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TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP TP.

HCM
KHOA CNG NGH IN T
MN: CNG NGH VI IN T





Nhm 2



DANH SCH NHM
- Nng Bi Tn Huy
- Phm Hong Huy
- Trn Bnh Minh
- ng Cng Phc
- Trnh Quang Huy
- L Tn Lc
- Nguyn Hong L
- Nguyn Minh Lm
- Nguyn Thi Thin Minh
- Phan Vn Khoa
5
CMOS, vit tt ca "Complementary Metal-Oxide-
Semiconductor" trong ting Anh, l thut ng ch mt
loi cng ngh dng ch to vi mch tch hp.
Cng ngh CMOS c dng ch to vi x l, vi
iu khin, RAM tnh v cc mch lgc s khc.
Cng ngh CMOS cng c dng rt nhiu trong
cc mch tng t nh cm bin hnh nh, chuyn
i kiu d liu, v cc vi mch thu pht c mt
tch hp cao trong lnh vc thng tin.
Trong tn gi ca vi mch ny, thut ng ting
Anh "complementary" ("b"), m ch vic thit
k cc hm lgc trong cc vi mch CMOS s
dng c hai loitransistor PMOS v NMOS v ti
mi thi im ch c mt loi transistor nm
trng thi ng (ON).

6
7
C bn cc: cng (gate), ngun (source), mng (drain), nn (body)
Cc cng lp oxide cc nn tng ng vi mt transistor
Cc cng va cc nn la hai mt dn
SiO
2
(oxide) la lp cach in tt
Do o ta goi la tu ban dn oxide kim loai (metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)
capacitor)
Cc cng c th ch tao bng kim loai hoc ch tao bng Polysilicon
n+
p
Gate Source Drain
bulk Si
SiO
2
Polysilicon
n+
Cc nn c ni vi ground
Khi cc cng mc in p thp:
Cc nn loai P cung mc in ap thp
Cha hnh thnh knh dn
Khng co dong qua transistor: OFF
n+
p
Gate Source Drain
bulk Si
SiO
2
Polysilicon
n+
D
0
S
Khi cc cng mc in p cao :
Tu MOS c nap in dng cc cng
cc nn mang in tich m
Lam cho knh dn phia di cc cng thanh loai n
Dong in chay trong ban dn loai n t ngun n mang, transistor ON
n+
p
Gate Source Drain
bulk Si
SiO
2
Polysilicon
n+
D
1
S
Cu trc gm nn
(Substrate) Silic loi n,
hai vng khuch tn
loi (p+) gi l ngun
(Source) v mng
(Drain). Gia ngun v
mng l mt vng hp
nn n gi l knh,
c ph mt lp
cch in (SiO2) gi l
cng oxit.

Cc nn ni vi in ap mc cao (V
DD
)
Cc cng mc thp: transistor ON
Cc cng mc cao: transistor OFF
Du tron trong ky hiu biu thi tinh cht
ao ngc

12
To thnh t cc cng v nn
Cc ch hot ng
Tich luy
Ngheo ht dn
ao
polysilicon gate
(a)
silicon dioxide insulator
p-type body
+
-
V
g
< 0
(b)
+
-
0 < V
g
< V
t
depletion region
(c)
+
-
V
g
> V
t
depletion region
inversion region
Ch hot ng ph thuc vo V
g
, V
d
, V
s

V
gs
= V
g
V
s
V
gd
= V
g
V
d
V
ds
= V
d
V
s
= V
gs
- V
gd
Ngun v mng l cc cc i xng khuch tn
Theo truyn thng, cc ngun co in p thp hn
Do o V
ds
> 0
Nn ca nMOS c ni t. Gi s u tin
ngun cung mc 0.
V
g
V
s
V
d
V
gd
V
gs
V
ds
+
-
+
-
+
-
16
Vng ngng dn
Vng tuyn tnh
Vng bo ha

VUNG NGNG DN
Khng c knh dn v I
ds
= 0
+
-
V
gs
= 0
n+ n+
+
-
V
gd
p-type body
b
g
s
d

VUNG TUYN TINH
Hinh thnh knh dn
Dong chy t d sang s
e
-
chuyn t s sang d
I
ds
tng theo V
ds
Ging in tr tuyn tinh
+
-
V
gs
> V
t
n+ n+
+
-
V
gd
= V
gs
+
-
V
gs
> V
t
n+ n+
+
-
V
gs
> V
gd
> V
t
V
ds
= 0
0 < V
ds
< V
gs
-V
t
p-type body
p-type body
b
g
s
d
b
g
s
d
I
ds

