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19055758 Politic and Democracy

19055758 Politic and Democracy

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Published by minthukha

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Published by: minthukha on Oct 31, 2009
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07/19/2013

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1
Ed kifiHa&; Ed kifiHa&;Ed kifiHa&; Ed kifiHa&; ESif  h'Drd kua&pD ESif  h'Drd kua&pDESif  h'Drd kua&pD ESif  h'Drd kua&pD
ta=umif;t&mta=umif;t&mta=umif;t&m ta=umif;t&m ----1?
 
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ta&S  ›awmiftm&S&S  dvuf&S  djynfe,frsm; rnfod k @jzpfay:vmoenf;? 6?
 
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pD;yGm;a&;pepfrsm;/ 8?
 
'Drd kua&pDpwifyH k/ 9?
 
tpd k;&qd konfrSmtb,fenf;? 10?
 
Ed kifiHa&;a0g[m&rsm;/ 11?
 
'Drd kua&pDqd konfrSm tb,fenf;? 12?
 
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vuf&S  dtpk  d;& 
(De facto)
ESif  hw&m;0iftpk  d;& 
(De jure)
 14?
 
tm%m&Sif'Drd kua&pD  15?
 
tpd k;&. wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;/ 16?
 
tm%mrsm;uk  dyk  dif;jcm;cG  Ja0xm;jcif;/ 17?
 
orRwtkyfcsKyfa&; ESif  hygvDreftkyfcsKyfa&; pepfrsm;/ tar&dueforRwtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf/ t*FvefygvDreftkyfcsKyfa&;pepf/ wd kif;jynfacgif;aqmifrsm;§tpd k;&acgif;aqmifrsm;/ 18?
 
a¶G;aumufyG  Jrsm;/ 19?
 
rwluG  Jjym;aomvlr_yH kpH/ vlrsm;pktkyfpk  d;jcif;ESif  hvlenf;pkwd k @twGufud k,fpm;ðyjcif;/ 20?
 
!Gef @aygif;tpdk;&rsm;/ 21?
 
Oya'rsm;ud krnfuJ  hok  d @ ðyvkyfoenf;/ 22?
 
zG  J @pnf;tkyfcsKyfyH ktajccHOya'/ 23?
 
wjynfaxmifpepfESif  hjynfe,faygif;pkpepf/ 24?
 
zuf'&,frl0g' ESif  hjrefrmEd kifiH  25?
 
'Drd kua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;jcif;/ 26?
 
tul;tajymif;umv w&m;Oya'pk  d;rk  d;a&;/ 27?
 
ck  difrmawmif  hwif;aom 'Drd kua&pDtpd k;&opfw&yfwnfaxmifjcif;/ 0efcHpum; -
 
2
Curriculum Project (CP)
.
 System of Democracy
pmpOf/ /
Earthrights
.
Government 
 
pmpOf/
DEP
.
Community and Nation State
pmpOfESif  h 
PDP
.
 Democracyand Political Transitions
 
wk  d @rSa&;om;azmfjycsuftcsdK@wd k @ud kpkpnf;+yD; TpmpOfud kðypkxm;jcif;jzpfonf? 1? vlr_tzG  J @tpnf; 1? vlr_tzG  J @tpnf;1? vlr_tzG  J @tpnf; 1? vlr_tzG  J @tpnf;
(Society)
qk  donfrSmtb,fenf; qk  donfrSmtb,fenf;qk  donfrSmtb,fenf; qk  donfrSmtb,fenf;? ???vl @tzG  J @tpnf;ud ktrsdK;rsdK;teuft"dy` g,fzG  J @qd kEd k  fif.? Oyrm - vlr_tzG  J @tpnf;qd konfrSm
 
