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M.

SREE HARI
HISTORY OF WELDING
SL.No PROCESS INVENTOR YEAR COUNTRY
1 Oxy Acetylene welding Hendry Louis Chatelier 1895 France
2 Electric Arc Theory Davy 1809 England
3 Arc welding process Augaste-de-Meritens 1881 England
4 Carbon Arc Bernodos/Olszewski 1887 Russia
5 Bare wire Electrode NG Slavianoff 1892 Germany
6 Covered Electrode Oscar Kiellberg 1907 Sweden
Covered Electrode with
7 asbestos Sodium Strohmenger 1912 USA
silicate
8 Automic H2 welding Longmuir 1921 USA
9 CO2 welding Alexander 1928 USA
10 TIG welding Hobert/Devers 1930 USA
11 MAW Kennedy Rodermend Jones 1935 USA
12 Electro Slag 1553 Russia
13 Plasma Arc 1953 USA
14 Plasma Cutting 1955 USA
15 Resistance Welding Elihu Thomson 1886 USA
Classification of Welding Processes
ARC WELDING
 MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING
 TIG WELDING
 MIG/MAG WELDING
 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
 PLASMA ARC WELDING
 CARBON ARC WELDING
 ELECTRO SLAG WELDING
RESISTANCE WELDING
 SPOT WELDING
 SEAM WELDING
 BUTT FLASH WELDING
 PROJECTION WELDING
 BUTT WELDING
 STUD WELDING
GAS WELDING
 OXY-ACETYLENE GAS WELDING
 OXY-HYDROGEN GAS WELDING
 OXY-COAL GAS WELDING
 OXY-LPG GAS WELDING
 AIR ACETYLENE GAS WELDING
SPECIAL WELDING PROCESS
 THERMIT WELDING
 LASER BEAM WELDING
 ULTRASONIC WELDING
 EXPLOSIVE WELDING
 COLD PRESSURE WELDING
 SOLDERING / BRAZING / PLASTIC WELDING
 FORGE WELDING
 FRICTION WELDING
MMAW – Manual Metal Arc
Welding
 Process Capabilities:

Versatile process
 Indoor & Outdoor welding
Multi-position welding
Equipment is simple & portable
Universal process for repair
welding
LIMITATIONS OF MMAW PROCESS
Limitations:

Less metal deposition – Cannot be used for heavy


fabrication welding
Requires more number of welders
Control of distortion is difficult
Continuous & automatic Welding is not possible -
Fixed length of electrode
Deslaging
More strain to the welders
MMAW – Manual Metal Arc
Welding
Basic principles of MMAW process
 What is Arc?
 Heat is generated Q=I2RT
or Q = VI/S
 2/3 heat at positive (electrode)
 1/3 heat at job
 Arc length is related to the arc voltage
 Electrodes coated with flux produces
gaseous shield.
 Flux ingredients combine with iron
oxide and other impurities and slag is
formed – called scavenging action.
MMAW – Manual Metal Arc
80V
Welding OPEN
CIRCUIT
Power sources : VOLTAGE
Constant current 25
SHORT
Evolution of power sources CIRCUI
• transformer T
• transformer rectifier VOLTAGE
• transistor controlled power supply
• inverter based digital/analog CURRENT
• IGBT

Peak
current
Base
current
MMAW – Manual Metal Arc
Welding
Basic Process parameter :
 Current-voltage
OCV
 Arc length
 Electrode angle, job Angle
 Travel speed
 Polarity
Basic Process parameter
voltage
 Determines heat generated
 Fixed no user adjustment
 Higher OCV easier arc initiation
current
 Essential variable
 Determined by electrode thickness
 Speed of welding
 Too high current results in Undercut, spatter, burn through
 Too low current improper penetration, fusion, over lap
Basic Process parameter
Arc length

 Medium arc – arc length equal to electrode thickness


 Long arc leads to improper weld bead, spatters,
undercut, porosity, under cut etc.
 Short arc useful in position welding
Basic Process parameter
Job angle
Incorrect Job angle leads to
 Unequal leg length
 Lack of sidewall fusion
 undercut
Basic Process parameter
Electrode angle
Incorrect electrode angle leads to
 Lack of Penetration
 porosity
Basic Process parameter
Travel speed
 Both slow & Fast travel leads to
lack of penetration
 Slow travel results in overlap, excessive weldment
Basic Process parameter