VUNG BAO HOA
Knh dn trng thi nghet
I
ds
khng ph thuc V
ds
Ta ni: dong in bao hoa
Ging vi ngun dong
+
-
V
gs
> V
t
n+ n+
+
-
V
gd
< V
t
V
ds
> V
gs
-V
t
p-type body
b
g
s
d
I
ds

IN TICH TRONG KNH DN
Cu truc CMOS ging nh mt t hai bn cc
song song khi hot ng ch o
Cng oxide knh dn
Q
channel
= CV
C = C
g
= c
ox
WL/t
ox
= C
ox
WL
V = V
gc
V
t
= (V
gs
V
ds
/2) V
t
n+ n+
p-type body
+
V
gd
gate
+ +
source
-
V
gs
-
drain
V
ds
channel
-
V
g
V
s
V
d
C
g
n+ n+
p-type body
W
L
t
ox
SiO
2
gate oxide
(good insulator, c
ox
= 3.9)
polysilicon
gate
C
ox
= c
ox
/ t
ox

TC TAI IN TICH
in tich c ti bi in tch e-
Vn tc ti v ty l vi in trng gia ngun v
mng
v = E (: linh ng)
E = V
ds
/L
Thi gian ti qua knh dn:
t = L / v = L
2
/V
ds

C TUYN I-V TUYN TINH NMOS
Ta a bit:
Lng in tich Q
channel
trong knh dn
Thi gian t mi ht dn i ht knh dn
channel
ox
2
2
ds
ds
gs t ds
ds
gs t ds
Q
I
t
W
V
C V V V
L
V
V V V

|
=
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
ox
=
W
C
L
|

C TUYN I-V BAO HOA CA NMOS
Nu V
gd
< V
t
, knh dn b nghet gn cc mng
Khi V
ds
> V
dsat
= V
gs
V
t
Luc ny in p cc mng khng lm tng dong
na
( )
2
2
2
dsat
ds gs t dsat
gs t
V
I V V V
V V
|
|
| |
=
|
\ .
=
in dung cc cng knh dn rt quan trng
To ra in tich knh dn cn thit hot ng
in dung gia ngun v mng vi nn
Hinh thnh gia hai cc ca cc diode phn cc ngc
Gi l in dung khuch tn vi no tng ng vi s khuch tn
ca ngun/mng
25
SO SNH CNG SUT TIU TN V TR
HON TRUYN CA CC LOI TTL V
CMOS 5V
26

TRANSISTORS AS SWITCHES
C th xem cc transistor MOS nh cc cng tc iu
khin bng in
in p cc cng iu khin ng dn t ngun n
mng
g
s
d
g = 0
s
d
g = 1
s
d
g
s
d
s
d
s
d
nMOS
pMOS
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
A Y
0
1
V
DD
A Y
GND
A Y
A Y
0
1 0
V
DD
A=1 Y=0
GND
ON
OFF
A Y
A Y
0 1
1 0
V
DD
A=0 Y=1
GND
OFF
ON
A Y
A B Y
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1
A
B
Y
A B Y
0 0 1
0 1
1 0
1 1
A=0
B=0
Y=1
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
A B Y
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0
1 1
A=0
B=1
Y=1
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
A B Y
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1
A=1
B=0
Y=1
ON
ON
OFF
OFF

CNG NAND 3 NGO VAO
Y = 0 nu TT CA cc ngo vo bng 1
Y = 1 nu c IT NHT MT ngo vo bng 0


Y = 0 nu TT CA cc ngo vo bng 1
Y = 1 nu c IT NHT MT ngo vo bng 0
A
B
Y
C
A B Y
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
A=1
B=1
Y=0
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
A B Y
0 0 1
A=0
B=0
Y=1
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
A B Y
0 1 1 A=0
B=1
Y=1
ON
OFF
ON
ON
A B Y
1 0 1
A=1
B=0
Y=1
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
A B Y
1 1 0
A=1
B=1
Y=0
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
43
CH TAO CMOS 1-WELL
Cc transistor CMOS c ch to trn mt mu
silicon
Qu trinh tich hp ging nh qu trinh in khc
mi bc, cc vt liu khc nhau se c chen
vo hoc ct bo ra
hiu ro quy trinh ny hay quan st mt quy
trinh ch to n gin t hng thng ng v
t mt ct ngang ca mu silicon

