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Bearing Capacity Of Shallow Foundation * A foundation is required for distributing the loads of the superstructure on a large area. * The foundation should be designed such that a) The soil below does not fail in shear & b) Settlement is within the safe limits.

Basic Definitions : 1) Ultimate Bearing Capacity (qu) : The ultimate bearing capacity is the gross pressure at the base of the foundation at which soil fails in shear. 2) Net ultimate Bearing Capacity (qnu) : It is the net increase in pressure at the base of foundation that cause shear failure of the soil. Thus, qnu = qu ± Df (ovrbruden pressure)

3) Net Safe Bearing Capacity (qns) : It is the net soil pressure which can be safely applied to the soil considering only shear failure. Thus, qns = qnu /FOS

FOS - Factor of safety usually taken as 2.00 -3.00

4) Gross Safe Bearing Capacity (qs) : It is the maximum pressure which the soil can carry safely without shear failure. qs = qnu / FOS + Df

. Thus. 6) Net Allowable Bearing Pressure (qna ): It is the net bearing pressure which can be used for design of foundation. if qnp > qns qna = qnp .5)Net Safe Settlement Pressure (qnp) : It is the net pressure which the soil can carry without exceeding allowable settlement. qna = qns . if qns > qnp It is also known as Allowable Soil Pressure (ASP).

2) Local Shear failure. 3) Punching Shear failure . 1) General Shear failure.Modes of shear Failure : Vesic (1973) classified shear failure of soil under a foundation base into three categories depending on the type of soil & location of foundation.

55 .General Shear failure ± Strip footing resting on surface of dense sand or stiff clay Load ±settlement curve * The load .N>35.Settlement curve in case of footing resting on surface of dense sand or stiff clays shows pronounced peak & failure occurs at very small stain. * A loaded base on such soils sinks or tilts suddenly in to the ground showing a surface heave of adjoining soil * The shearing strength is fully mobilized all along the slip surface & hence failure planes are well defined. * The failure occurs at very small vertical strains accompanied by large lateral strains. > 360. * ID > 65 . e < 0.

N=10 to 30 . * The shear strength of soil is not fully mobilized along planes & hence failure planes are not defined clearly. e>0. * The failure surface gradually extend out wards from the foundation. <30.75 . Load ±settlement curve * The foundation movement is accompanied by sudden jerks. * The failure occurs at large vertical strain & very small lateral strains.2) Local Shear failure - Strip footing resting on surface Of Medium sand or Medium clay * When load is equal to a certain value qu(1). * ID = 15 to 65 . * The failure starts at localized spot beneath the foundation & migrates out ward part by part gradually leading to ultimate failure.

* Failure planes are difficult to locate 222 . * The failure surface do not extend up to the ground surface.3) Punching Share failure - * The loaded base sinks into soil like a punch. * No heave is observed. * Large vertical strains are involved with practically no lateral deformation.

Terzaghi¶s Bearing Capacity Analysis ± Terzaghi (1943) analysed a shallow continuous footing by making some assumptions ± .

* Downward forces are due to the load (=qu× B) & the weight of soil wedge (1/4 B2 tanØ) * Upward forces are the vertical components of resultant passive pressure (Pp) & the cohesion (c¶) acting along the inclined surfaces.* The failure zones do not extend above the horizontal plane passing through base of footing * The failure occurs when the down ward pressure exerted by loads on the soil adjoining the inclined surfaces on soil wedge is equal to upward pressure. .

Pp = (Pp)r + (Pp)c + (Pp)q .(1) The resultant passive pressure (Pp) on the surface CB & CA constitutes three components ie. (Pp)r.For equilibrium: Fv = 0 1 B2tan ø + quxB = 2Pp +2C¶ × Li sinø¶ 4 where Li = length of inclined surface CB ( = B/2 /cosø¶) Therefore. Thus. qu× B = 2Pp + BC¶ tanø¶ . (Pp)c & (Pp) q.¼ B2tanø¶ ±-----.

BN This is Terzaghi¶s Bearing capacity equation for determining ultimate bearing capacity of strip footing. Nq & Nr are Terzaghi¶s bearing capacity factors & depends on angle of shearing resistance (ø) . Where Nc.¼rB2tanø1 2 (Pp)q & 2 (Pp)c + Bc1 tanø1 We get.qu× B= 2[ (Pp)r +(Pp)c +(Pp)q ]+ Bc¶tanø¶-¼ B2 tanø¶ Substituting. 2 (Pp)r . qu =C¶Nc + Df Nq + 0.5 = B × ½ BNr = B × D Nq = B × C1 Nc.