Polarity
 Heat is generated Q=I2RT
or Q = VI/S
 Reverse polarity (DCEP) generally used
 straight polarity (DCEN) used in TIG only
 2/3 heat at positive (electrode)
 1/3 heat at job
MMAW – Manual Metal Arc
Welding
Types of flux coatings / coverings:
Cellulosic coverings:
 organic materials like cellulose, wood flower and wood pulp.
 The presence of hydrogen increases arc voltage across the arc and makes it more
penetrating.
 The surface profile is poor, while the mechanical properties are good, the hydrogen
content being very high, restricts the use of this type of electrode on high strength steels.
Rutile coverings:
 It contains mostly Titanium oxides.
 This compound has good slag forming characteristics and produces stable arc.
 Rutile electrodes are widely used in fabrication industries.
Basic coverings (Low Hydrogen type):
 It contains mainly calcium compounds such as calcium fluorides, and calcium
carbonates.
 These electrodes are mainly used for welding of high strength steels.
CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRODES (AWS 5.1)

E6010
Electrode

60X00
0 Psi Welding
position Coating and current
70
conditions
80
90
100
110
120
CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRODES (AWS 5.5)

E 80 1 8 (IRS Class
D)
Electrode
80,000 Psi
All position
1-F,H,V,OH 2-F,H , 4-F,H,VD,OH
0 CELLULOSE SODIUM DCEP

1 CELLULOSE POTASSIUM AC/DCEP/DCEN


2 TITANIA SODIUM AC/DCEN

3 TITANIA POTASSIUM AC/DCEP

4 IRON POWDER TI AC/DCEN/DCEP

5 LOW HYDROGEN Na DCEP

6 LOW HYDROGEN K AC/DCEP

7 Fe POWDER Fe OXIDE AC/DCEP/DCEN

8 Fe POWDER LOW H2 AC/DCEP


IRS M 28-02
 (Cl. 3.1)

 CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRODES AS PER THEIR


APPLICATION
Metal Transfer

Factors influencing metal transfer:


> Surface tension
> Force of gravity
> Magnetic forces
> Gas expansion force
> arc blow
Metal Transfer
Factors influencing metal transfer:
> Gas expansion force
> arc blow
Surface tension forces:
> Holds the liquid metal droplet to the tip.
Force to be overcome
Force of gravity:
> Position of welding
Flat --- Helps in metal transfer
Overhead--Negative influence oppose metal transfer
Magnetic forces:
Pinch forces.
Gas expansion forces:
Transfers metal
Controls the scattering of molten metal
Arc blow
Deflection of Arc due electric/electromagnetic /magnet disturbance
Welding defects
 lack of fusion
 Porosity
 Slag inclusions
 Undercut
 Excessive Asymmetry of Fillet weld
 Excessive weld metal
 Excessive penetration
 Cracks
 Lack of penetration
 Linear misalignment
 Crate crack and crater pipe
 spatter
 Overlap
GMAW
[Gas Metal Arc Welding]

MIG MAG
Metal Inert Gas Welding Metal Active Gas Welding

Argon, Helium. CO2 or Argon+CO2 mixed gas.


Non-Ferrous metals Ferrous metals - All types of
Aluminum, Copper steels
GMAW
Gas Metal
 high Arcrate
deposition Welding - GMAW
 Wire is continuously fed from a spool.
 semiautomatic welding process
• High current density
• Self adjusting arc
• Different modes of metal transfer
• Gas mixtures can be used
• Higher welding speed
 All position capability
 Less operator skill required
 Long welds can be made without starts and stops
 Low heat input
 Easy to automate
 Minimal post weld cleaning is required
Equipment for GMAW process
 DC Current is required for GMAW
process
 a. Transformer /Rectifier/inverter/IGBT
power sources are mainly used.
 b. They are designed to have a constant
Voltage characteristics (Flat Type).
 c. The welding is carried out on DCEP.
 d. A wire feed unit with variable wire
feed speed settings is used.
 e. Here welding current is directly
related to the wire feed rates.
Therefore, for attaining high deposition
rates the wire is fed at higher feed rates.
Equipment for GMAW process
- Euro adapter
- Cable
- Liner
- Gas diffuser
- Contact tip
- Nozzle
CONSTANT VOLTAGE
CHARACTERISTICS

