravity acceleration in feet/second² 2. The INS stable element is maintained normal to the local vertical by feeding back the aircraft's radial velocity as levelling gyro control signals. If. the bob on the Earth pendulum became displaced from the Earth's centre. The Platform Pendulum. 3-3-3-3 Fig 1 Schuler Tuning ERRORS Error Sources Page 172 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. ie horizontal. The Earth Pendulum. would therefore remain horizontal irrespective of the acceleration experienced.3. When a pendulum is accelerated. for any reason. 3. and in this way the north and east accelerometers are prevented from detecting V U components of the gravity acceleration. The vertical defined by the normal to the platform is therefore unaffected by acceleration. When the acceleration stops. the bob would remain vertically below the suspension point because it is at the Earth's centre of gravity.4 minutes is produced. The control signals are the R and R terms for vehicle movement (transport wander) applied as shown in Fig 1.INS Errors and Mixed Systems Schuler Tuning 1.3 . the pendulum oscillates with a period (T) equal to: s L g T = 2¼ where: T is in seconds L is the length of the pendulum in feet. Should the platform be displaced from the horizontal it would oscillate with a period of 84. By mechanizing the platform to remain horizontal.
Initial levelling error. c. d. The positive velocity reduces to zero at angle Φo (the original tilt error) and for an instant the platform drive stops. The accelerometer detects the component of gravity. Initial Levelling Error 6. Azimuth gyro drift. the negative acceleration is integrated into negative velocity which drives the platform clockwise. ie the platform is not completely level. and therefore. or effective within. are termed bounded errors. e. Levelling gyro drift. gΦo is sensed as a positive acceleration. Accelerometer error. The accelerometer now detects zero acceleration. are oscillatory and propagate at the Schuler frequency. The integration of the detected acceleration produces a positive velocity which drives the platform anti-clockwise to the horizontal.3 .3. Integrator error. Bounded Errors. 3-3-3-3 Fig 2 Initial Levelling Misalignment . The integration of the accelerometer output takes a finite time. g. However. which oscillate about a constant mean and therefore do not grow continuously with time. Errors originating in. 2): a. Vertical channel errors. gΦo (strictly g sin Φo but the approximation is correct and for small angles and Φo expressed in radians).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4. sensed as a negative acceleration. (Note: The lettering of the sub-paragraphs corresponds with the lettering in Fig. b. there is always some residual error in the vertical. Initial azimuth misalignment error. When the "navigate" mode is selected (at the conclusion of the alignment phase) the following sequence takes place. f. b. No matter how carefully the stable element (platform) and its sensors are aligned.3. c. but the positive velocity continues to drive the platform. After the platform passes the horizontal the accelerometer detects the opposite gravity effect. 5. Following the convention that clockwise tilts produce positive acceleration.Oscillation Page 173 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. the Schuler loops. Oscillation. velocity and distance are zero at the instant the "navigate" mode is selected. These errors. The following errors affect inertial navigation systems: a.
The clockwise drive brings the platform once again to the level position. resulting in zero output from the accelerometer.3 . d and e positions of the error curve are labelled to correspond to the sub-figure lettering of Fig 2.3. An initial levelling error of 6 seconds of arc is shown to cause a velocity error bounded by ± 0.45 knots) and a mean distance error of 0. 3-3-3-3 Fig 3 Initial Levelling Misalignment . e. After one complete Schuler period both the velocity and distance errors have returned to zero. the negative velocity continues to drive the platform clockwise.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 d. The cycle is then repeated.1 nm. c. After the platform passes the horizontal the accelerometer detects the gravity effect.Errors Page 174 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. However. sensed as a positive acceleration. The a.75 feet per second (0. 7. b. The errors caused by an initial tilt are shown in Fig 3. Note: the errors are bounded and do not increase with time. Initial Tilt Errors. This reduces the negative velocity to zero at angle Φo.
3. Fig 4 shows the error curves generated by a bias error of 0. As with levelling errors an oscillation is set up because the 2 velocity error is fed back through the Schuler loop. cross-coupling or vibropendulosity (Chap 1).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Accelerometer Errors 8.001 ft/sec .Errors Page 175 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. 3-3-3-3 Fig 4 Accelerometer Bias . The error is integrated into an erroneous velocity which torques the platform at an incorrect rate.3. Acceleration errors may be due to bias.3 .
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Integrator Errors 9. Page 176 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.01°/hr is used to illustrate the effect of gyro drift on the platform: a. Oscillation.3 . Levelling Gyro Drift 10. The rotation is bounded by the Schuler loop.001°/hr it is probable that the drift rate in flight will be greater. The stable element is turned away from the horizontal at the rate of 0.3. A typical figure of 0. Although the desired drift for an IN gyro is of the order of 0. The second integrator is outside the Schuler loop and any errors caused by it produce a position error that increases linearly with time.3. and the platform tilt curve is shown at Fig 5a. The first integrator is within the Schuler loop.01°/hr. Any error in the integration results in an incorrect velocity output which produces a platform oscillation and associated error curves similar to those previously discussed.
The distance error due to levelling gyro drift is unbounded.3 . Distance Error. c. The acceleration error follows the same curve as that shown for platform tilt (Fig 5a).01°/hr. The growth rate is oscillatory about a mean ramp increase (Fig 5c).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b.6 nm/hr and has an oscillation of ± 0. If an INS is properly aligned in azimuth the East gyro senses zero component of Earth-rate and the North gyro outputs a signal proportional to −Ωcosφ. the East gyro will output −ΩcosφsinΨ. Page 177 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. and for a drift of 0.3. Velocity Error. and the North gyro −ΩcosφcosΨ. 3-3-3-3 Fig 5 Errors Caused by Gyro Drift Initial Azimuth Misalignment 11.13 nm. the ramp grows at approximately 0.3. If the INS is misaligned in azimuth by an angle Ψ. The second integration results in the distance error which grows with time because of the mean velocity error. After integration the velocity curve at Fig 5b is obtained. which shows that a mean velocity error develops over the Schuler period.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 12.05 cos 55± (1 ¡ 0.005°/hr 0. The error for the East gyro. At Latitude 55° and Ψ of 0. Table 1 . The North gyro is torqued for Earth-rate by Ω cos φ and therefore the torqueing error will be: − cos Á ¡ − cos Á cos ª = − cos Á (1 ¡ cos ª)± /hr Since the magnitude of the misalignment angle is unlikely to exceed 0. The unbounded nature of the resulting distance error makes it essential to keep the initial azimuth alignment error as small as possible.3° 0.970 ft 3 ft/sec 6 ft/sec 9 ft/sec 14. The error curves produced in the latitude channel by an initial azimuth misalignment are similar to those caused by levelling gyro drift.5± the error is: 15.Distance Error Page 178 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.015°/hr 0. northern velocity and latitude determination.0003± /hr 13.1° 0.220 ft 1 ft/sec 0. 3-3-3-3 Fig 6 Azimuth Gyro Drift .1°. like azimuth misalignment.310 ft 19.030°/hr 0.Effect of Initial Azimuth Misalignment (North Channel) .015°/hr. and preferably less than 0. the error is 0.600 ft 13. The resultant errors may become significant under prolonged accelerations.045°/hr 6. given by − Ωcosφ sin Ψ°/hr. The errors produced oscillate about means which increase with time.3 .3. This error appears as East levelling gyro drift which causes the platform to oscillate about East and affects the North accelerometer. registers as East levelling gyro drift and produces an increasing azimuth alignment error.LAT 55°N Azimuth Resultant East Distance Max Error Deg's Gyro Drift Error at 1 Velocity Degree/hr hour Error ft/sec 2. Azimuth misalignment also results in slightly incorrect accelerations being sensed by the misaligned accelerometers. The effect of various misalignment angles is shown in Table 1. is appreciable even when Ψ is small. Azimuth Gyro Drift 15.3.03° 0.2° 0.1°. eg at Latitude 55± and ª = 0. Azimuth gyro drift (δΨ).5°. this error may be disregarded. The increasing mean velocity error produces an unbounded distance error which follows a parabolic growth rate (illustrated in Fig 6). eg during long accelerated climbs.99996)± /hr = 0.
Page 179 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. The vertical accelerometer must be corrected for the acceleration due to gravity (gh) at the particular height before its output can be integrated to give rate of change and change of height.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 16.in the first instance by barometric altimetry. Accelerometer errors. Thus for most aircraft applications an INS vertical channel must be aided by another source . Therefore errors in the height channel are not self-limiting and the channel is unstable.1 ft/sec would generate a height error of 670 ft after half an hour and 15. This oscillation results in some. b.3. azimuth misalignment and azimuth gyro drift cause a system velocity error which oscillates about a non-zero mean and thus the distance error is unbounded and oscillates about a ramp function of time. and initial platform tilt errors yield a system velocity error which oscillates about a zero mean and so the distance error is bounded.3 . Levelling gyro drift. errors being bounded as follows: a. Gravity decreases with height according to the following relationship: R2 (R + h) 2 gh = g o or gh = go ¡ 2go h R where go = surface value of g h = height R = Earth radius Any error in determining h will affect the calculation of gh which in turn will increase the error.000 ft after 1 hour. A local vertical INS is inherently 'Schuler Tuned' and errors induced within the Schuler loop will cause the platform to oscillate about the horizontal. The error growth is approximately exponential and. 17. Most of the errors in the horizontal channels have been shown to be bounded by the Schuler oscillations but this is not the case in the vertical channel. a step input error in vertical velocity of 0. or a parabolic function in the case of azimuth gyro drift. but not all. first stage integrator errors. as an example. Summary 18.
Additionally a mixed system can be aligned in flight. 22. Alternatively an accurate fixing aid such as GPS could be used to bound the position error.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 19. The most common mixed systems are those which use Doppler as a reference velocity source which is used to damp the Schuler oscillations. The vertical channel is not governed by Schuler oscillation and is inherently unstable due to the change of gravity with height. b. and in a conventional local vertical system these cause the platform to oscillate about the horizontal. However. however in practice this leads to an unacceptable long time to reduce the error. The self alignment and reference alignment techniques are restricted to a fixed base as it is not possible for a pure INS to distinguish between the accelerations due to aircraft movement and those due to platform misalignment. The vertical channel is inherently unstable. although relatively large. The position error resulting from gyro drift is unbounded. Doppler/IN Mixing 24. The shortcomings of such a system can be summarized as follows: a. Fix Monitored System 26. require a very accurate velocity. d. The platform is roughly Page 180 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. 25. In a simple system the error signal is fed to the input of the first integrator. such as weapon aiming. there is in general little to be gained in positional accuracy when the two systems are compared during the first 4 to 6 hours of flight. The system cannot be aligned in flight. The problem of the unbounded position error in a pure INS or Doppler/INS can be reduced by coupling the system with an accurate fixing aid such as GPS. High long term accuracy requires very expensive components to minimize the errors.3 . over the long term there are other periodic oscillations caused by interactions between the 3 axes. such as Kalman Filtering. The velocity error resulting from gyro drift oscillates about a non-zero mean and several applications. The difference signals are also used to provide a degree of damping to the platform. MIXED INERTIAL SYSTEMS Introduction 21. thus enhancing the overall accuracy of both systems. The latitude and longitude outputs from the fixing aid are compared with those from the INS and the resulting error signals are fed through suitable gains to update the inertial position. c.3. although the position error is slightly reduced. to continuously monitor and analyse the outputs to give the best results. In addition it is possible to stabilize the vertical channel using barometric height. Sophisticated forms of mixing may involve several aids and use a software controlled statistical technique. These aids have errors which. 20. 23. In a Doppler/IN system the Doppler and inertial velocities are compared to give an error signal which can be used in various configurations to modify the system performance and in particular to damp the Schuler oscillations. do not increase with time and so a mixed system combines the short term accuracy of a pure INS with the long term accuracy of another aid.3. An INS is very accurate in the short term but the introduction of errors is inevitable. The fix monitored arrangement has the disadvantage of relying to a certain extent on an external source of information whereas the pure INS and Doppler/INS are self-contained. The reductions in velocity error achieved with a tuned second order Doppler/IN system will have a significant effect on the accuracy of weapon delivery when compared with a pure INS. e. It is possible to overcome these disadvantages by 'mixing' the INS outputs with those of other navigation aids. Although the Schuler oscillations predominate in the short term (less than 4 hours). Airborne Alignment 27. In order to reduce the errors more quickly the error signal is in addition fed forward directly to modify the gyro torqueing signal. this arrangement is known as a Tuned Second Order System. An INS which is combined with an alternative velocity source or position information can however be aligned in flight.