3 297.4 2.0 15 12.2 35.5 9.0 5.7 1.5 51.9 4.7 2.1 37.7 1.7 0.9 45 172.ø General Shear Failure Local Shear Failure Nc Nq Nr Nc¶ Nq¶ Nr¶ 0 5.3 173.0 0.7 .0 0.

Terzaghi¶s suggested following equations for UBC ± Square footing qu = 1. Nc¶.C.4 BNr Circular footing qu = 13c1Nc + Df Nq + 0.3 BNr .3c¶ Nc + Df Nq + 0. factors for local shear failure qu = CmNc¶+ Df Nq¶+ 0.5 B Nr¶ * Ultimate Bearing Capacity for square & Circular footing -Based on the experimental results.Nq¶ & Nr¶ are B. * Terzaghi has suggested following empirical reduction to actual c & ø in case of local shear failure Mobilised cohesion Cm = 2/3 C Mobilised angle of øm = tan ±1 ( tanø) Thus.Important points : * Terzaghi¶s Bearing Capacity equation is applicable for general shear failure.

. * If the water table is located close to foundation . the equation needs modification.Effect of water table on Bearing Capacity : * The equation for ultimate bearing capacity by Terzaghi has been developed based on assumption that water table is located at a great depth .

r +x. sub put x = Df-Dw q = sub Df +( . q = Dw.i) When water table is located above the base of footing - * The effective surcharge is reduced as the effective weight below water table is equal to submerged unit weight.sub)Dw .

Dw =0 qu =c¶Nc + sub sub Df +( - sub )Dw] Nq + 0.Thus. qu = c¶Nc + [ When.5 sub BNr .5 sub BNr & when x = 0 qu = c¶Nc + Df Nq + 0.5 sub BNr Nc + 0.

qu = c¶Nc + Df Nq + 0. * Unit weight in term is Thus. qu = c¶Nc + Df Nq + 0.ii) When water table is located at depth y below base : * Surcharge term is not affected.T. the equation is not affected. . W.5B Nr = sub + y ( B ± sub) When y = B .5 B Nr Hence when ground water table is at b B. at B below base of footing.

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IT IS NOT EFFECTIVE IN ORGANIC SOILS AND PEATS IN WHICH COMPRESSIONS ARE DOMINATED BY SECONDARY COMPRESSION . IT IS ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE IN PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION. PORE WATER PRESSURES DISSIPATE QUICKLY. VERTICAL DRAINS ARE INSTALLED TO SHORTEN THE DRAINAGE PATHS. T a Hdr2 .Methods for improving bearing capacity VERTICAL DRAINS TO ACCELERATE THE RATES OF SETTLEMENT HENCE TO DECREASE THEPRELOADING TIMES. IN MOST DEPOSITS kh>kv .

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5 TO 6 M SPACING.SAND DRAINS THEY WERE WIDELY USED BETWEEN 1930 -1980 WITH DIAMETERS CHANGING BETWEEN 20 -60 CM AND WITH 1. .

and claysize particles) Vibrator is a torpedo shaped horizontally vibrating probe. and weighs about 2 tons. The probe penetrates to the design depth under its own weight assisted by water jetting .Vibro-Compaction Densifying granular soil by inserting a vibrating probe into the ground Probe spacing ranges from 6 to 14 feet Suitable for sand with less than 15% fines (silt. 10 to 15 feet long.

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craters with diameters of 10 to 15 feet can form around vibrator . The action of vibrator and water jetting reduce inter granular forces between soil particles allowing them to become denser The vibrator starts at the bottom of the hole and raised to treat the next interval. the procedure is repeated as backfill sand is added If backfill is not added.

It is determined using Terzaghi's theory of consolidation.Settlement of foundation : a) Settlement under loads Settlement of foundation can be classified as1. Elastic settlement (Si): Elastic or immediate settlement takes place during or immediately after the construction of the structure. Consolidation settlement (Sc): Consolidation settlement occurs due to gradual expulsion of water from the voids at the soil. The secondary consolidation is nonsignificant for inorganic soils. 2. It is also known as the distortion settlement as it is due to distortions within foundation soil. Secondary consolidation settlement (Ss): The settlement occurs after completion of the primary consolidation. 3. .

