# Production Planning and Control

Production planning categories.

Scheduling. Sequencing tool
 We

have seen how to sequence the operations to get the minimum completion time with 2 machines.  Now let us see how to sequence the jobs when we have 3 machines.  Should we recap the previous method?  Yes NO.

Scheduling. Sequencing
 Suppose

we have 3 machines M1, M2, and M3. Also the order of the Machines is M1 —M2—M3.  The sequence of jobs can be done on this system only and only if at least one of the following conditions is satisfied.  The Conditions are:-

Scheduling. Sequencing
1.

2.

Smallest processing time of any job on machine M1 is greater than or equal to Maximum process time of any job on machine M2. OR Smallest processing time of any job on machine M3 is greater than or equal to Maximum process time of any job on machine M2.

Scheduling. Sequencing
 

Let see the same with an illustrative example. Find the minimum total time in hours required to complete the following jobs on 3 machines. In the order M1—M2—M3. A 5 2 3 7 1 7 B 6 4 5 C 9 5 6 D 5 3 7 E

Job/ Mach M1 M2 M3

Scheduling. Sequencing

Solution. Find the Minimum time on Machine M1 = 5hrs. Maximum time on Machine M2 = 5hrs. Minimum time on Machine M3 = 3hrs.

 4. 5. 6.

Scheduling. Sequencing
 Then

compare Min time on M1 is it(> or =) Max. time on M2. Or Min time on M3 is it(> or =) Max. time on M2.  If any one of the condition is true, the you can proceed ahead, or else there is no optimal solution for this problem.

Scheduling. Sequencing
 If

any of the condition is satisfied,  Then we need to add various jobs on M1 and M2 first and after that add jobs on M2 and M3.
Jobs-> A Mach. M1&M2 7 M2&M3 5 B 8 8 C 10 9 D 14 11 E 8 10

Scheduling. Sequencing
 Now

we continue as if we have 2 machines and find the optimal sequence as in previous problems.  Same rule, Min on M1 to the left and min of M2 on right. Optimal sequence is as follows.
E B D C A

Scheduling. Sequencing

Solution Ma Ti 0 5 12 21 27 chi Pt 5 7 9 6 5 1 To 5 12 21 27 32 ma Ti 5 12 21 27 32 chi Pt 3 1 5 4 2 2 To 8 13 26 31 34 Ma Idt Ti 5 8 4 15 8 26 1 32 1 37 ch Pt 7 7 6 5 3 ine To 15 22 32 37 40 3 Idt 8 4

Mc Jb E B D C A

Scheduling. Sequencing tool

Class assignment.

JOB/ A Mach. M1 M2 M3 4 6 8

B 8 3 9

C 3 7 9

D 6 2 8

E 7 8 8

F 5 4 9

Scheduling. Gantt Chart tool
 Gantt 

Charts. Gives the details about planned production and actual performance over a period of time Its an imp. tool to schedule a project and represent its progress report. It is a rectangular chart divided by parallel horizontal and vertical lines.

Scheduling. Gantt Chart tool. Rules observed.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Vertical lines divide the horizontal scale into time units. (Hrs., days, weeks, months) Width of the column is proportional to duration of activity. Flows from left to right. Various activities are listed from top to bottom. The horizontal bar shows the progress of work expected and completed.

Scheduling. Gantt Chart.
 Situation.  Let

there be an operation A which should start on 5th day of a month, finish on 14th day, and another operation should start on 9th day and finish on 20th day of the same sequence. It is observed that only 50% of A work is completed on 11th day while operation B was only 30% complete up to 11th day. Draw Gantt chart for the same.

Scheduling.
 For

solution see on board.

 Class

assignment.  Draw Gantt chart for situation no.1 in sequencing tool.  PROBLEM

Scheduling. Network Analysis.
    

Network Mgt has to plan variety of tasks and situation. Some are repetitive and others are NOT. Tech of sequencing and Gantt chart cannot be applied as these task are complicated. These non-repetitive and complicated tasks have special characteristics.

Scheduling. Network Analysis.
 2. 3. 4. 5.

The special characteristic of these tasks are: Fixed starting and finishing times. Non-repetitive in nature. Numerous operations and activities are involved to complete the task. Duration of activities can be accurately or approximately determined.

Scheduling. Network Analysis.
  3. 4. 5. 6.

Network is a graphical representation of the interdependent activities. Basic terminology and symbols. Activity Dummy activity Events or operations (Margining or Bursting) Avoid loops and dangling.

Scheduling. Network Analysis.
 Network   

analysis. Study of Network Diagrams is known as Network Analysis. Technique of network analysis in study of project is one of the most promising strategy. These techniques are beneficial and effective in closing the gap between the PROMISE and PERFORMANCE.

