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# DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

Subject Code

DAC 20503

Practical Name

TRAVERSE SURVEY

Course Code

2 DAA

Practical Date

24 November 2015

Group

AA140803

Group Members

## Kishyodini A/P K. Nallathamby

Mohd Shahrul Amran B. Masrom
Siti Hajar Bt. Zamri
Syarifah Aisar Azziemmie Imthisal Bt. Sayed

AA141632
AA140955
AA141383
AA141370

Mohd Azmi.
Zul asyraff b. zulkefli
Hj Masiri Bin Kaamin

AA141173

Lecture Name
Marks

Introduction
Objective
Theory
Instrument
Procedure
Data/Table
Data analysis
Discussion
Conclusion/Recommendation
Reference
Total mark
Accepted Seal

/5%
/5%
/10%
/5%
/5%
/10%
/20%
/15%
/10%
/5%
/100%

1.0

INTRODUCTION
A traverse survey is one in which the framework consists of a series of connected lines, the lengths

and direction of which are measured with the help of tape or chain and an angle measuring instrument
Besides, traverse survey consists of an interconnected series of lines, running between
a series of points on the ground called traverse stations. A traverse survey is performed to
measure both the distances between the stations and the angle between the lines

When the lines from a circuit which ends at the starting point, the survey is termed a closed traverse, if
the circuit does not close, the traverse as known as open one.The closed traverse is suitable for wide . This
method is applied for accurate and precise survey but for this fieldwork, we have to estimate our own distance
by using pegs.

2.0

OBJECTIVE

## 1. To describe traverse measurement method.

2. Explain the procedure to carry out reconnaissance traversing theodolite.
3. To run the observations as well as the format used by the Department Of Survey And
Mapping Malaysia.
4. Carry out the adjustments and corrections for the value of observations.
5. Plotting using the coordinate method by using AutoCAD application.

3.0

THEORY
Travers survey method used to measure the distance between two stations and the

angle between the lines. It is including the measuring processes of the horizontal angle and
horizontal distance. The two dimension coordinate (x, y) can be issued based on the measured
data. Other than that, traverse survey has been used to form the controlled points that can be
used for another project.
Furthermore, when the lines of the circuit end at the starting point, the survey is
termed as closed traversed. This traverse starts with the known point and end with the other
known point is called as chains traverse. In the other words, traverse also can start and end at
the same point and it is known as a polygon. The aim of this traverse is to get the accuracy of
the measurement (angle error and the ratio of the distance error) can be detected.

## The equations that can be used:

i.

Calculation of average:
face face
Average =(+180/180)
2

ii.

Latit=L cos
Dipat =Lsin

iii.

## Correction of latit and dipat:

correction of latit=

## distance tikaian lat it

total distance

correction of dipat=

total distance

iv.

## Calculation of linear misclosure:

( misclosure latit )2+ ( misclosure dipat )2
linear misclosure=
total distance

v.

## Calculation of two times latit:

Duakali latit garisan berkenaan=Dua kali latit garisan sebelumnya
+nilai latit gari san sebelumnya+ latit garisan berkenaan

vi.

## Calculation of two times dipat:

Duakali dipat garisan berkenaan=Dua kali dipat garisan sebelumnya
+nilai dipat garisan sebelumnya+ dipat garisan berkenaan

vii.

Calculation of are:
a. Two times latit x dipat
2 Area= ( twolatit ) dipat
b. Two times dipat x latit
2 Area= ( twodipat ) latit

4.0

INSTRUMENTS

## 1. Total station (1 set)

A total station is an electronic instrument used in modern surveying. The total station
is an electronic theodolite integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read
slope distances from the instrument to a particular point. It is also used in distance
measurement, angle measurement and also coordinate measurement.
2. Tripod (3 sets)

The figure which is located above is called a tripod, a tripod is a portable three-legged
frame, used as a platform for supporting the weight and maintaining the stability of
the total station and the total station prism. A tripod provides stability against
downward forces and horizontal forces and movements about horizontal axes. The
positioning of the three legs away from the vertical centre allows the tripod better
leverage for resisting lateral forces.