such as Kalman Filtering. Post flight analysis of the navigation system and fault detection can be carried out. c. The Kalman Filtering process estimates each of the parameters which give rise to an error between the INS and one or more external sensors on the basis of maximum likelihood. these weighting factors can be optimized and continuously updated for any operating conditions. Kalman Filter Design 31. Kalman Filtering increases the flexibility and enhances the accuracy of a mixed system thus overcoming the disadvantages of a hardwired mixed system. The vertical channel does not display the same characteristics as the horizontal channels as it is inherently unstable due to the fact that the value of g varies with height. Vertical Channel Stabilization 28. The accuracy of an airborne alignment is not as high as that obtained from a full self alignment but the technique does give the aircraft a rapid reaction capability and the ability to update the system during a long flight or after a transient equipment failure.3. Alignment and gyro drift trimming are improved. Consequently the weighting factor applied to each sensor of a mixed system by a fixed gain loop is unlikely to be the true measure of the relative merits of the sensors and could possibly be significantly in error. Once designed however the filter performance is not affected by changes in aircraft role or tactics. All the quantities in the error model are then corrected in the light of the known variances of the external information and the variances of each quantity in the error model. The hardwired mixed systems described in the preceding paragraphs are inflexible because the feedback gains are fixed and have to be carefully chosen at the design stage. and additional sensors can be incorporated into the system with relatively minor changes to the computer software. In practice there is never enough information to enable the system to be perfectly modelled and there will frequently be limitations on computer time and storage. Weapon aiming accuracy is improved including the elimination of fixed bias errors. By making better use of the information available. This method can use any number of sensors and can select the best information available at any particular time. range from a ground aid. The computer holds an estimate of the system errors and uses known error propagation equations to forecast how these errors will behave with passing time.3 . By using a weighting factor which is continually revised the error between the external data and the INS is apportioned among all the possible error sources so that the probability of these errors occurring is greatest. Advantages of Kalman Filtering 34. The variances of the system errors are recalculated after each external measurement has been processed so that the errors of the next measurement can be apportioned in the optimum manner. flight conditions and altitude. 29. When an external measurement is made the error held in the computer is compared with the measured error. Extensive trials and simulation are necessary to enable the designer to define the error model and variables as accurately as possible within the computer limitations. By using a software controlled statistical technique. b. Page 181 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. KALMAN FILTERING Introduction 30. 33. It is therefore necessary to supplement the vertical channel with another source of height reference in order to provide the accurate values of height and vertical velocity which are essential for weapon aiming calculations. The design of a practical Kalman Filter for use in an aircraft system is complex. Thus this error model will always maintain up to date values. The inertial height output is compared with the barometric height to give an error signal which is fed back to the first integrator and this has the effect of stabilizing the accuracy in the long term whilst maintaining it in the short term.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 aligned and then the error signals from either the external velocity or position information are used to level the platform and align it in azimuth. Other important advantages are: a. thus assigning a fixed level of relative performance to the sensors. The barometric altimeter whilst inaccurate in the short term is very accurate in the long term and this characteristic can be used to stabilize the INS height and vertical velocity outputs. In reality the relative merits of each sensor will vary considerably and depend on such parameters as time of flight.3. The first problem is to define a set of variables that specify the system. 32.
3-3-3-3 Fig 5a 3-3-3-3 Fig 5b Page 182 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. This information may be displayed to the crew directly as a figure of merit reflecting the accuracy of the navigation outputs. 36. A navigation system using a Kalman Filtering technique is far more flexible and accurate than a more conventional system and has several secondary benefits. The method of using the data is the same as in flight but as the error model is more complete maximum use can be made of data which was previously unused. The times for full and rapid alignments can be reduced and the overall accuracy of the process improved. By calculating the errors in the delivery of practice weapons in training sorties the aircraft can be calibrated and the filter programmed to eliminate these fixed bias errors.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 d. Alignment and Gyro Drift Trimming.3. A Kalman Filter can be used during alignment and for drift trimming the gyros. The Kalman Filter will directly affect weapon aiming accuracy because of the improved navigation performance. It can also take account of fixed bias errors and in particular harmonization and windscreen distortion. An estimate of system accuracy can be continuously displayed to the crew. Such a facility enables the thorough testing of the sensor to be carried out at an earlier stage than might otherwise have been possible. By the use of post flight analysis data can be used to show when any sensor is not presenting navigation information within the expected variance due perhaps to progressive deterioration of components or incipient failure. Weapon Aiming Errors. Summary 39. This post flight analysis highlights shortcomings in the airborne filter which may then be amended. The advantages obtained from Kalman Filtering are limited only by the ability to accurately model the system parameters and the likely errors. within the computer time and space available.3 . 38. Estimate of System Accuracy. When using statistical filtering an estimate of the navigation system accuracy is continuously available. Post Flight Analysis and Fault Detection. Kalman Filtering also improves the height and vertical velocity outputs which are essential for accurate weapon aiming. An important secondary application of Kalman Filtering is the post flight analysis of the navigation system. 37.3. Alternatively the filter can automatically reject input data that is in error by more than 3 or 4 standard deviations and an indication given to the crew. The filter can compensate for aircraft movement such as wind buffeting during ground alignment and also take account of the changing characteristics of components during the warm-up phase. During flight all reference data can be recorded and subsequently fed into a computer containing a much more comprehensive error model than it is possible to accommodate in an airborne computer. 35.
1 . many of which will have their own dedicated or integral computer.Airborne Computers Introduction 1. while at the same time there have been reductions in physical size. memory capacity.4. computer technology has made rapid advances in the fields of speed. power consumption. This chapter will review the tasks that utilize airborne computers.1. Computers are often required to control and integrate data obtained from a variety of disparate sources and sensors. Over the last twenty-five years in particular. and will investigate the computer types and organizations that best fulfil the requirements. together with the various peripheral devices which are commonly used for the input and output of data.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-3-3 Fig 5c COMPUTING AND DISPLAY Central Computing Chapter 1 . Page 183 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Central Computing 3. and reliability. The manner in which data is transmitted between these equipments will also be addressed. and cost.
4. c. Each of these applications involves the manipulation of large amounts of data so that they can be presented in a form which is usable by either the crew or other systems. EW equipment management. e. The control and management functions that are carried out by computer include: a. Data transmission control and management. Control and management. Data processing. Whereas many functions could be completed totally automatically. Air data processing. 5. Weapon aiming calculations. Analogue. Digital land mass data manipulation. Control and Management. b. Airborne Computer Types 7. Examples of the navigation and weapon aiming problems which are normally solved by computer are: a. d. Fuel and engine monitoring and control. b. e. c. it is normally desirable that the crew should be able to make any necessary decisions and maintain some measure of control over the computer. c.General Purpose and Special Purpose. Radar data processing. f. Hybrid (mixed analogue and digital). Co-ordinate conversion (eg Lat/Long to Grid). Presentation. Data Processing. Control of inertial and doppler navigation systems. Examples of data processing applications are: a.1 . including Kalman filtering.1. Image processing (eg IR and television). Airborne computing tasks can be broadly divided into three main groups: a. b. d. d. Equipment self-test routines. EW data processing. Flight control systems (eg fly-by-wire) b. Navigation and Weapon Aiming. c. c. b. Navigation and weapon aiming. Digital . Page 184 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Central Computing 3. 6.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Airborne Computer Tasks 2. In flight recording. 3.4. There are three types of computer currently being used in airborne applications: a. Hyperbolic fix processing (Decca).
and management functions. b. The precision to which a digital computer can work is a function of wordlength and the required wordlength will be determined by the quality of the various sensor inputs. Dual processing. while still retaining memory. whereas the airborne environment is essentially hostile to electronic equipment which may be subjected to large temperature changes. Hybrid computers are still sometimes used in inertial navigation systems. Precision 12. they are unlikely to be used in new installations. and the requirements of the systems that the computer is required to drive. and acceleration forces. other systems (such as imaging tasks) require greater precision. however this advantage must be weighed against additional cost and sometimes increased difficulty of maintenance. Ground based computers usually operate in clean air-conditioned surroundings with little chance of mechanical damage. and programming flexibility. In addition. but they have largely been supplanted by digital computers. Analogue computers accept and process data as continually varying quantities. Dual Processing. and on whether real time operation is required. and the special purpose computer which is designed by the manufacturer to perform a specific task. Single processing. the general purpose computer which can be adapted for a variety of uses by suitable programming. it is unlikely that future military aircraft will use analogue computing systems to any significant degree.1 . It is possible for this arrangement to provide better integrity than the single system if essential programs and data are stored in both Page 185 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Central Computing 3. and of being inherently 'real time' machines. In addition to suffering to some extent from the drawbacks of analogue machines. This organization was favoured when computers were first installed into aircraft and were very bulky items. the optical computer. The characteristics of analogue and hybrid computers will briefly be summarized. In a dual processing organization two digital computers work independently. is still at the development stage. and does not have the ability to store large quantities of data. but the remainder of this chapter will be concerned with the digital computer. eg voltage or shaft angle. and very low integrity as there is no redundancy or reversionary capability. modern digital systems are now able to operate at speeds which make them essentially 'real time'. It is clearly advantageous for the computer to have low size. sharing the workload. In the early days of digital computers.4. accuracy. 9. Hybrid computers use a mixture of analogue and digital techniques. reliability. but although such systems are still to be found (eg Jaguar). 8. weight. failure of the single processor results in the loss of all computing capability. they also require analogue/digital and digital/analogue conversion devices. control. However the analogue computer is inflexible in its applications. represented by physical parameters. The arrangement has very poor real time performance. c. Single Processing. The decision as to which computer arrangement is appropriate in any aircraft will depend on the scale of the computing task and the number of systems to be controlled or integrated. Hybrid Computers. and power requirements. They were originally used to overcome the slow speed of digital machines where real time operation was required. Analogue Computers. The Airborne Environment 11. but although large scale integrated circuitry has been beneficial in these respects. 15. The characteristics of the special purpose type are optimized for the task in hand and it therefore tends to be more efficient. 10. d.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 A further type. analogue machines had the advantages of avoiding the sampling errors associated with digital techniques. There are two general types. There are essentially four options: a. Digital computers are in widespread use for airborne applications and are likely to remain the prevalent computer type for the foreseeable future. Distributed processing 14. Whereas an 18-bit word is sufficient for most navigation. In a single processing arrangement all tasks are performed in a single computer. The development of digital computers has been such that their sampling errors are now generally much lower than those generated by the mechanical tolerances in the analogue computer. Multiprocessing. weapon aiming. Although there are still many analogue machines in service (eg GPI 4). vibration. and the current trend is away from 18 or 24 bit words to 32 or 64 bit words. the dense packing of components has increased the problems of heat dissipation. Digital Computers. Thus high standards of hardware ruggedness are necessary. Computer Organization 13.1.