.Causes for foundation settlement Elastic compression of the foundation and the underlying soil. etc may cause settlement. ground improvement and excavation for adajacent structure. Other causes of settlement includes volume change of soils. particulary in granular soils. Prolonged lowering of water table may cause settlement in fine soils. tends to reduce the void volume and cause settlement of the ground surface. Plasic or inelastic compression of the underlying soil.may be one cause. machinery. blasting. called time dependent settlement or settlement due to consolidation. Groundwater lowering is another major cause for settlement to occur. also called immediate settlement. Vibrations caused by pile driving. Repeated raising and lowering of the ground water particularly in granular soils.

5. Thermal changes. Underground erosion. 4. Lowering of water table. Structural collapse of soil. 2. 3. Total settlement (s) = Si+ Sc + Ss b) Settlement due to other causes 1. Subsidence etc.Thus. . .

influence factor which dependent upon elastic properties of base & shape at base. .characteristic length of loaded area. Si = q B 1- 2/Es I where q -uniformly distributed load. . the value of [1. the vertical settlement under uniformly distributed flexible area is. Es .2/Es] I can be determined from the plate load test. B .poisson's ratio. I .Elastic settlement of foundation : a) On Cohesive soils According to schleicher.modulus of elasticity of the soil. Alternatively.

b) On Cohesionless Soils According to Stuartmann & Hartman immediate settlement on Cohesionless soils is given by - I2 ( Si ! C1C2 .

pressure at the level of foundation q -surcharge ( Df) Es. q . C1 -Correction factor for depth of foundation embedment C2 .modulus of elasticity = 766 N (KN/m2) from SPT = 2qc from SCPT ZB .correction factor for creep is soils.q q ´ E Z !0 S Where.

The average value of the cone resistance of each small layer is determined. Static Cone Penetration method In this. 1.Settlement of foundation on Cohesionless Soils Settlement of foundations on Cohesionless soils are generally determined indirectly using the semi-empirical methods. The settlement of each layer is determined using the following equationS = H/C Log ( 0+ )/ 0 0 Where. the sand layer is divided into small layers such that each small layer has approximately constant value of the cone resistance.5 qc/ . c = 1.

.mean effective overburden pressure.thickness of layer.Increase is pressure at center of layer due to net foundation pressure. 2. The total settlement of the entire layer is equal to the sum of settlements of individual layers. H . Plate Load Test The settlement of the footing can be determined from the settlement of the plate in the plate load test.static cone resistance . 3. in which qC . 0 . Standard Penetration Test IS 8009 (part I) 1976 gives a chart for the calculation of settlement per unit pressure as a foundation of the width of footing & the standard penetration number.

* If S1 & S2 are the settlements at two points. * The differential settlement may caused due to tilting of a rigid base. dishing of flexible base or due to non uniformity of loading.Differential Settlement : * The difference between the magnitudes of settlements at any two points is known as differential settlement.then differential settlement is ( = S1 -S2 Angular distortion = (S1.S2 ) / L = ( /L . * If there is large differential settlement between various part of a structure. distortion may occur due to additional moments developed.

The differential settlement can be reduced by providing rigid rafts. .* It is difficult to predict the differential settlement. founding the structures at great depth & avoiding the eccentric loading. * It is observed that the differential settlement is less than 50% of the maximum settlement is most of the cases. * It is generally observed indirectly from the maximum settlement.

* The maximum settlement ranging from 20mm to 300mm is generally permitted for various structures. the type of foundation & the structural framing system.Allowable Settlement * The allowable maximum settlement depends upon the type of soil. . * IS 1904-1978 gives values of the maximum & differential settlements of different type of building.

0033L 1/300 0.0015L 1/300 1/666 50mm 75mm 0.Settle Plastic clay Diff. Diff. settlements exceeding 150mm may cause trouble to utilities such as water pipe lines.0015L 1/666 75mm 75mm 0.Sand & hard Clay Max.Settle. Angular distortion Isolated foundation i) steel struct ii) RCC struct Raft foundation i) steel struct ii) Rcc struct.0033L 0. no damage is done to the superstructure if the soil settles uniformly.002L 1/300 1/500 100mm 100mm 0. . Settle.0033L 0. sewers.0033L 1/300 0. 50mm 50mm 0. However.002L 1/500 Theoretically.Settl Angular distortion Max. telephone lines & also is access from streets.

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