## 3. Total station prism (2 sets)

The type of prism used must be exactly the same with the type of total station or else
some errors in reading will occur. A prism is essential for most EDM and total station.
The prism is used to return the transmitted beam to the total station to allow a distance
to be determined by the time of phase comparison. It is constructed from glass cubes
that will return the beam along a path that is exactly parallel to the line of the incident
path.
4. Prismatic compass (1 set)

## A prismatic compass is a navigation and surveying instrument which is extensively

used for determining course, waypoint (an endpoint of the leg of a course) and
direction, and for calculating bearings of survey lines and included angles between
them.

5. Pegs (4 pieces)

## Pegs is used to mark the location of our surveying work.

6. Hammer (1 set)

## Hammer is used to hammer the nails onto the pegs.

7. Nails

Nails are placed at the center of the pegs and be a center mark to stand
our total station and prism.5.0

WORK PROCEDURE

a) Early preparation:
1. The review process carried out prior to starting work this traverse. # This is done by
looking around the work area in order to plan and choose a suitable place to plant a
picket to be used as a station. Besides, the number of the station will also be
determined.
2. The distance between the lines traversing shall exceed 5 meters of each other and
must be seen to make observations bearing and distance. \$ Measurement shall be
conducted in the clockwise direction.
3. Pickets are used as control points must be planted firmly and be in a safe place and
not in a way that does not interfere.
4. Datum for the first traverse lines taken from a given reference plan.
b) Way of works:
1. Set up the tripod at station 2.Open its leg and adjust the height so that about peer chest
and adjust its position so that the surface looks flat according to observers.
2. Total Station instrument is placed on the tripod.
3. Centering is done by loosening the screw tightening tripod and tripod moved up
showing just above the picket of the eyepiece plummet.
4. Perform adjustment of air bubbles. This adjustment is intended to position the air
bubbles to always be in the middle of the tube path in any direction shown by the
binoculars.
5. Repeat the process on the prism mounted on the stations 1 and 3.

c) Steps:

1. Turn the telescope so that the position of the bubble tube with two screws parallel
track, saying screw the screws A and B. Turn the two screws in the opposite direction
so that the air bubble is in the middle of the tube.
2. Turn the telescope in position 90 from position (1) and move the three screws (C)
until the air bubble is in the middle of the tube.
3. Turn the telescope in the first position. Check the position of the bubble. Hose if
necessary ie until the air bubble is in the middle even where the recipient binoculars.
4. Set to Target 1:
a. Binoculars rolled over towards the prism at station 1.
b. Slow motion screw vertical and horizontal slow motion screw is tightened when the
target looks in binoculars.
c. Turn the horizon slow motion screw diameter vertical so that the stage is right in the
middle of the prism.
5. As breeders left, set the datum line reading 1-2.
6. Observatory for the distance and record the line 2-1.
7. Then turn and point the telescope at the prism at station 3 and the binoculars up to
midline stage right in the middle of the prism. Bearing and distance values are
observed and recorded.
8. Total Station instrument convertible senior breeders and aiming at the station Prism 1.
The bearing breeders set right where the left is added with 180.
9. Binoculars Prism is targeted once again to the station 3. The bearing and distance are
recorded.
10. Total Station instrument is transferred to station 3 and prism station to station 2 and 4.
At breeders left, set the bearing 3-2, in which the bearing is bearing an average of 2 to
3 (average reading breeders bearing between the left and right where the difference
bearing among breeders is 180 left and right).
11. Line distance 2 to 3 revised and the value recorded.
12. Binocular prism rotated and targeted to the station 4. Bearing and line spacing 3 to 4
13. Total Station instrument exchanged in the right and breeders aim at the prism 2. The
bearing breeders in the right-hand set where the breeders are added to 180.
14. Binoculars Prism is targeted once again to the station 4. The bearing and distance
noted.
15. Total Station instrument is transferred to station 4 and the prism station to station 3
and 1. In breeders left, set the bearing 4-3, in which the bearing is bearing an average
of 3 to 4 (average reading breeders bearing between the left and right where the
difference bearing among breeders is 180 left and right).
16. Line spacing 3 to 4 revised and the value recorded.

