POWER FACTOR MEASUREMENT & CORRECTION

HI-REL ELECTRONICS PVT. LTD.

Prepared By:
Shyamal Barot

Guided By:
Mr.Rajni Solanki (Head of testing dept.)

INTRODUCTION TO UPS  

Most of the people take the mains AC supply for granted and use it almost casually without giving the slightest through to its Inherent defects and danger posed to sophisticated and sensitive electronic instruments. For ordinary household applications such as lamps, fans, tubes television, the mains AC supply doesn¶t make much of difference, but when used for computers, medical equipment and telecommunication system, a clean, stable and interruption free power supply is of outmost importance. In order to protect a sensitive system from various power related problems, an alternative power source is required that can switch in top operation immediately when disruption occur. An UPS is just as alternative source.

WHAT IS UPS? 

UPS come in many different sizes and shapes. The sizes of the UPS us primarily dictated by the size of the battery; the larger the battery, the more time your equipment can run on battery power before shutting down. Larger units not only can power equipment for more units, they can also handle a larger total demand of power.

UPS TOPOLOGY
There are basically 3 types of UPS topology: 
 

OFF Line UPS Line Interactive UPS ON Line

OFFLINE UPS

OFF LINE UPS
y

The off-line UPS had been resulted to provide a smaller and lighter UPS which is also more affordable. The off-line UPS has the utility power line as the priority power source where the inverter is only an off-line standby power. This means that the critical load will receive power from utility directly all the times except when power failure occurs . The inverter will then supply the power to load. The main difference between online UPS and an off line UPS is that the inverter in an off-line UPS does not supply the load most of the times and also the existence of the change over switch in the off-line UPS.

LINE INTERACTIVE UPS 

The line interactive UPS is basically very much like the Off- Line UPS where the utility power supplies the critical load directly during the normal operation. In a line interactive system, the utility power will go through 1 to 2 stages of filter aimed at trying to filter off some unwanted noise.

LINE INTERACTIVE UPS

LINE INTERACTIVE UPS 

The voltage booster is incorporated to regulate the output voltage during normal operation. This also result in a much wider input operating window of voltage ,typically -30 % to +10% of the nominal voltage making the Line -Interactive UPS more suitable for locations where under-voltage problem is persistent

ON LINE UPS 

Conversion UPS. AC power from the utility On line UPS also sometimes called Double supply is fed into the rectifier /charger to be converted in to DC. This DC will maintain the charge on the battery and at the same time supply DC power to the inverter. The inverter will then invert the DC source to become an AC supply for the critical load.

ON line UPS

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF UPS

MAINS DISTRIBUTION MODULE 

It distributes mai9n and/or generates power to the required facility and also acts as input supply for the ups. This supply can be either single phase of three phase depending upon the type of UPS being used.

AUXILIARY MODULE
It precise terms an auxiliary module is nothing but a voltage stabilizer which is connected to alternator main (mainly generator). It helps in the system operation when the inverter fails of if some work has to be carried out on the UPS itself. The installation of the auxiliary module is to ensure a trouble free AC supply when during the failure of UPS. The voltage stabilizer is in the form of a static type of servo type mechanism. 

UPS MODULE
These are the heart of the UPS system and consist of the following components. Rectifier/charger Inverter Battery Static switch Manual bypass switch  

   

1. Rectifier /Charger section:-

Rectifier/charger  

Incoming AC supply is converted to DC through phase controlled rectifiers. The rectifiers operate according to the constant voltage current limiting principle and shall incorporate a "Soft Start" feature to gradually accept load on initial energizing. The rectifier section of the UPS system is capable of precise regulation to prevent damage battery.

Inverter

This section converts the D.C. power to a regulated A.C.The inverter employed is of the PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) type. IGBTS are used to switch the DC supply at frequency 6KHz to 12KHz depending upon the rating. By switching a train of pulse through one IGBT bridge circuit and alternatively through second IGBT circuit at the required output frequency, the output sine wave build-up.

Static-switch 

BATTERY 

The battery is connected directly across the output of the rectifier/charger and is permanently on float mode. It stores energy while mains supply is present. It delivers energy to the inverter when mains supply is absent.

INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT & ITS FUNDAMENTALS
The title of the project is ³Power Factor Measurement and Correction using Microcontroller´ 
   

In HI-REL there are no power factor measurement and correction circuit. Hence as the requirement of company, they given this project. It is modified project as we use very advance technology to calculate the power factor. Our project is very useful in reducing energy losses It has very wide application area as it can be used anywhere in the power electronic estate It gives the clear picture of the load of the factory and we can see in the LCD display

WHAT IS POWER FACTOR?     

The cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current in an a.c. Circuit is known as power factor. It may also be defined as the ratio of active power to apparent power drawn by the circuit. It may also be defined as the ration of circuit resistance to circuit impedance. If the circuit is inductive, the current lags behind the voltage and power factor is referred as lagging. However, in a capacitive circuit, current leads the voltage and power factor said to be leading.

CAUSES OF LOW POWER FACTOR   

Normally, the power factor of the whole load on the supply system is lower than 0.9. The following are the causes of the low power factor. Most of the a.c. motor are of induction type (1-Ø and 3-Ø induction motors) which have low lagging power factor. These motors work at power factor, which is extremely small at light load (0.2-0.3) and raised to (0.9-0.97) at full load. Arc lamps and industrial heating furnaces operate at low lagging power factor

DISADVANTAGES OF LOW POWER FACTOR    

Large KVA rating of the equipment: The electrical machinery (i.e. alternators, transformers, switch gears) is always rated in kVA. Now kVA =KW/COS . At low power factor the kVA rating of the equipment has to be more, making the equipment larger and expensive. Greater conductor size: To transmit or distribute a fixed amount of power at constant voltage, the conductor has to carry more current at low power factor.. Larger copper losses: the large current at low power factor causes more I²R loses in all the elements of the supply system, resulting poor efficiency. Poor voltage regulation: the large current at low lagging power factor causes greater voltage drop, resulting in the decreased voltage available at the supply end,

IMPORTANCE OF POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT:  

For consumers: A consumer has to pay electricity charges for maximum demand in kVA plus the units consumed. If the consumer improves the power factor, then there is a reduction in his maximum kVA demand and consequently there will be annual saving. For generating stations: The generators in power stations are rated in kVA but the useful output depends upon kW output. As station output is in kW=kVA*COS , therefore number of units supplied by it depends upon the power factor.

Block diagram

OPERATION 

   

This circuit mainly consists of following sections Power supply circuit Phase detector circuit Microcontroller circuit Displaying the power factor Driver circuit with relays

MAKING THE PROJECT COST EFFECTIVE  

Instead of above method we can use analog phase detector IC, which will further required ADC for the controller interface. This analog multiplier ICs are negligibly expensive and easily available too. The other advantage of out circuit is that it need no ADC so less hardware, less space and less cost.

CONCLUSION 

In this training period we learned practically that how UPS works. And we have completed a project ³Power factor measurement and correction using Microcontroller´. In this project we have succeeded to achieve out aim that whenever any phase different between the voltage & current waveforms occur, it should be automatically displayed & corrected too by selecting the appropriate relay and display the power factor to the LCD screen also display the relay on.