VOLTAGE

20 V
ARC
VOLTAGE

CURRENT
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
The basic parameters which require to be set in GMAW
process are
 Current ( amps )
 Voltage ( volts )
 Shielding gas flow rate. ( litres / min )
 Stick out
 Torch angle
 Welding speed
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
Current ( amps )
 Linked with wire speed
 Matching Amount Wire pushed & burning rate
Voltage ( volts )
 Less voltage gives peaked bead
 More voltage spreads the bead; more flat bead
Basic welding parameters in GMAW
Shielding Gas
 shields the arc and molten weld pool
 stabilizes the arc
 allows smooth transfer of metal
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
The primary shielding gasses used are:
 Argon
 co2
 Argon - 1 to 5% Oxygen
 Argon - 3 to 25% CO2
 Argon/Helium
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
Shielding gas flow rate
 Required to prevent oxidation
 Low & high flow rate results in porosity
 Should be matched with deposition rate
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
Stick out
 Longer stick out reduces penetration
 Longer stick out increases dposition
 For Higher parameter (V,I) more stick out
Mode of metal transfer
 Short circuiting transfer
 Globular transfer
 Spray transfer
Short circuiting / Dip transfer
Short circuiting transfer

 Low current - low voltage used to produce short


circuiting arc, freq. 70 times /second.
 Used for sheet metal and positional welding 16-22
volts.
Globular transfer
Globular transfer

 An intermediate stage between dip and spray transfer


 droplet sizes are more than the wire dia
 Produces excessive spatter and erratic arc behaviour.
Spray transfer
Spray transfer

 Higher currents and voltage used, droplet size


same as or lower than the wire diameter.
 weld pool of low viscosity
 About 100 to 300 droplets transferred per second
 Higher deposition rate penetration and fluidity of
the molten pool , increases the productivity
 24-38 volts.
Pulse Spray transfer
Pulse Spray transfer

 Controlled method of spray transfer. Heat input to the


job is controlled by low background current with high
pulses using special type of equipment.
 In synergic pulsed systems wire feed rate synchronised
with pulsed current to control individual droplet
detachment.
Mode of metal transfer
Electrode wire size Current (amps)
(mm)

Short Arc Spray Arc

0.8 50 150

1.2 100 240

1.6 175 300

2.4 --- 400


BASIC WELDING PARAMETERS IN GMAW PROCESS

 If the wire feed speed is too high the wire will not be melted fast
enough and will pass through the arc hitting the plate, which is known
as stubbing. The resultant weld is peaky with little fusion and a lot of
spatter.
Selection of Arc Voltage

Factors to be considered:
• Wire speed/Current
• Mode of metal transfer
• Shielding gas
• Stand - off distance

Empirical relationships:
V = 14 + (0.04 x I ) For short arc
V = 16 + (0.04 x I ) For spray arc
Self-regulation of the arc
 Constant voltage or potential power sources
 The current adjusts itself to burn off rate
 for a small change in arc length there is a large change
in welding current which makes it quite sensitive
and helps in maintaining a steady arc length which
gives consistent quality welds.
 This is called self-regulation of the arc length and is a
requirement for success of GMAW welding.
Classification of Carbon steel consumable
electrode wires meant for CO2 welding
applications [ AWS A5.18 ]

E70S-6
E - electrode wire
70 - UTS
S - Solid wire
6 - Chemical composition of the wire
Chemical Composition filler wire in weight %
(Wire: ER 70S6 AWS A5.18)

C: 0.07-0.15
Mn: 1.4-1.8
Si: 0.8-1.15
S: 0.035
P: 0.025
IRS M46
MIG Welding Problems