3-4-1-1 Fig 1 Distributed Processing System Input/Output Devices 18. The distributed system can have a good real time performance and there is less of a programming problem compared with a multiprocessing arrangement. b. but with one of these exercising some control over the others. Such printers are significantly faster (24. Page 186 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Central Computing 3.4. In addition to simple warning lights and flight instruments. Magnetic Tape. Non-impact printers are typified by ink-jet and laser printers. rather than as a digital data stream.1. The arrangement is shown in Fig 1. The controlling computer is used to reduce operator workload by performing some of the switching functions needed for the management of the system and to provide centralized control of reversionary routines in the event of equipment failure. Distributed Processing.1 . the other can take over the task (this may of course entail the loss of some less essential capabilities). A variety of devices are used in aircraft to accomplish this. Where it is necessary for the crew to input or receive data it must be in a form which is readily interpreted. so enabling the crew to iteract with the computer. or by the crew. Because magnetic tape is a serial device it tends to be rather slow in operation and is typically used to load programs or record data for post-flight analysis. Failure of a dedicated computer in such a system would probably entail the loss of that element and critical tasks may therefore have to be protected by the provision of redundant machines. but at the cost of complex and difficult programming. An elaborate supervisory program allocates processor time according to predetermined priorities. 16. such that if the primary processor for any particular function fails. but if this capability is required a multiprocessing or distributed organization is much to be preferred. System integration will suffer if the controlling computer fails. Multiprocessing. The principle is essentially the same as that used in domestic audio recording. however.000 lines/minute) and much quieter. 17. In a multiprocessing arrangement two or more CPUs operate with one memory. even if in a degraded mode. Printers are output devices and may be classed as impact or non-impact. the following devices may be encountered: a. Printers. Extreme care is needed if program changes are to be made to ensure that any change to one routine does not affect others. but generally cheap. Dual systems can offer a limited real time performance. These printers are noisy. the dedicated computers will continue to operate and a well designed system will make their information available. but also expensive. In a distributed system separate computers are used for the various tasks. The processed information from an airborne computer will be needed either by other aircraft systems.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 computers. Impact printers operate by means of a print head striking an inked sheet or ribbon overlaying the paper. The multiprocessing system has high integrity and good real time performance. Magnetic tape may be used both to input and output information. relatively slow (typically 1000 lines/minute).
and prone to corruption by electro-magnetic interference. but the words in the stream are transmitted serially.4. of limited bandwidth. Page 187 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Central Computing 3. Parallel transmission is more expensive. A VDU is a high quality cathode ray tube with either a full colour or two-tone screen. In some systems there is a 'soft' keyboard in which the function of a key is dictated by the computer software according to the mode of operation. With suitable software it can display both alphanumerics and diagrams. and is displayed on the VDU adjacent to the key. heavy. The bandwidth of the medium far exceeds that of copper wire. DATA TRANSMISSION Introduction 19. Serial transmission requires fewer wires and is relatively cheap and light. and less cumbersome. but the trend now. Section 1 of this volume. Copper Wire. Bit Parallel Word Parallel (BPWP). and are physically much smaller. Direct Voice Input (DVI). d. lighter. Transmission Media 20. optical fibres can transmit greater amounts of data. compared to copper wire. but is still in the development stage. Once a digital computer is installed in an aircraft there will be a need to transmit data between the computer and other systems such as sensors and displays. Bit Parallel Word Serial (BPWS). Cables of this type are easily handled. There are four options: a. but are bulky. Binary signals are represented by electrical pulses. and may be in the form of a screened twisted pair. Copper wire is still the commonest form of transmission medium.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. where there are still analogue devices in a system. In a DVI system the computer is programmed to recognize a limited vocabulary of command and data words having first been taught the operator's speech characteristics. The light sources are either light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this form the words within the data stream are transmitted in parallel. They consist of lengths of glass fibre. In summary. In this form the bits within a data word are transmitted in parallel. This may be either a standard QWERTY type as found on a typewriter. and data can easily be edited. radio frequencies. and along which binary signals are transmitted in the form of pulses of light. LED sources can operate at bandwidths up to 100 MHz. d. are impervious to electro-magnetic interference. moving map display. but faster. and ILDs at up to a few GHz.1 . or injection laser diodes (ILDs). complex. Visual Display Unit (VDU) and Keyboard. Because optical fibres use light waves to transmit signals they do not suffer from electrical interference caused by high voltages. Channel Configurations 22.1. c. Some analogue transmission systems have been reviewed in Part 3. over longer distances. Similarly they are themselves non-radiating and therefore do not interfere with other electronic equipment. are transmitted serially. e. or co-axial cable. In this form both the words in the data stream. Manual Input Devices. The VDU is normally associated with a keyboard to enable manual entry of data by the crew. A variety of hand controllers (joysticks and roller balls). or electro-magnetic pulse. and heavier. Optical Fibre. The system is inherently faster than keyboard entry. Bit Serial Word Serial (BSWS). Bit Serial Word Parallel (BSWP). Hand controllers are typically used to move cursors on a radar. Photodiodes at the receiving end of the cable convert the light signals back into electrical signals. and the constituent bits of a data word. 21. or a special type designed to fulfil a specific function. or HUD. but slow. have inherent security. or indeed other computers. b. lightning. A channel is the connection needed to transmit a word. and operate in the near infra-red region of the spectrum. and switches may be used to input data. magnetic fields. Optical fibres are in common use as transmission media. In this form both blocks of words and their constituent bits are transmitted in parallel. is to connect them to a digital transmission system using analogue/digital converters. and are safer to use in a potentially explosive environment. Touch screens may also be used and these are generally faster and more accurate than keyboards. usually clad in plastic. and the number of wires required will depend on the form in which data is to be transmitted. but the bits within a word are transmitted serially.
Each peripheral is connected for the length of time necessary to pass the maximum number of permitted data words regardless of how much information is actually transmitted. There are two types of control. Asynchronous control is becoming more widely used as experience and technology improves. but is faster and more efficient. In most systems. data is transmitted as a stream of data words. The system is organized such that up to 30 remote terminals can be connected to a common data highway. In addition it monitors the status of remote terminals and if. Data highways are asynchronous arrangements whereby all devices are connected to a common data busbar and the flow of data is controlled by a highway (or bus) controller on a 'handshaking' basis. the bus controller would automatically arrange for systems requiring that information to receive it from a secondary source if available. normally based on a clock. Under synchronous control. it tends to be slow. and inefficient. preceded by a command word which includes such details as the number of words in the ensuing stream. An asynchronous system is more complex than a synchronous one. The bus controller is the the most important. or disconnections from. peripherals will be accessed in a strict sequence under some form of central control. A remote terminal can be embedded in a particular avionic component. The Mil Std 1553 data bus was introduced in 1973 by the US Department of Defense as a standard format for aircraft data buses and all new US aircraft were to employ the system. future developments will probably involve optical fibre transmission.1. There is a single shared link which switches between each pair of transmitters and receivers under the control of a clock. R2. inflexible. The command will be acknowledged and the data transmitted.1 . A change of equipment involves connections to. Therefore. for example. and possibly correction. and modification to the bus controller software. complex. and maintains it until the message has been passed. and the destination address. 27. The concept is illustrated in Fig 2 where T1. In an asynchronous system. the connection is broken.4. A significant advantage of the system is that the avionic system can be expanded or modified without the costly and time consuming exercise of changing the aircraft wiring.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Transmission Control 23. one source of information failed. Time division multiplexing is an example of synchronous control which provides a means of reducing the amount of hardware required by sharing transmission channels. etc are transmitters and R1. or can stand alone and service up to five avionic systems. Also. Page 188 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Central Computing 3. of corruption in the data. allowing another peripheral to use the line. the bus. On completion. etc are receivers. The primary disadvantages of the system are its complexity and slow speed. The bus controller can allow any remote terminal to communicate with any other. b. Synchronous. Mil Std 1553 (NATO STANAG 3838) Data Bus. and costly part of the system and its major function is to ensure that information is routed correctly between remote terminals. Asynchronous. 24. T2. synchronous and asynchronous: a. bus controllers and remote terminals represent a significant part of the system cost and it would not be cost effective for an aircraft with only a few digital avionic equipments. 25. The transmission of data streams must be controlled to ensure that the appropriate information reaches the correct destination. although such a system is relatively simple to design and construct. Time Division Multiplexing. The controller will be informed that a peripheral wishes to transmit and the appropriate receiver will be commanded to receive. when a peripheral has information to transmit it tells the processor which arranges a connection. The data word will often have some bits designed for the detection. 3-4-1-1 Fig 2 Time Division Multiplexing 26. Data Highways. The transmission medium is a twisted pair of copper wires which limits the bandwidth to to 1 MHz and suffers from the other disadvantages of electrical transmission.
5.Typical Iteration Rates System Air Data Computer Autopilot (stability) (control) Head-up Display Weapon Aiming Routine Navigation Iteration Rate 20 Hz 100 HZ 50 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz 10 Hz Priority and Interrupt System 4. For convenience of organization the iteration rates of programs on the same level may be changed to ensure that they are multiples or submultiples of each other.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Central Computing Chapter 2 . thus. but requires careful initial design and accurate forecasting of system workload. 6. but which nevertheless is probably the most suitable when tasks occur at random times. B a rate of 7 Hz. which also handles the input and output of data and the servicing of interrupts. provided that sufficient CPU time is available. may also be used. Interrupt signals from a peripheral. After each instruction is complete a check will be made on the contents of an interrupt status word (ISW) in a special register. an iteration rate of 10 Hz means that the program must be completed every 100 ms. For example. A system's ability to operate in real time depends principally on the amount of CPU time available and. 2. such as a navigator's control unit. An airborne computer will usually have several different programs to run. A. but to increase the iteration rates of both B and C to 10 Hz. Communication between machines may cause delays especially if dissimilar computers are used as different word lengths and input/output characteristics dictate the need for complicated interface units. If the maximum pitch rate of the aircraft is 20° the iteration rate must be at least 20 Hz and in practice a higher rate would be chosen to give a safety margin. The distributed arrangement allocates specific tasks to dedicated computers. In the case of airborne systems the acceptable time lag will be in the order of milliseconds.1. and C a rate of 9 Hz. B. The timing. control. Table 1 . with program A requiring a rate of 5 Hz. The iteration rate will be determined by consideration of the maximum error in a variable that can be permitted and the maximum rate at which the variable can change. Each program will take a certain amount of time and must be repeated at certain intervals. As an example. the multiprocessing or distributed processing arrangements are the most suitable. it may be that a certain aircraft navigation system cannot tolerate an error in pitch of greater than 1 if it is to meet the specified accuracy.2 . and C at the same level. The heart of the supervisory program is the main scheduler routine which determines the order in which processing is done.4. as was suggested in Chap 1. A real time system is a combination of computer hardware and software which has the ability to process data sufficiently quickly that it can keep pace with events and influence or control responses with minimal time lag. Iteration Rates 3. initialization. and scheduling of work is accomplished by a supervisory program. Some typical iteration rates for various airborne computing tasks are shown in Table 1. it may be necessary to run three programs. The multiprocessor allocates tasks to a CPU on the basis of priorities which leads to a very flexible but complicated system. Iteration rates would not normally be reduced as this would in most cases entail either a lower safety margin or decreased accuracy.Real Time Programs Introduction 1. This avoids the need for a complex supervisory program. A series of interrupt pulses generated by a real time clock will be used. If a particular bit is set to 0 this indicates that an interrupt has not been generated and the computer will go on to Page 189 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Central Computing 3. In this situation it would be more convenient to run A at 5 Hz as needed. and allocates resources to the various programs. The sequence of events is as follows: a. In order to achieve the required real time performance with a digital computer the tasks will be grouped into a number of priority levels with the most important tasks (generally those with the highest iteration rates) having the highest priority. The number of times each program is repeated in 1 second is termed the iteration rate and is expressed in Hertz (Hz). for example.
At point A (t = 5 ms) the Level 2 program is complete and the last instruction causes an automatic reversion to the next lowest priority level . If a 1 is present the rest of the ISW will be examined to determine the priority level of the interrupt. As an example. At t = 0 the CPU begins the Level 2 program.1. e. When a program is complete.2 . The allocation of computer time and the associated hardware interrupt signals is illustrated in Fig 1 and described below: a. The iteration rate required is 10 Hz and so interrupts are generated every 100 ms. d.Level 3. 3-4-1-2 Fig 1 Priority System Page 190 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Central Computing 3. having the following 4 program priority levels: a. Level 2 is used for programs requiring an iteration rate of 50 Hz. such as an Inertial Navigation Schuler loop.4. and there are no further programs to be run at that level. the last instruction will cause the registers to be loaded with the values pertinent to the next most important program which will then be run until it is complete or interrupted.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the next instruction. The new program will then be run until it is complete or is in its turn interrupted by a still higher level program. c. Level 1 is the highest priority level and is used only for switch on. Level 4 is used for self-test routines and programs are run only when time is available in the CPU after the tasks at the higher levels have been completed. 8. 7. b. such as the accumulator. If however a 1 is present an interrupt has been generated. and the location of the first instruction of the new program will be loaded into the program counter. and fault conditions. Before the computer leaves Level 3 the address of the current instruction and intermediate data results are automatically stored in protected memory locations. If the interrupt is of lower priority than the program currently being run the interrupt will be ignored. b. will be stored. switch off. or weapon aiming calculations. d. If it is of a higher priority the contents of various registers. consider a computer being used in a nav/attack system. c. At point B (t = 20 ms) a hardware interrupt signal is generated which demands that the Level 2 program is serviced again. The nav/attack system may be operated in several modes and in this example it will be assumed that the computer is operating in the routine navigation mode in which Level 2 programs require 5 ms per iteration and Level 3 programs require 50 ms per iteration. An interrupt signal is generated every 20 ms to ensure that a rate of 50 Hz is achieved. Only 15 ms of the 50 ms needed by the Level 3 program has been made available at this stage. Level 3 services routine navigation equations and the generation of display information. b. c.