vlwpfpktwlwuGaexd kifjcif; (0g) tvkyfvkyfjcif;/
 
tod kif;t0d kif;wpfckwGif;Y vlwpfpktwlwuGaexd kifjcif;/
 
uG  Jjym;aom¶d k;&m,Ofaus;r_ESif  htoufarG;r_qk  dif&m oD;jcm;vl @tzG  J @tpnf;/
 
tzG  J @tpnf;rsm;/ taqmufttk  Hrsm; ESif  hpkaygif;xm;aom vlom;csif;qufqHa&;rsm;/ vl @tzG  J @tpnf;Y tpd k;&/ ynma&;pepfrsm;/ jynfol @u¾/ usef;rma&;pepfrsm;/ apwemh0efxrf;tzG  J @tpnf;rsm;/ &mZ0wfr_trsKd;rsKd;/ &mZ0if/ xH k;wrf;pOfvm/ ,Ofaus;r_ESif  hurB may:&S  drnfok  d @aomvlom;rqk  dt"dutm;jzif  h vl @tkyfpkrsm;twGif;Y rnfuJ  hod k @ twlwuGylaygif;aexd kifqufqHaqmif¶Gufjcif;wd k @ jzpfonf? vl @tzG  J @tpnf;
(Society)
qk  donfrSm tvGef}uD;rm;aomvltkyfpkud kqd kvd konf? Tvltkyfpkrsm;Y Ed kifiHa&;/ oufarG;r_yk  HpHrsm;/ bmompum;ESif  hord kif;twˆKywW  dwd k @&S  donf? vl @tzG  J @tpnf;wGif;&S  dvlwk  dif;Y ud k,fyd kif0goemESif  h  txl;vd ktyfcsufrsm;&S  daomfjim; vnf;/ touf&Sif&yfwnfEd kifa&;twGufwlnDaomb0yH kpHav;rsm;jzif  hwOD;ud kwOD; trS  Do[Jðy=u&onf? tar&duef(od k @) jrefrm (od k @) tdEN  d,vl @tzG  J @tpnf;ta=umif;ud kaqG;aEG;rnfqd ku tar&duef/ jrefrmESif  htdEN  d, twGif; &S  daexk  difolrsm;tm;vH k; ESif  houfqd kifonf? vl @tzG  J @tpnf;ud krwluG  Jjym;aom vlr_tkyfpkrsm; ESif  hvlaer_tok  dif;t0k  dif;wd k @jzif  hwnfaqmufxm;onf? rwluG  Jjym;aom vlr_tkyfpkrsm;ESif  hvlr_tod kif;t0d kif;rsm;ud kOyrmjy&v#ifbmomuG  J/ vlrsdK;uG  J(od k @) uG  Jjym;aom vkyfief;ud kvkyfud kif=uaom vltkyfpkrsm;ud kqd kvd konf? oif  haexk  dif&ma'oY uG  Jjym;aom rnfonf  hvlr_tkyfpkESif  htod kif;t0k  dif;rsm;&S  donf[kxifjrif,lqoenf; ´
  __________________________________________________________________  ______  __________________________________________________________________  ______  __________________________________________________________________  ______ 
rwlrwlrwlrwluG  Jjym;aomvluG  Jjym;aomvluG  Jjym;aomvl uG  Jjym;aomvlaer_r aer_raer_r aer_rsm; sm; sm; sm;
(Social Diversity)
 tod kif;t0d kif;qd konfrSm wlnDaomae&mwcktwGif;Y wlnDaomvltkyfpkwpfckaexd kifjcif;jzpfonf? wenf;tm;jzif  h  wlnDaomt&mud kvufcHxm;aom vltkyfpkwpk[kvnf; qk  dEd kifonf? Oyrm - Ak'<bmomtod kif;t0d kif; (wurB mvH k; Yjyef @ES  H @vsuf&S  donf?) jzpfonf? wcgw&Hrdrd.vlrsdK;pk(wd kif;&if;om;) ud ktajccH+yD; ud k,f  hud kud k,fazmfjy=uonf?
 