 Heavily oxidized weld deposit


 Irregular wire feed
 Burn back
 Porosity
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW):
•electrode is a continuous, consumable, tubular containing flux.
•The flux provides
•alloying
•arc stability
•slag cover
•de-oxidation
•gas shielding with some wires.
•The area of the flux cored wire is much smaller that than that of a
solid MIG wire. This means that the electrical resistance of the
flux cored wire is higher than with solid MIG wires (for same wire
size)
FCAW
Self-shielded FCAW:
•arc shielding provided by the flux core.
•Basic type flux
Gas shielded FCAW:
•Shielding by externally supplied gases.
•hybrid of SMAW and GMAW
•basic or rutile flux
FCAW Electrode Classification
E70 T - 1
Electrode
Type Gas, Usability
Minimum UTS and Performance
70,000 psi
Flux Cored /Tubular
Position Electrode

American Welding Society Specification


AWS A5.22
Advantages
 High deposition rates
 Deeper penetration
than SMAW
 High-quality
 Less pre-cleaning than
GMAW
 out-of-position welds
 Self-shielded FCAW is
draft tolerant.
Limitations
 Slag must be removed
 More smoke and fumes
than GMAW and SAW
 Spatter
 FCAW wire is more
expensive
 Irregular wire feed
TIG WELDING
TIG welding
 Tungsten Inert Gas welding
 It is an arc welding process that uses an arc between a
tungsten electrode (non-consumable)
 The process is used with shielding gas
 Filler metal may or may not be used.
 It is also known as WIG(wolfram inert gas) in
Germany, GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) in USA
TIG welding
 Filler metal is not added when thinner materials, edge
joints and flange joints are welded. This is called as
autogenous welding.
 The shielding gas displaces the air, so that the oxygen
and the nitrogen of the air do not come in contact with
the molten metal or the hot tungsten electrode.
GTAW PROCESS
Fig 1a. TIG Arc
GTAW PROCESS
 high frequency start method is employed where the
arc is initiated without the electrode touching the
workpiece.
 currents in the range of 70 to 500 amperes
Lap joint

For a lap weld, form the weld pool so that the


edge of the overlapping piece and the flat
surface of the second piece flow together. Since
the edge will melt faster, dip the filler rod next
to the edge and make sure you are using enough
filler metal to complete the joint.
T-joint

When welding a T-joint, the edge and the flat


surface are to be joined together, and the edge
will melt faster. Angle the torch to direct more
heat to the flat surface and extend the electrode
beyond the cup to hold a shorter arc. Deposit the
filler rod where the edge is melting.
POLARITY
 DCEN is the most common
 for welding all carbon, alloy and stainless steels, as well as nickel
and titanium alloys.
 DCEP is used for aluminium alloys when welding, with pure helium
as the shielding gas
 strong cathodic cleaning effect capable of removing the tenacious aluminium oxide film
from
 the surface.
 It may also be used for TIG welding magnesium alloys.
 AC polarity is used most commonly
 For welding aluminium and its alloys with pure argon or argon-helium mixtures
 advantage of cyclic heating and cleaning action.
 magnesium alloys and aluminium bronze.
 Hot-wire TIG is used predominantly for steel and nickel alloys
 where the eletrical resistance of the wire can be used to increase productivity.
Equipment
Applications
 Any metal or alloy system
 usually restricted to 10mm and below
 particularly suited to welding sheet materials and for the root run in
pipe butt welds.
 nuclear , aerospace industries, chemical, cryogenic process plant and
pipework.
 It is also used for in petrochemical and power-generation plant, and for
brewing and food-processing vessels.
Orbital TIG :
 used in the nuclear, pharmaceutical, semiconductor and food
industries for the installation of pipework
 – especially where high quality standards are required.
Advantages of GTAW process
 Welds almost all metals and alloys (Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel,
Aluminium, Copper, Magnesium, Titanium, Molybdenum, etc).
 Produces high-quality, low-distortion welds.
 Clean visible weld pool.
 Free from spatter and slag.
 Can be used with or without filler wire.
 Gives precise control of welding heat. Allows excellent control of root
pass weld penetration.
 Welding in all position possible.
 Manual, semi-mechanised or fully automatic welding possible.
Disadvantages of GTAW
process
 Produces lower deposition rates than consumable electrode arc
welding processes.
 Requires slightly more skill than in shielded metal are welding
(SMAW).
 Less economical for thick sections greater than 9.5 rnm.
 Problematic in drafty environments due to difficulty in shielding weld
zone properly.
 Higher equipment cost as compared to SMAW.
 Higher operating cost due to costly shielding gas like Ar, He.
 Additional problems with the process include:
 Tungsten inclusions if the electrode comes in contact with the weld
pool.
Equipment for GTAW process
•Constant current
•polarity
GTAW Torch
Electrodes
 1. Pure tungsten (EWP)
 2. Thoriated Tungsten (EWTh)
 3. Ceriated Tungsten (EWCE)
 4. Lanthanated Tungsten (EWLA),
 5. Zirconiated Tungsten (EWZr)
Preparation of the tungsten
electrode
 The end needs to be ground to a point
 Brand new electrodes will always need to be prepared
 When welding on aluminium the tungsten will begin
to form a ball, this is perfectly normal.
 When welding steel the electrode will always stay
pointed.
Preparation of the tungsten
electrode
Parameters
Electrode Gas nozzle Gas flow rate, Current range,
dia, mm no. l/min A