e. f. The principles of operation of a cathode ray tube (CRT) are covered in detail in Volume 9. either by accepting a lower iteration rate for the Level 3 programs. As Level 3 requires 50 ms in every 100 ms to achieve a 10 Hz iteration rate some adjustment must be made. Suppose that the operator carries out an attack using a weapon aiming mode which requires 5 ms of calculation at Level 2.CRT Displays Introduction 1.2. 10. but the Level 2 has priority and the Level 3 interrupt is stored until the Level 2 program is complete (point E). In every 100 ms period the Level 2 program now requires 60 ms (5 x 12 ms) leaving only 40 ms available at Level 3. Level 3 must be serviced again to achieve the required 10 Hz iteration rate. In every 100 ms period the time required by Levels 2 and 3 is now 100 ms (5 x 10 ms at Level 2 and 1 x 50 ms at Level 3). The whole cycle is then repeated. Suppose the weapon aiming mode selected requires 7 ms of time at Level 2 giving a total of 12 ms per iteration. At the other end of the tube an electron gun produces a beam of electrons Page 191 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Displays 3. 9. The time available between Level 2 iterations is spent at Level 3 where the stored data and instruction addresses are used to ensure continuity. The time spent at various levels will vary with the mode of operation.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 d. It may be necessary to adjust the Level 3 tasks at some stages of flight. In most cases this will be possible without significantly degrading the overall system performance. At point D (t = 100 ms) interrupt signals are received for Levels 2 and 3. this chapter will review the basic operation before describing the manner in which the CRT can be used for airborne displays. For convenience. The sequence now repeats with the Level 2 program being serviced every 20 ms to maintain the 50 Hz iteration rate. Program running will now alternate between Levels 2 and 4. Displays Chapter 1 .1 . or by reducing the Level 3 tasks. The total time required at Level 2 is now 10 ms. Fig 1 is a simplified diagram showing the components of a CRT which are contained in an evacuated tube with a phosphor coating deposited on the inside of one glass end. ie during the period of the attack some less important facility or information will be lost. Thus no time is available to service the self-test programs at Level 4 and these must be dropped for the duration of the attack. At point C (t = 70 ms) the Level 3 program has been completed and time is available for Level 4 programs. when the Level 3 program can be commenced. CRT Operating Principle 2.
Extra brightness.1 . is called a frame. the resolution of the final image can never be finer than the spot size. and the eye's integration of the image. The brightness. Raster Scan 5.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 which are accelerated along the tube by an extra-high tension (EHT) voltage.2. The image is built up by varying the brightness of the spot in synchronization with the raster. also carries the penalty of lower resolution. as well as a greater difference between the resolution at the centre and edges of the display. the raster scan technique which is that used in domestic television. The size of the spot is normally fixed by the focusing and will be dictated by a number of design factors. and its intensity can be altered to control brightness in order to form an image. 3. and the effect is enhanced by the choice of a phosphor with an appropriate persistence. Each of these techniques will be described in more detail later. known as interlacing. Each separate picture is known as a field and the total picture. and the cursive technique which is that used in. to achieve this it is necessary to provide a higher deflection power.Standard Nomenclature for Phosphor Persistence Time to rise to 90% of steady state brightness or time to decay to 10% of final Persistence (Word description of luminance rise time or Page 192 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:21 2002 Displays 3. The whole process is repeated at the refresh rate to give an apparently continuous and dynamic image. For any given application a compromise has to be made between desirable attributes. Table 1 . until they strike the phosphor at very high velocity. The colour of the spot is determined by the choice of phosphor and some examples are shown in Table 2. ie the sum of the individual fields. The phosphor glows at a specific frequency or frequency range (colour). The electron beam can be focused or deflected. oscilloscopes. In most airborne applications a short tube length is desirable so that the device can be more easily accommodated. A commonly used variation. A phosphor's persistence is described as shown in Table 1. and focusing of the spot may be achieved by magnetic or electrostatic techniques or by a combination of methods. and to accept a lower resolution. involves producing two or more images in rapid succession by interleaving the horizontal lines of the scan. The total image in a CRT display is built up by the rapid movement of the spot of light traced by the electron beam. deflection. to move the spot of light around the screen. and for a specific length of time when struck by the high velocity electrons.4. In a raster scan system the spot is moved over the whole area of the screen in a regular pattern. normally a series of parallel horizontal lines. 3-4-2-1 Fig 1 Simplified Construction of a Cathode Ray Tube Image Quality 4. The effect is to reduce the true refresh rate without flicker becoming apparent. However. however. The persistence of the spot is a measure of its decay time and is defined by the length of time it takes for the brightness to fall to 10% of its peak brightness following the electron beam's cessation or movement. There are two methods by which a total image is produced. which may be needed in a cockpit. and a slower writing speed. The persistence of the phosphor is utilized together with the eye's persistence of vision to build up a complete image from what is in reality a moving spot and the correct choice of persistence is therefore very important. for example.
the spot returns to the top of the display. During this 'flyback' the brightness of the spot is normally reduced to zero. In a UK television system this gives just over 700 resolvable elements horizontally. 8. For simplicity the scan has only 12 lines of which 10 are used for imaging. Fig 2c shows the 'y' deflection of the spot as it moves down the screen. Fig 2a shows the display which consists of a black and a white letter 'T' on a grey background. to ensure correct synchronization of the time bases. This frame flyback coincides with the time occupied by the non-imaging lines 11 and 12. When the spot reaches the end of any line the accrued 'y' movement ensures that after the flyback the spot is at the start of the next line down. During line 2 the video starts at grey. The way in which a raster scan forms an image is shown in Fig 2. and there is no interlacing. moves to black to begin forming the top of the black letter 'T'. not shown in Fig 2. the smallest theoretically resolvable detail is equal to the line width which is 1/585 of the picture height.Characteristics of Typical Phosphors Phosphor P1 P4 P12 P34 P43 Emission Colour Fluorescene Phosphorescence Persistence (Initial Glow) (After Glow) Yellow-green Yellow-green Medium White Orange Blue-green Green White Orange Yellow-green Green Applications and Remarks Oscillographs Radars HUDs Monochrome TVs Medium to Medium-short Long Radars Very Long Visual Info storage Medium Rare Earth Phosphor used for HUDs 7. It will be seen that there is 'y' movement coincident with 'x' movement thus accounting for the slope of the lines evident in Fig 2a. In practice this figure is degraded by other factors. After a time equivalent to scanning the ten lines. Finally. ie the variation in brightness of the spot from black through grey to white with time. Similar variations can be detected within the other lines.4. Thus for example. The 'x' value increases within each line causing the spot to move across the screen. of which 585 are used for imaging. Table 2 .2. Fig 2d shows the variation of the video signal. The horizontal resolution is set by the video bandwidth and the line frequency. 3-4-2-1 Fig 2 Formation of Raster Scan Image Page 193 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:21 2002 Displays 3. It will be seen that during the period of line 1 the video signal shows grey throughout. then to white to start to form the white letter 'T'. back to grey to form the space between the letters. In addition to the image forming waveforms there will be additional pulses. The vertical resolution of a raster scan system is set by the number of lines used. and finally back to grey at the end of the letter. in a domestic television with 625 lines.1 . Fig 2b shows the line timebase which has a sawtooth form and represents the 'x' deflection of the spot. At the end of each line the spot returns to the left hand end (minimum 'x') as represented by the vertical part of the waveform.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 brightness ± 1 sec 100 ms − 1 sec 1 ms − 100 ms 10 µ s −1 ms 1 µ s − 10 µ s <1µs decay) Very long Long Medium Medium short Short Very short 6.
Although the term cursive writing may be used to describe any non-raster imaging technique. it is used here to describe the way in which the electron beam is used to draw line symbology.2. in a similar way to a pencil drawing on paper. 'y' and 'z' parameters is shown in Fig 3. The production of symbology can often be simplified by storing specific images such as lines and circles in computer memory and recalling and positioning them as required. The spot position is set by 'x' and 'y' signals and the intensity by a 'z' signal.1 . 3-4-2-1 Fig 3 Example of Production of a Simple Cursive Image Page 194 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:21 2002 Displays 3. and it is in practice impossible to produce realistic dynamic images with shades of grey. in which all of the screen must be covered within each refresh period. Because only the specific symbol required is drawn. which in most applications is either on or off. The disadvantages of the cursive technique are that three signals are required to produce the image. the display can be much brighter than with a raster scan.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Cursive Writing 9. Because of the limited persistence of the phosphors any line has to be re-drawn at regular intervals (the refresh rate). The way in which a cursive system can be made to form a letter 'R' by simultaneously varying the 'x'.
1 . There are three practical colour tubes available. The highly accurate synchronization needed by a fast-scanning high bandwidth electron beam is achieved by using ultra-violet radiation feedback from metal backed index strips in the face of the screen.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Colour Displays 10.4. there is less loss of energy in the electron beam. 12. the shadowmask CRT. high contrast display capable of being viewed in direct sunlight. Because there is no shadowmask as in the conventional colour CRT. Fig 4 shows the beam-index tube principle. There is only one electron gun in the beam index CRT.2. it illuminates the red. and susceptible to stray magnetic fields. which therefore writes at three times the rate. in which strips of coloured phosphor are arranged in columns on the screen. 3-4-2-1 Fig 4 The Beam-Index Tube Principle Page 195 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:21 2002 Displays 3. providing a relatively low contrast display for the cockpit environment. The shadowmask tube (in which a mask behind the screen carries the colour apertures through which 3 electron beams must be aimed to build up a chromatic image) is the type used in most domestic television receivers. and hence three times the bandwidth. and vibration causes fewer difficulties. Although it has airborne applications it is sensitive to vibration. green and blue phosphor as required. of the conventional tube. The beam index CRT is a bright. the beam index CRT and the penetration CRT. Although a monochromatic display is quite suitable for many airborne applications. As the electron beam scans across the face. 11. there are some uses for which a multi-colour display would be desirable or necessary.
1 . The penetration CRT has several layers of transparent phosphor deposited on the faceplate.4. It is therefore more suitable for the presentation of symbology. eg flight instrument displays. the penetration of the electron beam into the phosphor layers can be varied. By varying the EHT. and hence the colour can be controlled.2. The tube is much brighter and more robust than the shadowmask tube. each of which glows with a different colour.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 13. than for the portrayal of real world images. A simplified diagram showing the construction of a penetration tube is at Fig 5. while Fig 6 shows how the colour varies with changes in voltage for a typical screen. but currently the available colours are limited. 3-4-2-1 Fig 5 Penetration CRT Principle Page 196 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:22 2002 Displays 3. and the tube lacks the ability to display subtle variations of tone.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-1 Fig 6 Penetration Screen .2.1 .Variation of Colour with Voltage 3-4-2-1 Fig 2a Simplified Raster Display 3-4-2-1 Fig 2b Sawtooth Waveform Driving 'x' Deflection of the Spot Page 197 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:22 2002 Displays 3.4.
1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-1 Fig 2c Ramp Waveform Driving 'y' Deflection of the Spot 3-4-2-1 Fig 2d Video Signal Page 198 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:22 2002 Displays 3.4.2.
an array of 1024 x 1024 elements can be addressed by 2 ten digit X and Y inputs. The middle layer comprises the display elements. Although CRTs will have a place in airborne displays for the foreseeable future. Y label.2. for example. and interfacing them with digital equipment is complex. or elements can be 6 randomly addressed by means of their unique X. or under active development for use. They are bulky . Display Types 5. such as the Light Emitting Diode (LED) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). 3-4-2-2 Fig 1 Construction of a Matrix Display Page 199 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Displays Chapter 2 . b. The problem of controlling the voltages across such a large number of individual elements is usually overcome by using a X-Y (Cartesian co-ordinate) addressing procedure. set mutually at right angles.4.a total of 411. e. A problem with this type of system is that for a typical display of 10 6 −1 pixels. they operate at very high voltages. For example. Flat panel displays normally consist of a matrix of individual elements and the display resolution will be defined by the number of these elements. 3. they have a number of disadvantages. This arrangement is suitable for binary signalling and.840.2 . Plasma Panel.Flat Displays Introduction 1. Electroluminescent Display. Such systems can be scanned in a raster manner as in a conventional CRT. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The top electrode layer is transparent so that the display elements can be viewed through it (Fig 1). each element can only be addressed for (50 x 10 ) secs during each frame and so the ideal element will have a very short 'turn on' time and will remain on until extinguished (inherent memory). a display of comparable resolution to a 625 line TV picture would require a matrix consisting of 585 x 704 elements . and with a refresh rate of 50 Hz. c. in avionic systems: a. 2. the top and bottom layers are strip electrodes. Light Emitting Diode (LED).in particular requiring considerable depth behind the display face. Any individual element can be addressed by a signal passing through one electrode strip in each layer (Fig 2). Active Matrix LCD (AMLCD). Five types of flat panel displays are currently in use. d. The display is constructed as a three layer sandwich. These disadvantages can be overcome to some extent (and in certain applications) by the use of flat panel electronic displays. 4.