17. Binocular prism rotated and targeted to the station 1. Bearing and distance lines 4 to 1
18. Total Station instrument exchanged on the right and breeders aim at a prism bearing
breeders 3. The right-hand set where the breeders are added to 180.
19. Binoculars Prism is targeted once again to the station 1. The bearing and distance are
recorded.
20. Total Station instrument is transferred to station 1 and prism station to station 4 and 2.
In the breeders left, set the bearing 1-4, in which the bearing is bearing an average of
4 to 1 (the average reading breeders bearing between the left and right where the
difference bearing among breeders is 180 left and right).
21. Distance line 4 to 1 revised and the value recorded.
22. Binocular prism rotated and targeted at station 2. Bearing and distance lines 1 to 2
23. Total Station instrument exchanged on the right and breeders aim at the prism 4. The
bearing set right where breeders left added value to 180.
24. Binoculars targeted again in the prism tasking 2. The bearing and distance noted.
25. The value of the station bearing cover 1 to 2 are read and recorded. The difference in
the bearing must not exceed the permitted limit of 2'30 ".
26. Sketch work traverse run is shown in detail with bearing and distance of each station.

## 6.0 DATA ANALYSIS

a. TRAVERSE ADJUSTMENTS TO RULES BOWDITCH
The method of calculating the average, definite bearing, definite
distance and total distance.

face face
Average =(+180/180)
2

## 399 80 ' 40} over {2} =19934'20

199 34' 10 +19 34 ' 30 +180
Stn .2=
=
2
694 33' 38 } over {2} =34716'49
'
347 16 49 + 167 16 ' 49 +180
Stn .3=
=
2
47 36 ' 46 } over {2} =2348'23
'
23 48 23 +20348'23180
Stn .4=
=
2

## 344 30' 00} over {2} =17215'00

172 15' 00 +35215'00180
Stn .1=
=
2

Correction
172 15 ' 00

Should

172 15 ' 00

Definite=averagecorrection

199 34 ' 20

## Stn .3=347 16' 49 0

347 16 ' 49
Stn .4=23 48 ' 23 0
23 48' 23

## Stn .1=172 15' 00 0

172 15 ' 00

Definite Distance=

distance 1+distance 2
2

Stn .2=

37.754+37.762
=37.758
2

Stn .3=

36.913+36.910
=36.912
2

Stn .4=

39.274+39.268
=39.271
2

Stn .1=36.692

## Total Distance , = jarak ( stn.2+ stn.3+ stn.4 +stn .1 )

37.758+36.912+39.271+ 36.692

150.633

Stn.

Bearing

Distance

Latit
(+)

Dipat
(-)

(+)

(-)

1
2
3
4
1

199342
0
347164
9
023482
3
172150
0
Total =

37.758
36.912
39.271
36.692
150.633

+0.001

+0.006

35.576

12.649

-0.001

+0.006

36.006

8.127

-0.001

-0.006

35.930

15.852
+0.001

-0.006

36.357

4.948

71.936
71.933
L=0.003

## Jadual 1: Latit dan dipat

Solution:
Method to calculate LATIT is:
Latit=L cos

199 34 ' 20 }
Latit 2=37.758 cos
35.576
347 16 ' 49 }
Latit 3=36.912 cos
36.006

23 48 ' 23}
Latit 4=39.271 cos
35.930

20.800
20.776
D=0.024

172 15 ' 00 }
Latit 1=36.692 cos
36.357

## Method to calculate DIPAT is:

Dipat =Lsin

199 34 ' 20 }
Dipat 2=37.758 sin
12.649
347 16 ' 49 }
Dipat 3=36.912 sin
8.127

23 48' 23}
Dipat 4=39.271 sin
15.852
172 15' 00}
Dipat 1=36.692 sin
4.948

Adjustments for all latit north (+) is - ve and adjustment for all latit south
(-) is + ve. This is because the number of latit north more than the south
latit.

Correction=

## Distance misclosure Latit

Total distance

Latit 2=

37.758 0.003
=+0.001
150.633

Latit 3=

36.912 0.003
=0.001
150.633

Latit 4=

39.271 0.003
=0.001
150.633

Latit 1=

36.692 0.003
=+0.001
150.633

Adjustments for all dipat east (+) is - ve and adjustment for all dipat west
(-) is + ve. This is because the number of dipat east more than the dipat
west.