3
wcgw&HYtod kif;t0d kif;wcktwGif;wGifwlnDaomolrsm;jzif  hzG  J @pnf;xm;+yD; Tonfud ktoGifwltkyfpk 
(homo- geneous)
[kac:onf? Oyrmtm;jzif  htod kif;wGif;&S  dolrsm;tm;vH k; v,form;rsm;jzpf+yD; ¶d k;&m (ewfpm;) ,H k=unfolrsm;jzpf=uonf? od k @&mwGiftrsm;pkaom tod kif;t0d kif;ESif  h vl @tzG  J @tpnf;wd k @rSm uG  Jjym;aomvltkyfpkwd k @jzif  hzG  J @pnf;xm;onf? vkyfief;uG  J/ bmom uG  JESif  hvlrsdK;pkuG  Jwd k @jzif  hzG  J @pnf;xm;onf? tod kif;t0d kif;wckwGif;&S  dolrsm;onfv,form;rsm;/ ausmif;q&m§q&mrrsm;/ aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfom;rsm; tp&S  dol  wd k @jzpfEd kifonf? Ak'<bmom/ c&pf,mefbmomud k,H k=unfolrsm;ESif  hrGwfpvifwd k @vnf;jzpfEd kif.? xd kolwd k @onfcsif;/ &Srf;/ jrefrm (od k @) tdEN  d,vlrsdK;wd k @vnf;jzpfaumif;jzpfrnf? Tod k @aomtod kif;t0d kif;rsKd;wd k @ud krwluG  Jjym;aomvlaer_ 
(Socially diverse)
[kac:onf? vl @tzG  J @tpnf;ud k  vltkyfpkESifhtod kif; t0d kif;trsdK;rsdK;wd k @jzif  hzG  J@pnf;xm;ojzif  h/ vl @tzG  J @tpnf;rsm;onfrwluG  Jjym;jcm;em;aom vlaer_yH kpH  trsKd;rsKd;wk  d @uk  dawG @ &onf? 2?2?2?2? vlwef;pm;qk  donfrSmtb,fenf; vlwef;pm;qk  donfrSmtb,fenf;vlwef;pm;qk  donfrSmtb,fenf; vlwef;pm;qk  donfrSmtb,fenf;? ???tu,fI vl @tzG  J @tpnf;rsm;ESif  htod kif;t0d kif;rsm;ud k=unf  hygu/ r=umceqk  dovk  dvlaer_toGiftrsdK;rsdK;ud kawG @Ed kif.? uG  Jjym;aomtod kif;t0d kif;wd k @tay:rlwnf+yD; uG  Jjym;aomvlaer_toGiftrsdK;rsdK;ud kvnf; awG @&rnf? }uD;rm;aom pD;yGm; a&;uGmjcm;r_- tcsdK@aomrdom;pkrsm;u tjcm;olrsm;xufºuG,f0jcif;/ ud ku|Ef kyfwk  d @jrifawG @&onf? vlr_yH kpHuG  Jrsm; - tcsKd @aom olrsm;utjcm;olwd k @xufyd kIta&;ygt&ma&mufjcif;wd k @ud kvnf;awG @&onf? tod kif;t0d kif;wpfcktwGif; pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeuGmjcm;jcif;ud kvlwef;pm;[kac:onf? tcsdK@aomtod kif;t0d kif; rsm;Yrl  vlwef;pm;wpfckom&S  d.? qd kvd konfrSm vltm;vH k;.pD;yGm;a&;tajctaerSm twlwlyifjzpfonf? tjcm;aom tod kif;t0d kif; rsm;YrluG  Jjym;aomvlr_tajctaeESif  htqif  htwef;wd k @ud kawG @Ed kif.? wcgw&Hvlr_tqif  htwef;trsdK;rsdK;t=um; }uD;rm;aomuGmjcm;r_wd k @&S  d.? uG  Jjym;aomvlr_tqif  htwef;ud kvd kuf+yD; vl  wd k @onf‚if;wk  d @.tqif  hESif  h ud kufnDonf  haetdrf/ vkyfief; ESif  hausmif;wd k @wGifaexd kif/ vkyfud kif/ wufa&muf=uonf? wd kif;&if;om;rsm; (od k @) tqif  hedrf  hvlwef;pm;rsm;onfvl @tzG  J @tpnf;wGif;Y EdkifiHa&;ESif  h vlr_a&;qd kif&m&yd kifcGif  hrsm; enf;yg;vSonf? txufwef;v$mrsm;onfyd kIcsrf;om+yD;/ ynmjynf  hpH kum/ yk  drk  dItcGif  hta&;rsm;ud k &&S  dcHpm;&onf? tqif  htwef; (ok  d @r[kwf) vlwef;pm; ud kt"dutm;jzif  hOpPm"eyd kifqd kifr_tay:tajccH+yD; owfrSwfxm;onf? vlwd k @onftajctae ajymif;vJr_wd k @tay:rlwnf+yD; ‚if;wd k @.vlaer_tqif  htwef;vnf; wufvd kufusvd kufjzpfEk  dif.? ,if;ud kvlr_yH kpHajymif;vJjcif;
(Social Mobility)
 
[kac:onf? tu,fIoifonftvkyftud kifaumif;&+yD;/ olºuG,fwpfOD;OD; ESif  hxdrf;jrm;v#if(od k @) aiGa=u;tajrmuftrsm;ud ktarGtjzpf&&S  dv#ifoifonf txufwef;v$m vlwef;pm;tjzpfowfrSwfjcif; cH&rnf? od k @aomftcsdK@ae&mrsm;&S  dvlrsm;onf ‚if;wd k @.vlr_tqif  htwef;§tv$mud kajymif;vJ,lIr&acs? wcgw&HY vlr_tqif  h  twef;§tv$mrsm;onfvl @tod kif;t0d kif;/ vlrsdK;pkwd k @ESif  hqufEG,fonf? qd kvd konfrSm vlrsdK;wpfpk.tqif  htwef; onftjcm;vlrsdK;pkxufjrif  hrm;onf? tu,fItqif  hedrf  haom vlrsdK;pk0ifwOD;OD; rnfr#yifºuG,f0csrf;omapumrl  txufwef;v$m tjzpfowfrSwfjcif; rcH&acs? Tonfud krajymif;vJEk  difaomvlwef;pm;
 
(Social Immobility)
 [kac:onf?1? atmufygta=umif;t&mwd k @.t"dy` g,fud koifem;vnfovd ka&;jyyg?

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