Red. A light emitting diode is a semiconductive junction which emits light when a current is passed through it. While electrical contact is made to both regions. but at present is uneconomical and inefficient. in which a shallow p-n junction is formed. and gallium arsenide phosphide. Page 200 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3. yellow and green LEDs are currently available and the development of a blue LED continues. gallium phosphide. the upper surface of the p material is largely uncovered so that the flow of radiation from the device is impeded as little as possible.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-2 Fig 2 Matrix Addressing Light Emitting Diode (LED) 6. Fig 3 shows the construction of a typical LED.2 .2. The primary materials used are gallium arsenide.
has a molecular structure akin to a crystalline solid. molecules are aligned parallel to each other but not in regular layers (Fig 4). with the top grooves aligned at 90° to the bottom grooves. In the display cell. 8. There are three classes of liquid crystal which vary in their molecular structure and.2 . Liquid crystal is an organic compound which. although all three have been used in LCDs. The grooves induce a corresponding alignment of the molecules so that their alignment within the liquid crystal twists through 90° (the twisted nematic structure). 9. LEDs have no inherent storage and displays must be refreshed at a rate fast enough to avoid flicker. rod shaped. In this structure the elongated. the structure known as nematic is by far the most common. the inner surfaces of the top and bottom glass or perspex walls are grooved.4.2. 3-4-2-2 Fig 4 Nematic Molecular Structure Page 201 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3. 3-4-2-2 Fig 3 Construction of Typical LED Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 7. The top and bottom of the display cell is covered by linear polarizing plates such that the plane of polarization of one plate is at 90° to the other. while having the physical characteristics of a liquid. Liquid crystal displays are unlike other flat displays in that they are not light emitters but rely on an external light source for their operation.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 LEDs are most suitable for 'on-off' displays rather than in applications requiring a grey scale.
When the field is removed. the molecules tend to align themselves with the field thus destroying the twisted structure. Coloured displays are possible by adding dyes to the liquid crystal material or by the use of special polarizers. helmet mounted displays. The structure and operation of a twisted nematic LCD is shown in Fig 5.4. for example. the cell therefore has a transparent appearance. and the twisted nematic structure causes the plane of polarization to be rotated through 90 so that the light is able to pass out through the second polarizer unimpeded. The polarized light entering the cell will no longer have its plane of polarization twisted through 90° and it will not therefore be transmitted by the second polarizer and the cell will appear dark. the molecules return to the original twisted nematic structure. When light passes through the initial plate it is polarized.2 .2. 11. The normal display is one of dark characters on a light background although this can be reversed by arranging the polarizers parallel rather than at 90°. 3-4-2-2 Fig 5 Structure and Operation of Twisted Nematic LCD Page 202 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3. When a voltage is applied across the cell. Current developments are towards matrices to produce full colour displays which may lead to LCDs replacing CRTs in.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 10.
Fig 6b shows a cross-section of an AMLCD. the upper substrate carrying the earth electrode. A grey effect can be obtained by modulating the amplitude of the input video voltage. and a voltage to energize the element on the appropriate row.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Active Matrix LCD (AMLCD) 12. The display needs to be refreshed periodically due to leakage currents. ensuring that the liquid crystal receives the correct voltage during the address time.2. as shown in Fig 6a.4. and is isolated from stray voltages when it is switched off. In an AMLCD the voltage applied on each element is actively controlled by a transistor. 14. In this case rows and columns of the matrix are disposed on the same substrate. An element (or pixel) is addressed by applying the video voltage corresponding to the signal to be displayed on the column. 13. The element is then turned off while the other rows of the display are successively addressed.2 . 3-4-2-2 Fig 6a AMLCD Element Page 203 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3.
Subsequent cycles are at Page 204 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:24 2002 Displays 3. A voltage is applied to all the row electrodes and its antiphase to all column electrodes. the gas molecules ionize and emit light.4. typically 180V. Plasma (or gas discharge) displays use an electrical discharge in a gas to produce light. the structure is illustrated in Fig 7b. pressure and the electrode gap and type. The field generated across the gas is insufficient to strike a discharge and in order to light a particular pixel the AC voltages on the appropriate row and column are increased for one half cycle.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-2 Fig 6b Representative Cross Section of AMLCD Display Plasma Panels 15. This causes a capacitive current to flow and build up a charge at the insulating layers. but the electrodes are insulated. but which depends on the gas type. The DC technique has no inherent memory and therefore requires constant refreshing.2 . An AC display has a similar basic concept. When the DC potential across the electrodes exceeds a certain value. 17. both DC and AC systems are available.2. 16. A DC display consists essentially of a gas filled space between two electrodes (Fig 7a).
3-4-2-2 Fig 7a DC Plasma Display 3-4-2-2 Fig 7b AC Plasma Display Page 205 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:24 2002 Displays 3. row and column voltage must be selectively lowered.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the normal AC voltage but this is sufficient to maintain the discharge previously created. Electroluminescent displays consist of a layer of phosphor. which glows when an electrical field is applied across it. AC types of plasma displays have inherent memory for each element. Electroluminescent Displays 19.2 . Plasma displays are not generally suitable for producing grey scales and are primarily available in neon orange colour for use in on-off displays. To switch off the pixel.4. Displays may be either AC or DC driven and the structure of each type is somewhat different. sandwiched between two electrodes.2. 18.
as formation lights. A full video capability has been demonstrated for electroluminescent devices and the technique has potential as a replacement for CRTs in helmet mounted displays. the production status of such devices is some way in the future and currently electroluminescent devices are used for instrument panel lighting. All colours are available dependent on the phosphor selected and a full colour display is therefore considered feasible. However.2 . Light is emitted from the CuxS depleted particles when a normal DC voltage is applied.4. The phosphor particles emit light when an AC voltage is applied. 3-4-2-2 Fig 8a Structure of Thick Film AC Electroluminescent Device Page 206 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:24 2002 Displays 3. As an alternative the phosphor can be deposited. normally by evaporation. 21.2. Fig 8a shows the structure of an AC device in which phosphor particles are suspended within a transparent insulating medium (thick film technique) and sandwiched between two electrodes one of which is transparent. as a thin layer onto a dielectric base (thin film technique). Fig 8b shows the construction of a DC device. and for signs in passenger compartments. 22.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 20. The phosphor particles have a coating of either Cu 2S or CU3S (generally termed CUxS) which is removed from the the anode side of the particles in contact with the anode by the application of an initial high current pulse.
Projected and Electronically Displayed Maps Introduction 1.2. Such a map allows very Page 207 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:24 2002 Displays 3. The most widely used navigation aid for low level VMC operations is the topographical map.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-2 Fig 8b Structure of DC Electroluminescent Device Displays Chapter 3 .4.3 .
In a typical PMD. progress is being made in the realm of electronically produced maps. and tend to be driven by an inertial or other automatic navigation system. and image degradation towards the circumference. The image is formed on the second layer which is designed to minimize hot spots towards the centre. Fig 2 shows a simplified diagram of the internal construction of an example PMD. moving and electronic map systems have been devised to overcome these difficulties. and also presents information about the aircraft's position in relation to its surroundings in a relatively easily assimilated way. the use of many moving parts leads to mechanical wear and failure. and there may also be check lists and terminal charts included. the map is photographed in segments onto 35mm film. 6. The most usual technique for displaying a moving map in low-level. The fairly complex electro-mechanical system is one of the drawbacks of current PMDs. In practice some area coverage will usually be sacrificed in order to have a selection of map scales available. Projected Moving Maps 3.2. A typical system is illustrated in Fig 1. matched to the observer's eye. and although reasonable levels of reliability have been achieved. or by applying a correcting distortion during the photographic process.3 .000 map and 50 metres on a 1:50. Early systems used strips of paper maps wound on rollers with an overlying cursor to indicate position. In normal operation the change over from one frame to the next is automatic and is usually accomplished in under three seconds. or wear and tear. The life of the film strip tends to be limited by the currency of the map rather than by fading. the rollers and cursor were driven by outputs from a doppler or radio navigation aid.000 map. in order to increase the resistance to strong ambient light. the use (in small aircraft cockpits) of conventional maps covering large areas presents handling problems. aircraft is the projected map display (PMD) driven by an inertial or mixed inertial navigation system. The map is reproduced onto 35mm film and back-projected using conventional optics to give a bright image on a translucent screen.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 accurate pinpoints to be obtained. layer is a polarizing filter which eliminates reflections from both inside and outside the PMD which might otherwise obscure the image. and a coverage of up to 4 million square miles at a scale of 1:500. Errors due to map scale and convergency limitations are reduced to relatively insignificant levels by automatically applying a correction to the map drive system. and these may become more prevalent in the future. However. It is this aspect which is largely driving the development of purely electronic Page 208 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:25 2002 Displays 3. where it will be seen that the screen has three layers.000 can be reproduced on a 20 metre strip. 4. However. Typical values for the overall accuracy of the system are ¼ nm on a 1:500. The accuracy of a PMD is governed by the accuracy of the driving navigation system. The third. outer. in which scale change is accomplished by increasing magnification rather than by changing the map. The screen is designed to concentrate the image luminance within a limited field of view. The majority of current systems use maps projected from a film strip. high speed.4. 2. 3-4-2-3 Fig 1 Schematic of Projected Map Display (PMD) 5. and by manufacturing tolerances in the electro-mechanical projection system. 7. The first (inner) layer is a Fresnel lens which converts the light cone from the projection lens into a light cylinder in the plane of the operator's eye datum.
one of the images must be distorted to allow them both to be correctly harmonized for simultaneous viewing. and the current trend is to combine the moving map with the display from other electronic systems. Ported CRT. or to incorporate up-to-date tactical information. The PMD overcomes the problem of handling paper maps in a small cockpit. A simplified diagram of a ported CRT system is illustrated in Fig 3. the equipment uses considerable cockpit space for just a single function.2.3 . principally radar. Two techniques are used: a. 3-4-2-3 Fig 3 Combined CRT and Projected Display Using a Ported CRT Page 209 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:25 2002 Displays 3. However. The ported CRT is a conventional CRT with a transparent window in the envelope through which the film image can be optically back-projected on to the phosphor surface. The other disadvantage of the technique is that the film strip is not produced at squadron or station level and cannot be easily amended to reflect late changes. 3-4-2-3 Fig 2 Simplified Diagram of PMD Construction 8. The phosphor must be selected so that it can be used both as a back-projection screen and for writing the electron beam. Since the electron gun and the projector cannot both be on the optical axis of the system.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 alternatives. Combined Displays 9.
4. The optically combined display combines the optical and electronic images using conventional optics and semi-reflecting surfaces.2. The arrangement of an optically combined display is shown in Fig 4. This technique overcomes the distortion problem and makes the phosphor independent of the projection system. 3-4-2-3 Fig 4 Arrangement of an Optically Combined Display Page 210 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:25 2002 Displays 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b.3 . Optically Combined Display.