Correction Dipat =

Total Distance

Dipat 2=

37.758 0.024
=+ 0.006
150.633

Dipat 3=

36.912 0.024
=+ 0.006
150.633

Dipat 4=

39.271 0.024
=0.006
150.633

Dipat 1=

36.692 0.024
=0.006
150.633

## misclosure Latit , L=tota l latit

L=( 36.006+ 35.930 )+ ( 35.576+36.357 )
( 71.936 ) + ( 71.933 )
0.003

## misclosure Latit , D=total dipat

D= (15.852+ 4.948 ) + ( 12.649+8.127 )
( 20.800 ) + ( 20.776 )
0.024

## linear misclosure=(misclosure latit)2 +(misclosure dipat)2

(0.003)2 +(0.024)2

150.633
1:6227.908

## Method to calculate the coordinate of north and south is:

Coordinate12

1000.000correction latit
1000.00035.577

964.423
Coordinate23
Coordinate12 +correction latit
964.423+36.005

1000.428
Coordinate34
Coordinate23 +correction latit
1000.428+35.929

1036.357

Coordinate 41
Coordinate34 + correctionlatit
1036.35736.358

999.999
Method to calculate the coordinate of east and west is:
Coordinate12
1000.000correction dipat

1000.00012.655
987.345

Coordinate23
Coordinate12 +correction dipat
987.3458.133

979.212
Coordinate34
Coordinate23 +correction dipat
979.212+15.846

995.058
Coordinate 41
Coordinate34 + correction dipat
995.0584.942

1000.000
Latit and dipat after Bowditch is adjusted by the method as shown in the
table below:
Stn.

Bearing

Distance

Latit
(+)

Dipat
(-)

(+)

(-)

1
2
3
4
1

199342
0
347164
9
023482
3
172150
0
Total =

37.758

35.577

36.912

36.005

39.271

35.929

36.692
150.633

12.655
8.133
15.846

36.358
71.934
71.935
L=0.003

4.942
20.788
20.788
D=0.024

## 2. METHOD OF ADJUSTMENT TRANSIT

In this method, the correction is proportional to the latit and dipat. The
larger the value latit or dipat the greater the value of the correction. The
formula is as below:

Stn.

Bearing

Distance

Latit
(+)

Dipat
(-)

(+)

(-)

1
2
3
4
1

199342
0
347164
9
023482
3
172150
0
Total =

37.758

35.576

36.912

36.006

39.271

35.930

36.692
150.633

12.649
8.127
15.852

36.357
71.936
71.933
L=0.003

4.948
20.800
20.776
D=0.024

Solution:
Stn.

Bearing

Distance

Latit
(+)

Dipat
(-)

(+)

(-)

1
2
3
4
1

199342
0
347164
9
023482
3
172150
0
Total =

37.758
36.912
39.271
36.692
150.633

+0.001

+0.007

35.576

12.649

-0.001

+0.005

36.006

8.127

-0.001

-0.009

35.930

15.852
+0.001

-0.003

36.357

4.948

71.936
71.933
L=0.003

20.800
20.776
D=0.024

## Total latit of north and south = 143.869

Total dipat of east and west = 41.576
table 2: Latit dan dipat

Adjustments for all latit north (+) is -ve and adjustment for all latit south
(-) is + ve. This is because the number of latit north is greater than the
number of latit south.

Correction Latit 12

## Latit 12 misclosure Latit

Total Latit

35.576 0.003
143.869

+0.001
Correction Latit 23

## Latit 23 misclosure Latit

Tikaian Latit

36.006 0.003
143.869

0.001

Correction Latit 34

## Latit 34 misclosure Latit

Total Latit

35.930 0.003
143.869

0.001
Correction Latit 4 1

## Latit 41 misclosure Latit

Total Latit

36.357 0.003
143.869

+0.001

Adjustments for all dipat is -ve east and west adjustment for all dipat is +
ve. This is because the number of dipat east more than the number west
dipat.