1.6 4–5 5–7 20 – 130

2.4 5–6 6–8 100 – 250

3.2 6–7 7–9 150 – 350

4.0 7–8 8 – 10 200 – 500


Submerged arc welding (SAW)
 Arc
 A layer of granulated mineral material - flux covers
the tip of the welding wire, the arc, and the workpiece.
 no visible arc and no sparks, spatter or fume
 electrode – solid wire in the form of coil
 normally a mechanised process
Submerged arc welding (SAW)
Submerged arc welding (SAW)
SAW - Parameters
 Current : the total welding current can range between 100
and 3600 amps
 Wires in one molten pool : from 1 to 6
 Voltage : 20 -50 volts
 Speed : 30 – 350 cm/min
 Deposition rate : 2 -100 kg/hr
The welding current, arc voltage, and travel speed all affect
the bead shape, depth of penetration and chemical
composition of the deposited weld metal.
Effect of welding current on weld profile

Effect of arc voltage on weld profile.


fluxes
consist of minerals such as quartz, limestone, fluorspar,
manganese and aluminum oxides.
Funtion of flux
 protect the arc, the molten pool and the solidifying weld metal
from the atmosphere
 Creation of ions to increase arc conductivity
 Arc stabilizing
 Creation of slag
 Influence bead shape and surface finish
 Deoxidation of the molten pool
 Alloying of the weld metal
 Influence the welding cooling rate
fluxes
Agglomerated fluxes
 Agglomerated grains are chemically heterogeneous
 “rolling” the components with addition of silicates, dried and baked at temperatures
between 600°C and 850°C
 because the weld metal is more efficiently deoxidised result the toughness values
achieved at sub-zero-temperatures are higher
 Widely used
 To be re-dried
Fused fluxes
 manufactured by melting all ingredients in an electrical arc furnace then crushed
 chemically homogeneous
 The grain strength of fused fluxes is higher than agglomerated fluxes
 No dying
 high currents and low welding speeds, e.g. in cladding applications
Benefits
 High quality
 Little risk of undercut and porosity
 No spatter
 Very little risk of lack of fusion due to deep and safe penetration
 high deposition rate
 High thermal efficiency
 No radiation
 No need for fume extraction
Limitations
 Precise joint preparation required
 Down hand position welding only
 No observation of arc and process during welding possible
 High operational effort
Material applications
 Carbon steels (structural and vessel construction)
 Low alloy steels
 Stainless steels
 Nickel-based alloys
 Surfacing applications (wear-facing, build-up, and
corrosion resistant overlay of steels)
RESISTANCE WELDING PROCESSES
Electrodes Electrodes Electrodes Projection
or Welding or Welding or Dies Welds
Tips Wheels

Spot Weld Seam Weld Projection Weld

 Spot welding Electrodes or Dies

 Seam welding
Butt Seam welding
Flash Butt welding
 Projection Welding
 Flash Butt welding
INTRODUCTION TO SPOT WELDING