Head-Up and Helmet Mounted Displays Introduction 1. can be scanned separately from the base topographical map. Examples of existing digital map products are the familiar coastline maps already used in many applications and a new Digital Chart of the World (DCW) product developed by the US Defence Mapping Agency ( this is a world-wide digital version of the 1:1M scale ONC Series of charts). to facilitate more efficient updating. railways. A preferred solution is to replace the projected map by an electronically derived version in one of two forms: a. this can be achieved by the use of head-up or helmet mounted displays. Normal cockpit displays entail the pilot dividing his time between observing the outside world and reading the instruments.unwanted data sets can be de-cluttered from the display as required.4 . Digitized maps. Each can now provide sufficient data storage for a fast jet ground attack mission and can be manufactured with adequate ruggedness to survive the harsh airborne environment. have the advantage that the source data in the form of paper maps is already available at the scales and coverage required. Both optical disc and RAM have been used in UK airborne applications for data storage. These include holographic. Digital maps are those that contain separate feature types as data sets in a digital data base. Displays Chapter 4 . Combined display systems overcome some of the problems of keeping the map up to date. It is a far more satisfactory arrangement if the instruments are read under the same conditions of focus and illumination as the outside world. which are also referred to as "raster" maps. Intervisibility techniques allow for line of sight information and radar shadow areas to be displayed in a dynamic fashion as an aircraft moves across the map. The collimated head-up display (HUD) is a development of the gyro gunsight and is used to project an instrument display at Page 211 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:25 2002 Displays 3. bubble. but also an adjustment to light conditions which are often considerably different. Digital (or vector) Maps. Mission data can be produced in a ground-based facility and transferred to the aircraft at initialization or inserted manually by the aircrew at any stage throughout the mission. only limited data base production has taken place. Various data storage techniques have been investigated. currently. The major disadvantage of the digital map concept is that. Electronically Displayed Maps 11. contours. An electronic scanner is used to scan the paper map in a raster fashion either as a complete entity or as separate overlays. Thus the pilot’s eyes have frequently to switch between reading instruments situated at no more than a few feet away.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 10. Digital (or vector) maps are more efficient in terms of data storage requirements and they offer great flexibility in what is displayed on the screen .2. DTED is used in combination with digitized or digital topographical maps to provide relief information on electronic displays. For example. Most of the displayed maps are digitized versions of the familiar paper originals. Both types of maps allow superimposition of latitude/longitude grids and other mission data. roads. 13. b. This requires not only a change of focus. Both techniques are capable of over-writing the topographical map with cursive symbology thus allowing routes. THE COLLIMATED HEAD-UP DISPLAY Principle 2. restricted airspace and obstructions. but the problems inherent in an electro-mechanical device remain. Another major existing vector series is the 8-nation Digital Land Mass Simulation (DLMS) product. and surveying the outside world. This combines Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) with Digital Feature Analysis Data (DFAD). optical disc and random access memory (RAM). the air information. magnetic. Disadvantages include the fact that a digitized map is expensive in terms of digital storage requirements and also that complex algorithms are required to process and reduce the data for display on small CRTs while still retaining the required detail. Features such as coastlines. and tactical information to be added or amended. woodland etc are constructed in vector format and combined on the display to provide a usable map. including airfields. 12. Digitized (or raster) Maps. which is effectively at infinity. danger areas.4.
altitude. reflective optics have been used. The pilot’s display unit (PDU) incorporates a very bright CRT to ensure that the symbols can be viewed against a very high background brightness. low optical efficiency. 7. In addition. A control unit is provided to allow the pilot to select the appropriate symbols for any particular stage of flight. ADC. In addition to symbolic displays. 3-4-2-4 Fig 1 Block Diagram of Typical Fighter Aircraft HUD Installation 3. As an example. thus shifting the FOV in the vertical plane and increasing the total. In practice the total FOV in azimuth will be extended due to the separation between the pilot’s eyes. and reflected on a glass screen in front of the pilot. heavy components. and optical efficiency. but not the instantaneous.4. equivalent to sunlight on cloud. The symbols are produced in a waveform generator. The optical system in the HUD may be either refractive (lenses and prisms) or diffractive (holographic). after which it is controlled by a photocell to compensate for changes in the illumination of the outside scene. or updating from a visual pinpoint. and velocity. Fig 1 shows a block diagram of a typical HUD installation. The major problem with a limited FOV is that of marking a target.4 . cost. which is at a large angle-off from the aircraft centre line. and the distance between it and the eye (via the combiner). Some PDUs increase the vertical FOV by using a movable combiner glass. Radar. The presented image is collimated. together with navigation and weapon aiming information. for a 12 cm diameter lens at an eye to lens distance of 70 cm. but any advantages in terms of field of view (FOV) have been outweighed by considerations of size. without the need to change eye focus. The symbols may be driven by a variety of aircraft sensors (eg IN. 5. Field of View. ie focused at infinity. The use of refractive optics is still the most common technique although there are disadvantages in terms of restricted field of view. the display brightness can be adjusted manually by the pilot. the single eye FOV will be approximately 10°. the use of holographic technology has the potential to allow sensor imagery to be shown. The reflected output lens acts as a porthole through which the virtual image produced by the HUD is viewed (Fig 2). The reflector. such as LLTV. displayed on a CRT. is semi-transparent and reflects the CRT image while allowing the outside world to be viewed through it. the effect of the porthole and the Page 212 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3. FLIR. A servo mechanism moves the glass. The field of view of a conventional refractive HUD is determined principally by the size of the output lens. or radar. and a further increase will result from small head movements (Fig 3). LRMTS) to provide aircraft attitude. Initially. or combiner glass. so that the CRT symbols and the outside scene can be viewed as a composite image.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the pilot’s eye level.2. Refractive Optics 6. FOV (Fig 4). weight. and bulky. 4.
3-4-2-4 Fig 2 Single Eye Instantaneous Field of View 3-4-2-4 Fig 3 Increased FOV due to Binocular Vision and Head Movment 3-4-2-4 Fig 4 Increasing the Vertical FOV by Moving the Combiner Page 213 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3.2.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 resultant restrictions on head movement can be tedious for the pilot.4 .
General Mode Page 214 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3. leading to a reduction in its life. while at the same time being close enough to the pilot’s eye to yield an acceptable FOV. 9.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 8. Typically only 40% of the light produced by the CRT will reach the pilot’s eye. Light entering from the outside scene may be reduced to about 70% which may cause a significant reduction in forward visibility. they tend to protrude into the cockpit. Compared to the refractive system. The equipment must be installed such that adequate clearance for ejection is maintained.4 .2. Diffractive Optics 10. the holographic combiner has a higher transmission efficiency. Optical Efficiency. and since the output lens and the associated optics must be mounted on the pilot’s side of the combiner. High quality lenses and prisms are heavy and expensive items. The trend in HUD construction is towards the use of diffractive optics in which a holographic element. In any optical system there will be losses in light transmission. 3-4-2-4 Fig 5 Example of Typical UK HUD Symbology . is used as the combiner. Size and Weight. and variable geometry.4. and to compensate for this loss the CRT must be run at a very high output level. improved reflectivity. tuned to the frequency of the CRT light output.
The element can be produced in either a curved or a flat form as necessary to fit the space available in the cockpit and this permits a wider FOV and less intrusion into the ejection line. HUD Symbology 14. 13. A HUD can be designed to portray virtually any information in an infinite variety of formats. Furthermore the symbology may be amended during the lifetime of an aircraft as its role. Fig 5 shows a typical HUD general mode which would be used during all stages of flight except for weapon delivery. It is not possible in this chapter to describe all of the displays available. change. The format used will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Horizon bars.2. b. The combiner is produced by exposing a film of photosensitive emulsion to laser light under specific conditions. 15. while the transmission of other frequencies from the outside world is typically in excess of 90%. with the attendant gains in life. Thus the technique allows CRTs to be run at lower power levels.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 11. representing zero pitch. 12. Aircraft symbol denoting either the fore and aft aircraft axis. The recorded diffraction pattern in the emulsion has the property of acting as a mirror to light of the same wavelength as the laser used in production. Page 215 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3.4 . the aircraft velocity vector. The symbology used is as follows: a. The reflectance of the narrow band of CRT frequencies can reach 80%. and allows the outside scene to be viewed with only minimal reductions in brightness and contrast. and from aircraft type to aircraft type. After development the film is sealed between glass plates. or some computed vector as required by a particular flight mode. while being transparent to light of other wavelengths. rather a typical fast jet format will be illustrated in both a general and a weapon aiming mode.4. or equipments. and the resulting unit is used as the combiner glass.
now a solid line. Continuously Computed Impact Point (CCIP). c. Until then. An example of an air-to-ground weapon aiming mode is shown in Fig 6 with the following symbology: 3-4-2-4 Fig 6 HUD in Target Tracking-Acquisition Mode a. d. and the gap 11 times the pass distance. and. The CCIP represents the point on the ground where the weapons will impact if released at that instant. The top of the line represents the minimum safe pass distance. normally automatically. 17. 16.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. A HUD will have a number of different modes and sub-modes. Time circle.2. The time circle unwinds anti-clockwise from 60 seconds to release (50 seconds to release illustrated). Vertical speed. The values associated with the scale will vary with aircraft type. where it will be stabilized by the system. HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) SYSTEMS Page 216 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3. delivery accuracy can be refined by changing phase and slewing the target bar. The impact line represents the track along which the weapons will fall and the pilot’s task is to fly the aircraft such that the impact line overlies the target position. both as a digital read-out and as a pointer movement indicating rate of change. that the CCIP and target bar coincide before the target reaches the top of the impact line. for safe clearance. Airspeed indication. Impact line. Once the pilot can see the target. e. The gapped target bar represents the system’s computed target position. and gun aiming solutions. either IAS or Mach No. f. or to enable the navigation system to be updated by slewing the symbol to overlie a visual pinpoint. In some systems and modes additional symbols may be used. in which case the figures will be preceded by a letter ‘R’. when the target bar and CCIP coincide. As shown the display indicates barometric height.4 . Pitch bars at 5° intervals with a 1:1 scaling. and others which may be selected manually. for example. but alternatively radar height may be shown. h.4. air-to-air missile aiming. The values associated with the scale will vary with aircraft type. 2 d. the pilot must ensure that the impact line overlies the target bar. g. Angle of attack. The weapon is released. to overlie the target. Height. b. Heading (or track) scale with a superimposed steering bug (∪). to indicate LRMTS pointing and operation. Target bar. some of which will be selected automatically dependent on the mode of operation of the navigation and attack system.
for example. The IIT works on a different principle from the TI and is better suited to adverse weather conditions during night or twilight. The display of thermal imagery (TI) or output from other electro-optical (EO) sensors is provided to the pilot by means of the CRT. some compromise Page 217 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3. select both. In twilight or dawn periods it might be better to present only one sensor at any one time. This is aimed at removing the disadvantage of the Head-up Display (HUD) in that the display is only available to the pilot whilst he is looking at the HUD combiner and not when he looks away. the IIT and TI may be combined. With the increasing complexity of airborne detection and display systems and the associated additional workload on the pilot.4. however. target designation and pilot cueing. Between source and projection. High brightness is required because of the complicated optical train that HMDs use whether the image is displayed on a combiner eyepiece or on the visor.2. To permit aircraft to operate throughout the 24 hour spectrum a HMD normally incorporates a miniature cathode ray tube (CRT) and an image intensifier tube (IIT). HMD systems (often termed Integrated Helmet Systems (IHS)) become an inherent part of the aircraft avionics and weapons systems enabling off boresight weapon aiming. a true IHS will be configured with the day and night capabilities combined as shown in Fig 7. once symbology is projected on to the eyepiece or visor. HMDS technology was first used operationally in attack helicopters where the need to meet ejection safety criteria did not exist. To overcome this. At these times. The TI and IIT images are integrated in Combiner 2 and the resultant image is superimposed on the direct view in 3-4-2-4 Fig 7 IHS Configuration Combiner 1. Miniature CRTs may present the forward-looking infra-red (FLIR) imagery and also provide flight and weapon aiming information in a similar manner to a conventional HUD. pylons or cables become an extreme hazard. Although not yet widespread in use.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 General 18. the TI may be dangerous for the 24 hour mission since the emissivity of natural materials will vary over the period. Thus. A HMD may be designed to allow the pilot to switch between IIT and TI at will. Displays 19. Moreover. transmissivity to the real world is affected. for example. more and more designers are focusing on integrating sensor information into the flying helmet. foreground is not detectable against background and. on demand. There are drawbacks.4 . These HMD systems allow the pilot to benefit from displays of aircraft symbology superimposed. on his normal field of vision. The dichroic coatings necessary for image projection and the laser protection elements reduce real world transmissivity to about 70%. Alone. Clearly. the pathway can attenuate both brightness and definition .affording a resolution of some 50% of that of the human eye. or switch off the flight symbology altogether. A so-called zero contrast (or washout effect) during rainfall is sometimes observed especially during twilight or at dawn.
Wherever possible. 3-4-2-4 Fig 8 Optical Paths and Attenuation 3-4-2-4 Fig 9 Distribution of Components Protection and Comfort 20.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 and adjustment is necessary to provide the right balance of real world transmissivity and symbology brilliance. containing the minimal electronic components. The requirements of the display system have to integrate with Page 218 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Displays 3. Rather they are mounted in a cockpit unit or main equipment bay electronic unit.4 . all electro-optical parts are protected by the helmet shell. is clipped over the personalized helmet. In most cases the display module. Fig 8 shows the combined optical paths and an example of their attenuation. A schematic diagram of the layout is shown in Fig 9.4. thus allowing use by more than one pilot.2. As few electronics as possible are actually located on the helmet.
