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ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

UNIT 5
S.PRAVEENA 2009113027

Isometric and perspective projections


Principles of isometric projection Isometric scale Isometric projections of simple solids , truncated prisms ,

pyramids , cylinders and cones. Principles of perspective projections Projections of prisms , pyramids and cylinders by visual ray and vanishing point methods.

Isometric Projection
The term "isometric" comes

from the Greek for "equal measure", reflecting that the scale along each axis of the projection is the same (unlike some other forms of graphical projection). Isometric projection is a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering drawings.

Isometric Projection

It is an axonometric projection

in which the three coordinate axes appear equally foreshortened and the angles between any two of them are 120 degrees.
Isometric Drawings are the

quickest and easiest of all pictorials to draw and are therefore the most commonly used.

Isometric scale
It is necessary to convert true lengths into isometric lengths

before drawing an isometric projection.


This would be rendered easy if some sort of conversion

scale is constructed and lengths measured thereon.


Such a scale wherein isometric lengths corresponding to

true lengths are available is called isometric scale.


Isometric length = 0.82 X true length

Isometric view
The isometric drawing is drawn using 100% true length measurements on the height, width, and depth axes. Isometric view is easy to drawn and less time cosuming.

Isometric projection
In isometric projections the height, width and depth are displayed at 82% of their true length. Isometric projection is more time consuming and more difficult than isometric view.

Applications Isometric projection


Isometric projections, as any other pictorial drawings are

used to supplement the orthographic views .


Piping networks for easy understanding of relative

positions of various pipe sections.


Pictorial drawings are extensively used in preparing

advertisement hoardings , catalogues of products like instruments, meters and furniture.

Applications Isometric projection


For visualizing web sites. Widely used by Architects property designers. The most common type of pictorial drawing used in the

drafting industry is the isometric drawing.


In the fields of computer and video games and pixel art.

Perspective projections

Definition: When the human eye views a scene, objects in the distance appear smaller than objects close by - this is known as perspective.

characteristic features of perspective: 1. Smaller as their distance from the observer increases 2. Foreshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along the line of sight are relatively shorter than dimensions across the line of sight

Live examples of perspective views


The typical example is a set of train tracks. If one stands at one end of central corridor of a long

building , the lines of pillars on both sides of the corridor will appear to be converging.

Methods Perspective projection


Projection method or visual ray method Vanishing point method Direct method

Projection method or visual ray method: The perspective view is drawn by using either the top and front view or the top view and the end view of the visual rays. Vanishing point method: Vanishing points to which the edges of the object converge are used.

Projection method or visual ray method

Applications Perspective Projection


A knowledge of perspective is necessary in convincingly

depicting an object and space in any realistic or nonrealistic drawing, especially in the fields of Advertising, Architecture, Interior Design, Animation &

Cartooning, Graphic Design, Illustration, Live Action &


Theater , Industrial Design and the Fine Arts.
Artists use perspective drawing to make the work more

realistic.

Questions
1. The picture drawn with true lengths is called .. A) Isometric view B) Isometric projection Ans : A) Isometric view 2. Isometric length = .. X true length A) 0.72 B) 0.82 C) 0.92 Ans : B) 0.82

3. How many methods are used for obtaining the perspective view of an object? A) 1 B) 4 C) 3 Ans: 3 4. Mention some live examples of perspective views? 1. set of train tracks. 2.corridor of a long building.

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