MT CT NGANG CA CNG NOT
Thng dng loi p lm nn cho cc transistors
nMOS
Cn dng bn dn a lm giu n lm phn nn
cho transistors pMOS.
n+
p substrate
p+
n well
A
Y
GND
V
DD
n+ p+
SiO
2
n+ diffusion
p+ diffusion
polysilicon
metal1
nMOS transistor pMOS transistor

CAC MU NN VA GIAU
Nn phi c ni vi GND con n-well ni vi V
DD
S dng cc tip xuc min giu v min nn c kich tp
mnh
n+
p substrate
p+
n well
A
Y
GND
V
DD
n+ p+
substrate tap well tap
n+ p+

CAC MT NA CHO CNG AO
Transistor v dy ni c to thng qua cc mt na (mask)
Mt ct ngang c ly theo ng chm chm
GND V
DD
Y
A
substrate tap
well tap
nMOS transistor pMOS transistor

KY HIU CHI TIT CAC MT NA
Su loi mt n
n-well
Polysilicon
Khuch tn n+
Khuch tn p+
Tip xc
Kim loi
Metal
Polysilicon
Contact
n+ Diffusion
p+ Diffusion
n well

BT U CH TAO
Bt u vi mt ming bn dn th
Ch to cng o t phn y ln
Bc u tin l to ra mt lp bn dn giu n
Ph ln ming bn dn mt lp SiO
2
(oxide)
Bo i lp oxide ni cn to bn dn giu n
a trc tip hoc khuch tn cht kich tp loi n vo lp bn
dn l ra
Ph SiO
2
p substrate
To lp SiO
2
trn b mt ming bn dn Si
900 1200 C vi H
2
O hoc O
2
trong lo oxy ho
p substrate
SiO
2

LP QUANG TR
Keo mt lp quang tr
Quang tr l mt polymer nhy sng
Mm i khi phi ra trc nh sng
p substrate
SiO
2
Photoresist

IN KHC
M lp quang tr v tri ca mt n n-well
Ct bo lp quang tr v tri ny
p substrate
SiO
2
Photoresist

KHC
Khc oxide bng hydrofluoric acid (HF)
Ch khc lp oxide khi lp quang tr a l
ra
p substrate
SiO
2
Photoresist

CT BO LP QUANG TR
Ct bo lp quang tr con li
Dng hn hp acid gi l phng php khc piranah
Bc ny cn thit lp quang tr khng b
chy trong bc tip theo
p substrate
SiO
2

N-WELL
n-well to bi s khuch tn hay tim ion
Khuch tn
t ming bn dn trong lo gas arsen
Nung n khi cc nguyn t As khuch tn vo Si
Tim ion
Thi vo bn dn cc chm ion As
Cc ion bi chn bi SiO
2
, chi i vo nhng ch Si bi l ra
n well
SiO
2

CT BO LP OXIDE
Ct bo lp oxide con li dng HF
Tr li ming bn dn gc vi mt lp n-
well
Cc bc tip theo cung gm mt chui
cc bc tng t nh cc bc trn
p substrate
n well

SILICON A TINH TH (POLYSILICON)
Trm mt lp rt mong gate oxide
< 20 (6-7 lp nguyn t)
Qu trinh trm bng hi ho hc (Chemical Vapor
Deposition - CVD) trn lp silicon
t ming bn dn trong lo gas Silane (SiH
4
)
Hinh thnh nhiu tinh th nho gi l polysilicon
c kich tp mnh to vt dn tt

Thin gate oxide
Polysilicon
p substrate
n well

TAO MU POLYSILICON
S dng quy trinh in khc nh trn to cc
mu polysilicon nh hinh ve

Polysilicon
p substrate
Thin gate oxide
Polysilicon
n well

QUY TRINH SELF-ALIGNED
Dng oxide v phng php mt n l ra cc
vng cht kich tp n+ cn c khuch tn hay
tim vo
N-diffusion (vng khuch tn N) to thnh cc cc
ngun, mng ca transistor nMOS v tip xuc
n-well

p substrate
n well

N-DIFFUSION
Khc oxide to cc vung n+
Thc hin quy trinh self-aligned trong cng se ngn chn
s khuch tn
Polysilicon tt hn kim loi trong qu trinh self-aligned vi n
khng b chy trong cc x ly tip theo
p substrate
n well
n+ Diffusion