An exit pupil larger than 15 mm provides a very acceptable system in that if the helmet moves. Optical surfaces are either made of glass or optical plastics. d. Therefore. The exit pupil is the optical ‘window’ through which the superimposed image is viewed. Large exit pupil for flexibility. j. A diagram of a typical IHS is shown in Fig 10.4 . f. 3-4-2-4 Fig 10 A Typical IHS Page 219 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Displays 3.2. Field of view between 35° and 40°.or autocontrast can be selected to counter extremes of ambient light. Exact and easy adjustment of interpupillary distance if exit pupil is restricted. equipment has to be positioned carefully to maintain the optimum helmet C of G and keep the helmet moment of inertia within acceptable limits. The helmet fit.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the flying helmet in such a way that the fundamental properties of the flying helmet are not compromised. No obscuration of IIT and CRT-based images. Whilst helmet comfort is of paramount importance. Parallelism and stability of combiners. i. The potential of eye pointing has yet to be determined but it could provide a more natural method of designating objects. b. g. Losses in the system which depend largely on processing power may result in the display lagging or jumping as the pilot moves his head. The design must take into account the range of interpupillary distances and allow the eye to be positioned in the centre of the exit pupil with a correctly fitting helmet. h. e. a binocular device overcomes binocular rivalry problems. A HMD will not function without a helmet tracking system to determine the pilot’s head position relative to the cockpit. The aim is always to avoid an increase in weight whilst retaining helmet impact resistance. This is reduced by increasing the image refresh rate and introducing predictive algorithms. the wearer does not suddenly lose the image. When respective units are being employed separately the single image is still viewed from two different sources. the HMDS requires the following properties: a. Helmet tracker system with low image lag rates. Parallelism of both IITs. A visor (or visors) to attenuate glare and prevent eye damage from lasers is part of the helmet. Monocular systems are satisfactory for short term tasks or during daytime. An increase in exit pupil necessitates an increase in weight so there has to be a sensible trade-off if comfort is to be maintained. Combiners preferably in one plane but must have high stability. Brightness and contrast are adjustable . Low weight and correct CG for helmet. Overall. and therefore its stability. in general the fitting requirements of HMDs assume more significance. This is essential to avoid an increase in tiredness leading to loss of concentration and for safety in conditions encountered during ejection or during forced landings. Tracking 21. especially at night. For enduring tasks. such as en-route navigation. A binocular capability is preferred to retain depth perception although there are systems which project symbology to one eye only. the natural stability of the eye could de-couple involuntary head motion (due to turbulence for example) from the aiming system. Optimum adjustment of combiners should not change on switching between IIT and CRT channels. Furthermore. the latter having the advantage of lower weight. two CRTs (for the thermal or other imagery) and two IIT units are usually fitted. To give binocular advantage and to cover for failure. although lower figures can be acceptable for specific tasks.4. Properties 22. c. must be such as to maintain the eye(s) within the exit pupil(s).
A position feedback loop ensures that the control applied is proportional to the demand signal. 3-4-3-1 Fig 1 Attitude Hold Loop Page 220 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Autopilot and Flight Director Systems 3.the signal inputs are equal at the moment of engagement and the output of the amplifier is zero.4.3. If the aircraft deviates from its set attitude the two signals are no longer equal and the summing amplifier produces an error signal. Chapter 4. Section 2.Autopilot and Flight Director Systems Introduction 1. Autopilot Control of Aircraft Attitude 2. The attitude store output is compared with the direct attitude signal in a summing amplifier . would impose a considerable work load upon the pilot and in some cases would be impossible. This chapter will examine the practical applications of autopilots to show how the AFCS can be used to alleviate pilot work load and to carry out tasks which. without autopilot assistance. Aircraft attitude information is passed to a memory unit in the amplifier/processor where it is stored.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Autopilot and Flight Director Systems Chapter 1 . The control of aircraft attitude is essential to the manoeuvring of the aircraft by autopilot. The error signal is passed to a demand actuator which moves the appropriate control to return the aircraft to its original attitude. Long term attitude monitoring is usually provided by a displacement gyro system (see Fig 1). Part 2. Automatic flight control systems (AFCS) are discussed in Volume 2.1 . When attitude hold is selected the input to the memory is disconnected so that the recorded attitude becomes a fixed datum.
roll and yaw demand signals are passed directly into the computer/amplifier/servo system. Signals can be derived from terrain following radar or radio altimeters to fly the aircraft automatically at selected heights above the ground. attack or search systems can be used to fly the aircraft in predetermined search and attack patterns. Signals from weapon aiming. b. or ILS localizers. Manual Control Facilities. Automatic Throttle Control 3.4. The automatic throttle control system monitors airspeed and pitch rate against datum parameters set by the pilot or as a product of auto ILS. Pitch. The attitude of an aircraft may be defined by its position in pitch. Inbound or outbound radials can be derived to steer the aircraft towards or away from VOR. or Mach number.3. The system can also control engine power to achieve ideal range or endurance speeds. A three axis autopilot has loops for pitch. roll and yaw demands. (6) Weapon Aiming/Attack/Search Systems. Using these sensors the autopilot is able to fly the aircraft straight and level on a constant heading. Automatic Control Facilities. roll and yaw.1 . (5) Navigation Computers. or weapons aiming and attack systems. Complete automatic control of an aircraft requires an automatic throttle control system so that speed can be controlled during changes of altitude or whilst manoeuvring. TACAN. Signals can be derived to steer the aircraft towards a navigation feature or turning point. Page 221 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Autopilot and Flight Director Systems 3. Autopilot Sensors 4. If the pilot wishes to enter attitude demands manually he can do so by using switches or potentiometers to produce electrical signals which are fed directly to the autopilot as pitch. Datum signals can be produced to fly the aircraft at constant barometric height. The controls for entering demands manually may be on a control panel or on the control column of a fast-jet aircraft. airspeed. TFR. The autopilot responds by operating the appropriate controls to reduce the error signal as described in para 2. The outputs of various aircraft systems can be fed into the autopilot manoeuvring facility by selection. signals may be derived from: (1) Flight Instrument Systems.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 A rate feedback loop controls the rate at which the aircraft responds to the demand signal. The pilot may set a heading or track demand by moving an index marker on the horizontal situation indicator. Manoeuvring the Aircraft 5. (2) Radio Navigation Aids. A heading reference may be a gyro-magnetic compass or an INS. Typically. thus preventing overcontrolling and the possible overstressing of the aircraft. a. roll and yaw rate. Attitude demands may be pilot or autopilot initiated. Datum information for roll and pitch can be provided by vertical gyros and yaw rate information can be provided by lateral accelerometers. (4) Terrain Following Radars and Radio Altimeters. (3) Air Data Systems.
Autopilot safety is ensured by a variety of design features and devices to ensure at least a 'fail-safe' capability.4. Circuits are designed to be as simple as possible and components are used at a fraction of their rated values to ensure high reliability. (3) Control Limit Switches. Routine monitoring information is usually displayed on analogue gauges .although in some modern systems these are digitally produced and shown on a CRT. Autopilot Safety 6. The instinctive cut-out is positioned on the control column and can be quickly and easily operated to disengage the autopilot giving full manual control authority to the pilot. or of excursions of engine parameters outside limits. An autopilot must not be capable of endangering the aircraft or its crew. These switches are able to prevent any damage from servo runaway. Flight information systems range from simple 2 instrument displays to fully processed electronic head-up or head-down displays. or audio signals. Excess torque devices are used either to prevent overstressing of the aircraft or to detect excessive current demands such as might occur if an electrical servo was attempting to overcome a control restriction. The rate and angle limiters prevent the overstressing of the aircraft by limiting the rate of response or angle achievable in any channel.4. the accuracy of datum information on attitude and heading and the serviceability states of systems which provide inputs to the autopilot. Indications of failures. It is therefore most important to have a comprehensive and accurate feedback to the crew of information relating to the performance of the engine. switching circuits are given clearly defined priorities to avoid inadvertent selection of dangerous flight configurations and to avoid selection of incompatible flight control modes.Engine Instruments Introduction 1. eg warning lights. Flight Information System 7. Primary flight information showing attitude and heading. flags. Autopilots include a flight information system which provides aircrew with an integrated presentation of: a. Commonly monitored functions are power supplies. (2) Rate and Angle Limiters. An aero-engine is an expensive item and its failure in flight could have serious safety implications. Safety Devices. Flight director information showing indices and markers which indicate the horizontal and vertical control required to regain a demanded flight path. Design Features. Features and devices vary greatly but typical examples are: a.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 The ability to use these systems enables the pilot to select the appropriate inputs to the autopilot for a very wide range of flying activities from a relatively undemanding navigation task to very demanding low level navigation and attack mission. Control limit switches are microswitches which operate when a control reaches the end of its allowable travel. Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments Chapter 1 . The following safety devices are typical: (1) Pilot's Instinctive Cut-out. possibly at night or in bad weather. The system enables the pilot to fly the aircraft manually to meet the autopilot demands. b. are usually in the form of discrete displays. (5) Monitoring Facilities. b. (4) Excess Torque Devices. or to check that the autopilot is following the demands correctly. Page 222 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.1 . Most autopilot functions are continuously monitored by a built-in test equipment system which is able to generate warnings and initiate automatic reversionary modes. Additionally.
Rotation of the magnet induces a three-phase voltage in the stator windings. An extension of the synchronous motor shaft carries a four-pole permanent magnet which revolves inside a copper alloy drag cup. The rotation of the permanent magnet produces eddy currents in the cup which in turn set up magnetic fields.4. The most common method of measuring engine spool speed is by a tachogenerator driven from the external wheelcase. 3-4-4-1 Fig 1 Tachometer Indicator Mechanism 3-4-4-1 Fig 2 Percentage rpm Indicator Page 223 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:28 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.4. the speed of which is governed by the input frequency from the generator. These fields interact with the field of the permanent magnet causing a torque which turns the cup and its attached shaft.1 . the frequency of this voltage being proportional to the engine speed. The complete arrangement is shown schematically in Fig 1. The signal is fed to an indicator which contains a synchronous motor. The torque is balanced by a hair spring and the shaft rotation is transmitted to the movement of a pointer over a dial through an appropriate gearing system. A typical tachogenerator contains a three-phase stator and a two-pole permanent magnet rotor. Engine speed is usually shown as a percentage of maximum rpm (Fig 2). 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Engine Spool Speed 2.
Exhaust Gas Temperature 5. The operating temperature of a turbine has a direct effect on its life and it is therefore essential that the temperature is Page 224 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:28 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.4. In some multi-spool engines without a gearbox driven from the LP or IP spool.1 . a variable reluctance speed probe located on the compressor or exhaust casing can be used with a phonic wheel machined into the spool to provide an electric current which is proportional to spool rpm (Fig 3 illustrates such an arrangement).4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-4-1 Fig 3 Variable Reluctance Speed Probe and Phonic Wheel 4. Multi-spool engines require gauges to indicate different spool speeds and in some installations this is achieved by switching one gauge between separate spool speed generator signals thus obviating the need for two or more rpm gauges per engine.
A typical double element thermocouple installation is illustrated in Fig 4. and a suitable limit set for the measured value that will ensure that the turbine inlet temperature limit will not be exceeded. a cold junction senses ambient air temperature as a reference point. Rapid Response Type. b. When the exhaust gas temperature is measured using thermocouples. 3-4-4-1 Fig 4 A Typical Double Element Thermocouple System Page 225 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:28 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. stagnation and rapid response: a. Engines fitted with pyrometers may also have a single thermocouple to measure the exhaust gas temperature during engine start-up as the pyrometer is normally calibrated only for the normal operating range of the engine. ie idle to maximum rpm. This stagnation chamber reduces the gas velocity past the hot junction and avoids an adiabatic temperature rise on contact with the thermocouple. By knowing the behaviour of the gas through the turbine. an automatic compensator is fitted either to the instrument or elsewhere in the circuit. in this case the turbine blade (Fig 5). To ensure that variations in the temperature of the cold junction do not affect the indicated temperature. several are usually connected in series and positioned in the gas stream to give a representative average temperature.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 maintained within specified limits. Because of the high temperatures of the gas entering the turbine it is impractical to make direct measurements. The gases follow a straight path past the hot junction.4. 6. Stagnation Type.1 . the temperature loss can be calculated. The thermocouple consists of two conductor wires. This is known as the hot junction. Pyrometers are prone to ‘sooting’ and require cleaning and calibration at regular intervals. or by measuring the blade temperature using a pyrometer (See also Vol 8 Pt 2 Sect 1 Chap 2). The rapid response type of thermocouple is used on turboprop engines where the exhaust gases have a comparatively low velocity. mounted in a ceramic insulator which is housed in a protective metal sheath.4. There are two main types of thermocouple in use. The radiated energy is focused onto a photo-voltaic cell and the DC voltage produced is amplified and passed to control and indication circuits. In the stagnation type the sheath has a hole near its tip for the exhaust gas to enter and an exit hole staggered further away from the tip and of smaller diameter thus forcing the gas to flow through a Z-shaped passage past the elements of the thermocouple. The optical radiation pyrometer develops an electro-motive force (EMF) proportional to the energy radiated from the surface at which the pyrometer is directed. 8. In practice the temperature of the gas is measured downstream of the turbine inlet either by thermocouples at the exit to the turbine in the jet pipe. 7. usually made of nickel-chromium and nickel-aluminium respectively.
