72

SCATTERING

Using this in Equation (2.77) and Equation (2.88) and adding the two gives (0) cf (∞) using cf (∞) = 0 cf (∞) = λcf (∞) + λ2 cf (∞) = − 1 m 1 m
(1) (2)

4π e2 1 ∗ δAB ε λ (k) · ελ (k ) √ m 2V ωω i

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B ελ (k) · p I I ε∗ λ (k ) · p A EI − EA + ω B ε∗ λ (k ) · p I I ε λ (k) · p A EI − EA − ω 2π δ (EB + ω − EA − ω)

(2.91) Note the 1/m factor in the second and third term. It appears there because we sum the result from the (e/m)A term (‘squared’ in second order) and the (e2 /m)A2 term (in first order) and they have different dependencies upon m.

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2.4.2 Cross Section
The transition probability is obtained from cf (∞) as explained in Section 1.3. We use Equation (1.100) which contains the square of cf (∞) and thus the square of the δ -function for which we use Equation (1.102). To obtain the cross section from the transition probability we use Equation (2.7). We want the cross section for the case that the outgoing photon is in an energy range dω and in a solid angle d . We therefore multiply the probability and the cross section by the phase space factor in Equation (1.119) ω 2 dω d d3 x d 3 k =V 3 (2π ) (2π )3 to get dσ = ω 2 dω d V |cf (∞)|2 V vT (2π )3 (2.92)

(2.93)

The volume factors V will cancel because cf (∞) is proportional to 1/V and it gets squared. The time T will cancel because the square of the δ -function is proportional to T . We set the velocity of the incident photon v = 1 and introduce the electron radius re = e2 /m. This is not the ‘real’ radius but it is obtained by setting the approximate potential energy e2 /re of a charge distribution equal to its rest mass energy mc2 . Using

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