N-DIFFUSION (TT).
Trc y cc cht kich tp c khuch tn vo
Si
Ngy nay thng dng phng php tim ion
Tuy nhin cc vng ny vn gi l vng khuch
tn

n well
p substrate
n+ n+ n+
Ct bo lp oxide
n well
p substrate
n+ n+ n+
Cc bc tng t to cc vng khuch tn
p+ cho ngun v mng ca pMOS v tip xuc
nn
p+ Diffusion
p substrate
n well
n+ n+ n+ p+ p+ p+

CAC TIP XUC
By gi ta cn ni cc linh kin vi nhau
Ph ln chip mt trng oxide dy
Khc oxide ti cc ch cn to tip xuc
p substrate
Thick field oxide
n well
n+ n+ n+ p+ p+ p+
Contact

BOC KIM LOAI
Thi nhm ln ton b ming bn dn
To hinh nh hinh ve bo phn kim loi tha, ch li cc on ni cn
thit

p substrate
Metal
Thick field oxide
n well
n+ n+ n+ p+ p+ p+
Metal
CH TAO CMOS DUAL-WELL
CMOS hai ging thng gi l twin well hoc dual
well. y l cng ngh khi ch to nmosfet hay
pmosfet thi u phai lm ging m khng li dng
substrate lm ging cho nmosfet hoc pmosfet. L
do chinh ti sao cn twin well l khi lm ging ring
thi ngi ta iu khin chinh xc hn nng tp
cht bm vo, t o iu chinh in p ngng tt
hn, v cc thng s k thut khc cung c iu
chinh chun hn. Mch yu cu tc cao hay s
dng cng ngh twin well ny.
CH TAO N-WELL
BC 1: TAO CHT NN
69


Bc 2 : ph ln trn 1 lp SiO2






Bc 3
Keo mt lp quang tr ln b mt Oxit
Quang tr l mt polymer nhy sng
Mm i khi phi ra trc nh sng



Bc 4: loi bo lp cam quang bng cch x l
wafer vi dung dich axit




BC 5: LOC OXIT RA KHOI B WAFER
BC 6: LOAI BO LP CAN QUANG CN LAI
BC 7: N-WELL C HNH THNH BNG
CCH KHUCH TN HOC CY ION
75
BC 8: LOAI BO PHN OXIT CN LAI
76
BC 9: PH LN TRN N-WELL 1 LP MONG
THIN GATE OXIDE V POLYSILICON
77
BC 10: PH LN 1 LP OXIDE
78
BC 11: TAP CHT X B KHUCH TN TAO
THNH N+ V B LOAI DN
79
BC 12: THIT LP TNG T HNH
THNH P+
80
BC 13: NI CHNG LAI VI NHAU BNG
POLYSILICON
81
Bc 14: ph ln trn 1 lp kim loi
CMOS c tr khng u vo cao m l mt
c tinh rt quan trng trong vic thit k
mt khuch i tuyn tinh ac.Trn CMOS
tay khc c p ng tn s thp.

CMOS c ich trong Vi mch vi xy dng
nho hn, nhit n nh hn FETs

84
- Dong in r
- Ch to phc tp
CMOS thng
SOI
(silicon on insulator)
- Gim cng
sut tiu th
- Gim kich
thc
- Tng tc
x ly

Trong cng ngh SOI, mt lp vt liu cch in
c chn vo gia phin silc, li mt phn silc
nho gia cc cu ni. Li th ca SOI l vi s
chn thm lp cch in ny, in dung ca t silc
gia cc cu c cc tiu ho, do o giam thi
gian cn thit thot/np, m v ong cu ni.
iu ny gip tng s cng vic x l c trong
mt n vi thi gian.
- SOI hn ch hin tng ro r dong in.

- Cng 1 mc in p, tc x li ca SOI nhanh hn
BULK

Ch to
SOI wafer
IV.NG DNG
Cng ngh CMOS c ng dng v pht trin
rng ri trong cm bin trong my nh, my
quay phim, chip, in thoi, camera k thut s,
PDA)




CMOS rc ri nht v c mt ng gi
thp nht trong cc h MOS, nhng im mnh
ca cc linh kin c ch to bng cng ngh
CMOS l c min nhiu cao v tiu th nng
lng trng thi tnh rt thp.
CMOS t tiu th nng lng v nhit lng
ta ra thp
CMOS c ng dng rng ri trong lnh
vc cng ngh, k thut s.