4. Oil plays the vital role within the engine of lubricating bearings and it is essential that the oil is cooled and is supplied at the Page 226 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:28 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-4-1 Fig 5 Optical Radiation Pyrometer Oil System 9.1 .
The pressure indicator may be either a dial and pointer type. or a flag type showing the pressure as high. and an indicator (Fig 6). 3-4-4-1 Fig 6 A Phase Comparison Torquemeter 3-4-4-1 Fig 7 Torquemeter Transmitter Page 227 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:29 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. and above these are situated pick-up assemblies consisting of permanent magnets on top of a coil (Fig 7). or low. The torquemeter assembly comprises two concentric shafts. Engine Torque 10. Oil pressure is also sensed upstream of the bearings by a sensor which detects either direct changes in pressure or changes in the difference between engine feed and return oil pressure. Changes in temperature of the oil cause changes in the electrical resistance of the sensor and thus alterations of current to the indicator.1 . There are toothed gear wheels on both shafts. Typical Electrical Torquemeter 11.4. the teeth on the exciter wheels cut the magnetic lines of flux around the magnet. This movement will have no effect on the outer datum shaft and thus its toothed wheel will have an angular displacement relative to that on the drive shaft.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 correct pressure if failures are to be avoided. A typical electrical torquemeter system consists of a torquemeter assembly. a phase detector. dependent on the phase difference. Under no-load conditions the toothed wheels on the two shafts turn with no relative movement between them and there is no difference in the output signals from the pick-ups. The outer datum shaft is connected to the engine output only. As torque is applied and increased the output shaft will twist along its length. normal. the inner of which is the shaft connecting the drive from the engine to the propeller reduction gear. This angular displacement is detected by the pick-up assembly as a phase difference in the output signal. to drive the pilot’s indicator. As it is not possible to estimate the power being produced by a turboprop engine from considerations of turbine gas temperature and engine rpm alone. Torquemeters may be electrical or hydraulic. As the gear turns. all turboprop and helicopter installations include a system for measuring the torque being delivered to the propeller or rotor. Oil temperature is taken by a temperature sensitive element fitted in the oil system upstream of the bearings. and twist in this shaft is proportional to torque. inducing an EMF in the windings of the pick-up coil. A phase comparator generates a signal.4.
This gear meshes with the input bevel gear helical drive. The meshing of these two gears can be compared to pushing two ramps together. Thus the two gears tend to move apart in opposite linear motions. the harder one pushes against the other. The power turbine from the engine is connected by way of a drive shaft to the input section of the main gear-box via a high speed input gear (see Fig 8). A hydraulic torquemeter mechanism is built into the main gear-box input section. The high speed input gear drives a spur gear on a free-wheel unit which in turn drives a helical gear. but movement is allowed on the free-wheel unit helical gear.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Typical Hydraulic Torquemeter 12. the further up the surface it slides. 3-4-4-1 Fig 8 Hydraulic Torquemeter System Page 228 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:29 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.4.1 .4. The input bevel gear is prevented from moving axially by means of tapered rollers.
When the oil pressure acting upon the piston in the chamber is sufficient to overcome the movement of the free-wheel unit it will tend to close off the valve. Page 229 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:29 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.1 . but as torque is applied the valve will start to open allowing some of the high pressure oil to enter the piston chamber.4. thus retaining a specific oil pressure in the chamber. Although vibration monitoring can be based on measuring acceleration or displacement. Therefore all the gear reaction is taken up by the free-wheel unit assembly. 14. Experience has shown that a vibration monitor installed on an engine is able to detect mechanical defects in rotating parts at a very early stage. thus permitting corrective action to be taken before extensive damage occurs. The free-wheel unit assembly is mounted in straight roller bearings which allow the entire gear assembly to move linearly. current practice tends towards the measurement of velocity amplitude using a seismic accelerometer working on the piezo-electric principle. Cockpit indications may be in the form of gauges. Increasing the torque will cause the valve to open again thereby increasing the oil pressure in the chamber.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 13. This bearing allows the piston to remain rotationally fixed but allows the free-wheel unit to rotate. If no torque is being applied the torquemeter valve will be closed. 16. A torquemeter valve is spring loaded against this piston. Vibration 15. This fine balance of shaft movement to oil pressure is continuously maintained. A pump supplies oil under pressure to the torquemeter valve. As the unit moves forward (in the direction of the arrow) it carries with it a piston that is mounted on the outer race of a ball-bearing. The piston chamber is connected to an external pressure transmitter which in turn operates a cockpit torquemeter gauge indicating percentage of torque.4. This system often has input shafts from two engines and two torquemeter mechanisms making it possible to measure and match the torque applied by each engine so that each is carrying an equal load. the oil pressure in the chamber being proportional to the valve movement which in turn is proportional to the torque applied to the free-wheel unit. Compared to an internal combustion engine. and a change in vibration due to the impending failure of a component part may be so slight as to pass unnoticed by the crew. or as warning lights or audio signals triggered when a preset limit is exceeded. At least two accelerometers are required per engine so that radial and transverse vibrations can be measured. a gas turbine is an extremely smooth running power generator.
not all of the indicated fuel may be available for use. although in some older.as the fall in fuel level at one end of the tank is compensated for by the rise at the other end Page 230 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:29 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments Chapter 2 . Each tank unit contains a capacitor consisting of two vertical concentric tubes which are separated by a gap filled with fuel. Fig 1 shows a diagram of a typical system electrical circuit. thereby altering the impedance of the tank unit. The same process takes place in the control circuit. This ensures that accuracy is maintained despite aircraft attitude changes . as the control condenser has a fixed value.4. the ratio of fuel to air in the gap decreases. and the only type described here.4. Fuel contents gauges indicate the amount of fuel contained in the aircraft tanks. As the fuel level in the tank falls. except that. the current in the coil remains constant.within specified limits . Two units are fitted in each tank and connected in parallel. are of the ‘pacitor’ type which rely on the change to the electrical impedance of a condenser when the substance between the plates is varied. and other engineering considerations. 3-4-4-2 Fig 1 Pacitor Fuel Gauge 4. the characteristics of any particular aircraft type will be found in the Aircrew Manual.Miscellaneous Instruments Fuel Content Gauges 1. ie gallons. The corresponding alternating current induced in the secondary winding is converted to direct current by a rectifier and then fed to the deflection coil in the indicator. air. 2. and light piston aircraft gauges may show contents in volumetric terms. 3. Variations in the supply voltage affect both circuits so that the ratio of control coil current to deflection coil current remains constant for a given tank unit impedance. or both. The current practice is for gauges to be calibrated in units of mass (kilograms). The tank unit varies the current flowing in the transformer primary winding to which it is connected. The majority of gauges. Due to the design of the tanks.2 .
The rotation rate is detected by an electrical pick-off which passes an electrical signal to the indicator. A bleed vent provides compensation for changes in viscosity at low temperatures. calibration error may vary widely since it is caused by inconsistences in the electrical conducting property of the fuel. a transmitter and an indicator. Calibration error is reduced by incorporating a reference condenser into the electrical circuit. The fuel flows through the chamber and impinges on the vane deflecting it through an angle which is proportional to the rate of mass flow. Whereas instrument and installation errors are virtually constant for any one gauge. 3-4-4-2 Fig 2 Compensation for Tilt in the Pacitor System Fuel Flowmeters 6. The transmitter may be one of two types. In the gravimetric transmitter a chamber contains a measuring device consisting of a vane restrained by a calibrated spring. 5. There are two components. Gauges are normally calibrated to a formula using the mean of the highest and lowest values in permittivity found in the range of permitted fuels together with an approximate density value. Flow Transmitter. In the volumetric type the fuel flows through a chamber containing a rotor which turns at a rate dependent upon the fuel flow rate. An increase in density results in an increase in permittivity and so the unit corrects for density error. 7.2 . Fuel flowmeters measure the amount of fuel being delivered to the engine.4. and calibration errors. The angle of the vane is detected by a pick-off and passed as an electrical signal to the indicator. Fuel gauges are subject to instrument errors. installation errors.4. This unit consists of a condenser placed in the base of the tank so that it is always totally immersed in fuel and its capacitance is determined by the permittivity of the fuel.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 (Fig 2). Page 231 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.
Unit is locked up. Green light or flag . Chap 1).Unit locked down. as follows: a. Although there may be individual warning devices for some aircraft systems. Calibrated Position Indicators 11. Warning systems are therefore incorporated to indicate to the crew if there is a malfunction so that appropriate action can be taken. Some systems incorporate integrating circuits which enable total fuel used to be displayed on veeder counters. tailplanes.4. 10. operated by microswitches fitted to the undercarriage locks.Unit is unlocked. No light or flag . each showing the status of an individual undercarriage unit. Flow Indicator. The indicator incorporates electrical circuits which convert the signal from the transmitter into either an analogue or digital display of flow rate. Pointer and scale type indicators are used to show the position of flaps. c. 3-4-4-2 Fig 3 Desynn Operated Flap Position Indicator Central Warning System 12.4. provided that power is available. Undercarriage Indicator 9. b. or may be actuated if a particular stage of flap is selected with the undercarriage retracted. the tendency is to Page 232 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. The majority of these indicators are actuated by desynn transmission systems (see Part 3. The failure of one of the vital systems in an aircraft can prejudice the success of the flight and may lead to the loss of or damage to an aircraft. etc. or electro-mechanical flags. Typically it will be triggered when the throttle is closed beyond a pre-determined point with the undercarriage not locked down.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 8. A typical indicator for flap position is shown in Fig 3. Red light or flag . Sect 1. trimming surfaces. The indicator comprises a series of lights. The detailed design of undercarriage indicators varies between aircraft type but the underlying principle is universal. If a volumetric transmitter is used a value of fuel density has to be manually set into the unit so that a mass flow rate can be indicated.2 . Some aircraft are fitted with a visual or audio warning system operating in conjunction with the undercarriage indicator.
failure of a secondary system may or may not initiate these additional warnings dependent on the aircraft type and particular failure.4. The warnings are divided into primary and secondary warnings. Fatigue Meter 15. being illuminated red. The basic mechanism is illustrated in Fig 5. and when the acceleration force lessens by a significant amount a release circuit allows the counter to record. As the wiper passes a selected segment a circuit is completed to ‘cock’ that counter. and lamps (but not the systems from which the warnings are derived). Operation of a test switch tests the warning system. The effects of acceleration forces on an airframe and the principles of operation of a cockpit accelerometer are covered in Vol 1 Pt 1 Sect 2 Chap 2 and in this volume Pt 2 Sect 3 Chap 3 respectively.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 incorporate all warnings on to one central warning panel (CWP). the secondary spring and fusee chain cause the wiper brush to rotate over the commutator. Failure of a primary system will in addition illuminate red ‘attention getter’ flashing lights in the cockpit together with an audio warning. and not the smaller fluctuations which do not cause fatigue damage. In many installations the CWP will also house an engine fire warning light and extinguisher operating button (as illustrated in the example at Fig 4). and is normally activated and deactivated by an airspeed switch. captions. The meter is only required to operate in flight. which normally demand immediate action. mounted close to the aircraft C of G. 3-4-4-2 Fig 5 Basic Fatigue Meter Mechanism Page 233 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.2 . This arrangement ensures that only the main acceleration values are taken into account. A fatigue meter is a counting accelerometer. Fig 6 shows the fatigue meter presentation from which details may be entered in a Fatigue Calculation Sheet. the purpose of which is to record the number of times that each of 8 pre-determined values of acceleration normal to the flight path are exceeded. and the secondary amber. 13. As acceleration forces move the mass up or down. 3-4-4-2 Fig 4 Typical Central Warning Panel 14. The scope of the warnings and their layout vary from aircraft to aircraft but a typical example is illustrated in Fig 4. the primary. CWPs do vary significantly from aircraft to aircraft and it is essential that the specific Aircrew Manual is consulted to clarify the functioning of any system.4.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-4-2 Fig 6 Fatigue Meter Counter Unit Page 234 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.4.2 .4.
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Page 235 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.2 .4.4.