96
Spot welding machines
INTRODUCTION TO SPOT
WELDING

98
INTRODUCTION TO SPOT
WELDING

99
INTRODUCTION TO SPOT
WELDING

100
INTRODUCTION TO SPOT
WELDING
•Surface Resistance heating due to high current
•Fusion
•Pressure
•no consummable

101
Spot welding machines
Basic principle of spot welding

•Heat is generated by the resistance & force is


applied. Fusion takes place.
•Q = I2RT
•Water-cooled electrodes.
•Maximum job thickness 6 mm for uncoated steels
and 4 mm for coated steels.
•workpieces with different thicknesses: The
proportionate thickness of the components should
not exceed 3:1.
• Indentation must be less than 20 % of workpiece
thickness, preferably less than 10 %.

103
Basic principle of resistance welding
Top Electrode
Cooling Water

Weld
Nugget

Distance
Resistance
Bottom Electrode

104
Basic principle of resistance welding

105
Basic principle of resistance welding

106
Static Resistance Comparison
Plain-carbon Steel
Electrode
Stainless Steel

Workpieces
Higher Surface Resistance
Chromium Oxide

Electrode

Resistance

Higher Resistances = Lower Currents Required

107
Comparison of properties

Material Resistivity Thermal conductivity


Ωm W /m/K

Copper 1.6 x 10 – 8 401


(less than 1/10th of MS) (5 times more than MS)
MS 1.18 x 10 – 7 80

SS 7.2 x 10 – 7 15
(6 times fore than MS) (less than 1/6 th of MS)

108
Nugget shape and size

The nugget diameter should ideally be between 3.5t and


5t in order to provide proper strength.
Macro etch of Nugget

110
Stages of resistance spot welding

111
Key parameters

 Welding Current & Weld time


 Electrode force
 Squeeze & Hold time
 Electrode geometry

112
Welding Current & Weld time

 Q = I2RT
 Current in % of rated (goes up to current 20 KA)
 weld time in cycles (for 50 HZ : 1 cycle = 0.02 sec)
 Short weld time, higher current preferred
to reduce thermal expansion
to reduce the wear of electrode
 pulsing with higher current used for more thickness
Nugget formation

113
Welding Current & Weld time

114
Dynamic contact resistance
Effect of weld time on nugget diameter

5.5
5 6.5 KA
Nugget Dia (mm)
4.5 7 KA
4 7.5 KA
3.5 8 KA
3 8.5 KA

2.5 9 KA

2
50 70 90 110 130 150
Weld Time (ms)

Increase in weld time increases nugget size

116
Growth of nugget

•Weld nugget size should be


3.5√t to 5√t. As the current
increases the diameter of the
nuggets increases.

•burst of molten metal –


expulsion – from between the
sheets is caused.

117
Slope function
 Slope function rate of
rise and fall of current.
 Slope function is
adjusted for galvanised
steel, Aluminium to
overcome high contact
resistance
 For higher thickness
longer slope length (1- 4
cycles) preferred

118
Electrode force

 less force  sparks, splashes


 rapid wear of tool
 sufficient force  less resistance @ electrode with job
 less heat at electrode
 faster cooling
 too high force  more indentation on the job

119
Squeeze & Hold time
 squeeze time does not affect technical property
of the weld. How ever it should be sufficient to
allow electrode force to transfer on the job.
 Hold time should be long enough to cool &
solidify the weld.
 longer Hold time  faster cooling  weld brittle
 4 cycles is preferred.
to reduce thermal expansion
to reduce the wear of electrode

120
Electrode Geometry

 electrode tip diameter is usually 5√t, where t is


workpiece thickness.
 Weld nugget size should be 3.5√t to 5√t
 Depending on the material 121
Electrode Composition

for MS , Corten Cu-Cd (Copper – Cadmium)


 for SS jobs, Cu-Zr (Copper – Zirconium)
 for SS jobs, Cu-Be (Copper – Berilium) – Superior

122
Heat Balance
•The heat balance of a weld is good
when the nugget penetration is
equally deep in both workpieces
and when most of the heat is
generated between the workpieces.

•Heat balance in the weld may


become a problem when joining
materials of different thicknesses
and resistances.

•Penetration of the weld moves


away from the centre line of the
joint.