Correction Dipat 12

## Dipat 12 Tikaian Dipat

Total Dipat

12.649 0.024
41.576

+0.007

Correction Dipat 23

## Dipat 23 misclosure Dipat

Total Dipat

8.127 0.024
41.576

+0.005

Correction Dipat 3 4

## Dipat 34 misclosure Dipat

Total Dipat

15.852 0.024
41.576

0.009
Correction Dipat 41

## Dipat 41 misclosure Dipat

Total Dipat

4.948 0.024
41.576

0.003

Latit and dipat after adjusting the transit method are as below:

Stn.

Bearing

Distance

Latit
(+)

Dipat
(-)

(+)

(-)

1
2
3
4
1

199342
0
347164
9
023482
3
172150
0
Total =

37.758

35.577

36.912

36.005

39.271

35.929

36.692
150.633

12.656
8.132
15.843

36.358
71.934
71.935
L=0.003

4.945
20.788
20.788
D=0.024

## Total latit north and south = 143.869

Total dipat east and west = 41.576
Table 3: Adjustment Latit and Dipat

## METHOD OF CALCULATION OF AREA TRAVERSE

Calculation of Two Times Latit and Two Times Dipat
Stn.

Latit
(+)

Dipat
(-)

(+)

(-)

1
2
3
4
1

35.577
36.005
35.929
36.358
71.934
71.935
L=0.003

12.655
8.133
15.846
4.942
20.788
20.788
D=0.024

## Table 1: Calculation Two Times Latit and Two Times Dipat

Solution:
For first line:
first line of twolatit=first line of latit
For another line: (in Malay language)

## Duakali latit garisan berkenaan=Dua kali latit garisan sebelumnya

+nilai latit garisan sebelumnya+latit garisan berkenaan

twolatit 12
latit 12
35.577
twolatit 23
dua kali latit 12+latit 12 +latit 23
35.577+ (35.577 )+ 36.005
35.149
twolatit 34
dua kali latit 23+ latit23 +latit 34
35.149+ 36.005+ 35.929

36.785
twolatit 41
dua kali latit 34 +latit 34 +latit 4 1
36.785+35.929+(36.358)

36.356

The calculation of

twodipat

as below:

## For first line:

first line of twodipat=first line of dipat
For another line: (in Malay language)
Duakali dipat garisan berkenaan=Dua kali dipat garisan sebelumnya
+nilai dipat garisan sebelumnya+ dipat garisan berkenaan

twodipat 12
dipat 12
12.655
twodipat 23
dua kali dipat 12 +dipat 12+ dipat 23
12.655+ (12.655 ) +(8.133)

33.443
twodipat 34
dua kali dipat 23 +dipat 23 +dipat 34
33.443+ (8.133 )+15.846
25.730
twodipat 41
dua kali dipat 34 + dipat 34 +dipat 41
25.730+ 15.846+4.942

4.942
Stn.

Latit
(+)

Dipat
(-)

(+)

(-)

1
2

35.577

36.005

35.929

36.358
71.934 71.935
L=0.003

12.655

35.577

12.655

8.133

35.149

33.443

15.846

36.785

25.730

4.942

36.356

4.942

20.788 20.788
D=0.024

## Table 2: Value of two times latit and two times dipat

Calculation of area:
I.
St
n.

Latit
(+)

(-)

Dipat
(+)
(-)

Dua
Kali
Latit

( twolatit )

Dua
Kali
Dipat

dipat

1
2
3
4

35.57
7
36.00
5
35.92
9

36.35
8

12.65
5
8.133
15.8
46
4.94
2

## 35.577 12.655 450.227

35.149 33.443 285.867
36.785

25.730 582.895

36.356

4.942 179.671

Total= 1498.660
Table 3: Calculation of area trabas
2 Area= ( twolatit ) dipat
1498.660
Area=

1498.660
2
2

749.330 m

II.
St
n.

## (two times dipat)latit

Latit
(+)
(-)

Dipat
(+)
(-)

two

two

( twodipat )

latit

dipat

latit

35.577

12.655 450.227

35.149

33.443

1
2
3

35.5
77
36.0
05

12.6
55
8.13
3

1204.115

35.9
29

36.3
58

15.8
46
4.94
2

36.785

25.730

36.356

4.942
Total =

924.453
179.681
1498.660

Table 4: Calculation

## 2 Area= ( twodipat ) latit

1498.660
Area=

1498.660
2

749.330 m2
749.330 m2
*symbol negative is ignored
Coordinate method:
Solution:
1) List coordinate of X and Y.
2) Put coordinate first in last column.
3) Total:
i. Left to right(-ve)
ii.
Right to left(+ve)
iii.
Difference between 2 total=2 X area
Stn.
1
2
3
4
1