Scheduling. Network Analysis.
 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Objectives. To complete the project in stipulated time. OUR Min of cost and time required. Min of idle resources and inventory. Identify bottle necks and focus on critical activity. Reduce the cost of setup and changeovers.

Scheduling. Network Analysis.
 Importance.

(Important characteristics)  As same as Objectives…  Lets have a look.

Scheduling. Network Analysis.
 

3. 4. 5. 6.

Applications of Networks. Basically applied on large-scale complicated projects involving admin problems. Const. of building, dam, factories, roads. Manufacturing of ships airplanes. Public works and defense operations. In factories with voluminous production.

Scheduling. Network Analysis.
 Tools  CPM,

of Network Analysis.

Critical Path Method.
 PERT,

Program Evaluation Review Technique.

Scheduling. NW. CPM
 CPM    

(Critical Path Method.) In NW many activities from start to end. Main obj of NWA is to know min pos time. Done by determining Critical Path, i.e sequence of activity taking the longest time. Its called Critical path because any delay in this activities of this would cause delay in whole process.

Scheduling. NW. CPM
 2. 3. 4. 5.

Objectives of CPM Determine route between the operations. Locate obstacles and difficulties involved in production process. Assign starting time and finishing time for each operation. Find critical and non-critical path and min time duration.

Scheduling. NW. CPM
 2. 3. 4. 5.

Advantages of CPM It is analytical and helps to achieve the project objectives. Identify the critical element and pay more attention to it. Avoid waste of time, money and energy on unimportant activity. It paves a Standard method for calculating costs, plans and schedules.

Scheduling. NW. CPM
 Time

estimates to find the critical path.

 

Earliest Start Time (EST) Latest Finish Time (LFT)

Scheduling. NW. PERT
 Project  

(PERT) CPM and PERT are modern techniques of network analysis for planning and control. In CPM and PERT the project to be planned is broken into interdependent activities and the network is constructed to depict their relationships. PERT and CPM are Similar.

Evaluation Review Technique

Scheduling. NW. PERT
 CPM

is applied when the duration of activity can be determined by past exp or records.  Present day system is very uncertain and so exact duration of the each activity is difficult to determine. Here PERT is used.  Basic difference in methodology is
CPM------- Importance to  Activities  PERT------ Importance to  Events.

Scheduling. NW. PERT
 2. 3.

5. 6.

Features of PERT Draws the network diagram for project. 3 time estimates are used. Viz. Optimistic, Normal and Pessimistic. The 3 time estimates are used to calculate the expected time of each activity. Critical path and Slack time are computed.

Scheduling. NW. PERT
 2.

3.

Contd.. The 3 time estimates are given by person in charge of operation, which are based on Experience and Judgment. The time are assumed to follow beta distribution.

Scheduling. NW. PERT
 Optimistic

Time:- The shortest possible time to complete an activity without any delay.  Normal Time:- This time is most often required to perform an activity with the assumption of few setbacks or lapse.  Pessimistic Time:- It is the longest time for accomplishment of an event under adverse conditions.

Scheduling. NW. PERT
 Formulae  Mean

for calculation.

= t1 + 4t2 + t3 / 6

with  Variance = (t3-t1/6)2

Scheduling. NW. PERT
 

Limitations of PERT Expected time and variances are only approx. values which may not be true. The assumption of beta distribution is difficult to be valid in practice.

Scheduling. Run-Out Approach
 RUN-OUT  

 

Approach This method is applicable to production that is geared up to inventory level. It is demand oriented and tries to minimize stock out by assigning the highest priority to items, which are in danger of running out. Calculation is simple. Method. (C on board)

Management must know when a particular machine is available for operation. For this, info on machines and list of works is made. Evaluation done by planning staff, regarding capacity and its work load.

 Definition

Loading can be defined as a study of relationship between load and capacity at the work places where the work is done.

Loading gives complete and correct info about no. of machines and their operating characteristics like speed, capacity and capability. The info is used to calculate the diff between work and actual capacity & then determine whether the

 2. 3. 4. 5.

Objectives of loading. Plan new work order on basis of spare capacity. Balance the workload. Maintain the delivery promises. To check the feasibility of production programs.

3. 4. 5.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Used for order of finite operations with varying order (Sequence) of operation. Find earliest date and hours required and that can be scheduled on each operation. Determine reqd. time to complete. No delay Schedule bottle-neck operation ASAP. Schedule Subsequent operations ASAP.

 Machine   

loading. Use the info from schedules to prepare the machine load chart. It gives the time for which the machine is busy for different works. Shows the machine capacity and spare capacity to avoid it and reduce the idle resource. Ultimately reduce the costs.

Charts. Load chart shows the work assigned to various departments, machines, components and tools. During the period of heavy load the information of the load chart is used for the following purposes.