•Different electrode diameters


may be used
123
Heat Balance

- R1 is called transfer resistance.


- Transfer resistance is more in aluminum due to rapid
oxide formation.
- Transfer resistance reduces when electrode diameter,
force are increased.
- Increased transfer resistance due to dirt causes faster
wear of electrode.
124
Heat Balance

Dissimilar metals:
• e.g. copper and steel
• localized heating in the steel than in the copper
• copper has low electrical resistance and high
thermal transfer characteristics

125
Heat Balance

Sharp tip increases current density Hence heat is


more at copper.

use of an electrode tip with high electrical


resistance material, such as tungsten or
molybdenum, at the contact point.

126
DETERMINATION OF SPOT WELDING PARAMETERS
Sheet thickness, Electrode force, Weld current, Weld time Hold time Electrode diameter,
t [mm] F [kN] I [A] [cycles] [cycles] d [mm]

0.63 + 0.63 2.00 8 500 6 1 6


0.71 + 0.71 2.12 8 750 7 1 6
0.80 + 0.80 2.24 9 000 8 2 6
0.90 + 0.90 2.36 9 250 9 2 6
1.00 + 1.00 2.50 9 500 10 2 6
1.12 + 1.12 2.80 9 750 11 2 6
1.25 + 1.25 3.15 10 000 13 3 6 7
1.40 + 1.40 3.55 10 300 14 3 6 7
1.50 + 1.50 3.65 10 450 15 3 6 7
1.60 + 1.60 4.00 10 600 16 3 6 7
1.80 + 1.80 4.50 10 900 18 3 6 7
2.00 + 2.00 5.00 11 200 3x7+2 4 7 8
2.24 + 2.24 5.30 11 500 3x8+2 4 7 8
2.50 + 2.50 5.60 11 800 3x9+3 5 8
2.80 + 2.80 6.00 12 200 4x8+2 6 8
3.00 + 3.00 6.15 12 350 4x9+2 6 8
3.15 + 3.15 6.30 12 500 4x9+2 6 8

127
Spot welding equipment

128
Spot welding equipment

Most common are AC.


DC machines: welding current can be slightly lower than in AC machines.

pneumatic and hydraulic cylinders.

Higher frequency machines - smaller transformers.

cooling system - electrodes, electrode holders, transformers and


contactors.

129
Welding Current & Weld time

130
Spot welding equipment

Different kinds of spot welding systems

131
Welding defects

Mild steel

132
Shunting

133
Test Results

 Sufficiently large size nugget


 Strong nugget

A button failure indicates good weld.

134
Spot welding applications
Car body

Resistance spot welding is extensively applied for car body


manufacture.
Spot welding applications
Complete side walls of rail coach

136
Spot Welding Machine

137
Spot welding in progress

138
PROJECTION WELDING PROCESS

139
Butt Seam Welding
 IN BUTT SEAM WELDING, THE
ELECTRODES ARE TWO COPPER ROLLERS
DRIVEN BY AN ELECTRIC MOTOR.

 THE PARTS TO BE WELDED ARE


CLAMPED BETWEEN THE ROLLER
ELECTRODES.

 WITH THE ROLLERS ROTATING AND THE


CURRENT SWITCHED ON AND OFF, A
WELD IS PRODUCED EITHER IN THE
FORM OF A SERIES OF CLOSELY SPACED
STITCHES, OR AS OVERLAPPING SPOTS,
OR AS A CONTINUOUS WELD NUGGET.

140
Seam Welding Machine
CARRIAGE

MAGNETIC
TABLE

FOIL
SPOOLS

GUIDE

ELECTRODE ROLLER SERVO DRIVE FEEDERS TELESCOPIC


COVER

141
Butt-Seam Welding of Roof Sheets

142
Butt Seam Welded Joint

143
Butt Seam Welding
Work in progress

144
Butt Seam Welding
Work in progress

145
Flash butt welding machine
Flash butt welding machine

147
Flash Butt Welding Machine
Flash butt welding of pull rod

148
Flash butt welding of pull rod
setting up

149
Flash butt welding of pull rod
Actual welding

150
Flash butt welding of pull rod
Welding just completed

151
Thank you