Coordinate
Y
1000.000
964.423
1000.428
1036.357
999.999
Table 5: calculation of area

X
1000.000
987.345
979.212
995.058
1000.000

Total 1
= (1000.000987.345) + (964.423979.212) + (1000.428995.058) +
(1036.3571000.000)
=987,345.000 + 944,374.575 + 995,483.885 + 1,036,357
=3,963,560.460
Total 2
= (1000.000964.423) + (987.3451000.428) + (979.2121036.357) +
(995.058999.999)
= 964,423.000 + 987,767.584 + 1,014,813.211 + 995,057.005
= 3,962,060.800

## Big value small value

= total 1-2
= 3,963,560.460 3,962,060.800
= 1499.660
Area=

1499.660
2

2
= 749.830 m

7.0

DISCUSSION
In this traverse work, there were some error occurred which made our measurements

inaccurate faced and fortunately still managed to solve all those problems. One of the
problems is we had complication in the setting up process. The survey instruments are hard to
handle it where we faced difficulties in adjusting the bubble in the center of the circle.
Although we do not have any problem with the distance as we are told to use the measuring
tape. So, it is very important to make sure that the bubble at the center of the circle. Those
errors were the total station and prism did not been set up properly. When the total station and
prism were not well set up, the reading will misread thus create error because the total station
is not level. The other factor that causes error is the unstable condition of the soil either it is
too soft or hard. During our practical, the condition of the weather was bad where it was a
rainy season. Therefore, after the tripod has been set up in the unstable soil, slowly sink into
the ground, thus creating an error in the total station and prism. So, the condition of the
instruments was unstable and the bubble was no longer in the center of the circle. Therefore,
we were told to repeat the whole traverse work in order to obtain accurate readings. The
defect in the total station and prism that been used in the traverse work also create error in the
reading where the refraction of the total station creates error while taking the readings. The
other reason is that the prism was not placed at the exact point. When the prism was not well
placed for example the prism was place at the side of the point, the bearing will have a slight
difference from the exact bearing. The mistake in booking will also contribute to the error. If
one of the values is wrong, it will affect the overall calculation. So, we really make sure that
the total station and prism is level and well set up by referring the bubble which should be in
the centre of the circle and the datum that being used is checked first before proceed with the
readings. Besides, the traverse work should be started and ended at the same known datum
line. Lastly, before finishing the traverse work, we make sure the misclosure does not
exceed the allowable misclosure.

8.0

CONCLUSION
From the traverse work, the coordinates for each peg and station were determined.

The traverse maps surrounding the faculty of civil engineering building have been obtained
and plotted using the software. Coordinates will represent the value in mapping the traverse
plan. From that, we can use the plan for the tachymetry work and the setting up also can be
done. The level of understanding towards the theory and concept of traverse work is being
improved. The skills of using the equipment of the laboratory is enhanced where can be able
to handle the total station and prism correctly. All the data that have been calculated was
accurate and perfect where the distances and bearing between each and every point was
correct. We repeatedly read the reading of the instruments many times in order to avoid
parallax error for a better result. Besides, we also had though time placing the bubble right
into the circle but as we try doing it many times, we finally managed the art of handling the
bubble staff. The plan consists of every characteristics of the curves and the coordinates. All
the data and levelling reading is acceptable under and over the tolerances. Hence, a good time
management and an attitude of cooperating with group member is achieved.

9.0

REFERENCE
KEJURUTERAAN GEOMATIK, Masiri Kaamin, Abd. Shukor Sarif, Panel
Kejuruteraan Geomatik,Jabatan Kejuruteraan Pengangkutan, Geoteknik Dan
Geomatik,Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam Dan Alam Sekitar, University Tun Hussein
Onn Malaysia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traverse_(surveying)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/102059989/V3-Traverse-Survey-Report
https://www.scribd.com/doc/94875561/Complete-Traverse-Report
http://jerrymahun.com/library/TraverseComps/Area/Area.htm