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( Lab. no.

7 )
Determination of
Blood groups
(ABO & Rh systems)
Glass slide method

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ABO antigens and antibodies

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antibodies attach to antigens on
surface of RBC membrane
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antigens of type A antigens of type B

ABO and Rh antigens


antigens of type antigens of type O
AB

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Lab. no.7: Determination of Blood groups (Glass slide method)

Procedure:
Divide a clean glass slide into three equal
divisions using a glass marking pencil, then label
these divisions anti-A, anti-D and anti-B



A

respectively.

 D B

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 Place a drop of anti-A serum, anti-D
serum, and anti-B serum in the
respective divisions.

A D B

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Prick a finger with a sterile lancet, and add one drop of
blood to each anti-serum. With the help of a clean wood
stick, mix the blood & anti-sera thoroughly. Use separate
wood sticks for separate sera.

A D B

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 After (5–10 min.) observe the sera for the evidence of
clumping of the red blood cells.

 Clumped red cells give a coarse reddish granular


appearance.

Clumping
=
Agglutination

 Microscopic examination may be carried out for the


confirmation of agglutination.
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anti- A anti- B anti- A anti- B

Type A Type B

anti- A anti- B anti- A anti- B

Type AB Type O
anti- D

Rh
+

Rh-
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Cross matching:
This is done by performing the following two tests:

Test Donor Recipient


1 RBCs + Plasma
2 Plasma + RBCs

no agglutination means the blood samples are


compatible and blood transfusion can be made
safely.

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Percentage of each ABO Blood Type by Country

Country U.S. G.B. Germany Japan China

ABO Type % % % % %

O 46 47 41 30 35
A 40 42 45 38 27
B 10 8 10 22 26
AB 4 3 4 10 12
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