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Origin, Insertion and Action Table

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

Origin Insertion Action

lumbodorsal fascia and extensive neurosis passing constrictor of the

External Oblique
posterior ribs through the linea alba abdomen

Internal oblique second sheet of the

linea alba (through compressor of the
lumbodorsal fascia; border
extensive aponeurosis) abdomen
Transversus of the pelvic girdle
retracts ribs and
anterior end of the pubic sternum and costal
Rectus abdominis sternum; compressor of
symphysis cartilages
the abdomen

Muscles of the Chest

Origin Insertion Action

flat tendon on the fascia of

Pectoantibrachialis manubrium
the forearm

sternum; median ventral

Pectoralis major humerus
draws arms towards the
Pectoralis minor sternum humerus

Xiphihumeralis sternum humerus

Muscles of the Neck and Throat

Origin Insertion Action

median raphe and lambdoidal ridge into turn head; draw head to
manubrium mastoid process neck
Sternohyoid sternum basihyoid draws hyoid posteriorly
thyroid cartilage of the
Sternothyroid sternum pulls larynx posteriorly
posterior horn of the
Thyrohyoid thyroid cartilage raises the larynx
pulls clavicle craniad or
* mastoid process of
Cleidomastoid * clavicle turns head; draw head
to neck
clavicle; fibers of
Clavobrachialis 1 ulna flexor of the arm

* Interchangeable
Clavobrachialis + Clavotrapezius = Cephalobrachial
posterior half of lateral
Masseter zygomatic arch elevator of lower jaw
surface of mandible
superior nuchal line to
coronoid process of
Temporal zygromatic process; part elevator of lower jaw
of the zygomatic arch
jugular and mastoid
Digastric mandible depressor of mandible
process of skull
raises floor of the
Mylohyoid mandible median raphe mouth; brings hyoid

Geniohyoid mandible near symphysis body of the hyoid draws hyoid forward

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder

Origin Insertion Action
neural spine of last
thoracic and most tendon on medial surface pulls forelimb dorsally
Latissimus dorsi
lumbars; lumbodorsal of humerus and caudally
Levator scapulae transverse process of atlas metacromion process and draws the scapula
ventralis and occipital bone neighboring fascia craniad
superior nuchal line;
draws clavicle dorsad
Clavotrapezius median dorsal line of the clavicle
and craniad
metacromion process and draws scapula dorsad
neural spines of cervical
Acromiotrapezius spine of scapula; fascia of and holds two scapula
and first thoracic
clavotrapezius together
spines of the thoracic draws scapula dorsad
Spinotrapezius fascia of scapula
vertebrae and caudad
neural spines of vertebrae vertebral column of
Rhomboideus draws scapula dorsad
and adjacent ligaments scapula
draws scapula craniad;
Rhomboideus capitis superior nuchal line scapula
rotates scapula

Splenius middorsal line and fascia superior nuchal line raises or turns the head

whole surface of greater tuberosity of

Supraspinatus extends the humerus
supraspinous fossa humerus
whole surface of greater tuberosity of
Infraspinatus rotates the humerus
infraspinous fossa humerus
lesser tuberosity of pulls the humerus
Subscapularis subscapular fossa
humerus medially
Clavodeltoid (also clavicle and fibers of the
Clavobrachial) clavotrapezius
raises and rotates the
Acromiodeltoid acromion of scapula surface of other deltoids humerus
Spinodeltoid spine of scapula deltoid ridge of humerus
axillary border of scapula;
tendon on medial surface rotates the humerus
Teres major fascia of neighboring
of humerus and lowers the humerus
Teres minor axillary border of scapula greater tuberosity assists the infraspinatus
slips from first 9 or 10 ribs; draws the scapula
scapula near vertebral
Serratus ventralis transverse process of last craniad; ventrad and
5 cervical vertebrae against thoracic wall
aponeurosis from medial
Serratus dorsalis last ribs draws the ribs forward
dorsal line
transverse process of draws rib forward, bend
Scalenes ribs
cervical vertebra the neck
anterior margin of
External intercostals posterior margin of the rib bring ribs forward
adjacent posterior rib
posterior margin of
Internal intercostals anterior margin of the rib draw ribs back
adjacent posterior rib
neural spine of the extends vertebral
Multifidus spinae lumbar pleurapophyses
vertebra column
Sacrospinalis various parts of more
a) Semispinalis posterior sacral, lumbar, neural processes of more extends and flexes
b) Longissimus thoracic and cervical anterior vertebrae vertebral column
c) Iliocostalis vertebrae

Muscles of the Upper Arm

Origin Insertion Action

Triceps brachii strengthens elbow

distal end of the humerus lateral surface of ulna
(anconeus) joint; rotates ulna
Epitrochlearis/ Extensor
latissimus dorsi olecranon rotate the ulna
Biceps brachii glenoid fossa radius
flexor of the forearm
Brachialis lateral surface of humerus ulna

Muscles of the Forearm

Origin Insertion Action

lateral epicondyle of
proximal end of fifth (5th) extends 5th digit and
Extensor carpi ulnaris humerus; semilunar notch
metacarpal ulnar side of wrist
of ulna
External digitorum
lateralis lateral surface of humerus
tendons internal to wrist
above the lateral extends 3 or 4 digits
External digitorum ligaments
Supinator longus/ lower end of radius and rotates hand to supine
middle of humerus
Brachioradialis adjacent ligaments position
second and third
Extensor carpi radialis humerus extends hand
rotates radius to prone
Pronator teres radius
medial epicondyle of second and third flexes second and third
Flexor carpi radialis
humerus metacarpals metacarpals
tendons passing through
Palmaris longus flexor of digits
wrist ligaments
Flexor profundus
ulna and humerus basal phalanges general flexor of fingers
medial epicondyle of
Flexor carpi ulnaris pisiform bone of wrist flexes ulnar side of wrist
humerus; olecranon

Muscles of the Thigh

Origin Insertion Action
adjacent fascia; crest of
ilium, lateral surface of
greater trochanter of
Gluteus medius ilium, transverse process abduct thigh
of last sacral and first
caudal vertebra
fascia and transverse
Gluteus maximus processes of last sacral fascia abduct thigh
and first caudal vertebra
transverse processes of 2nd abduct thigh; extends
Caudofemoralis patella
and 3rd caudal vertebra shank
proximal end of the tibia & adductor and rotator of
crest and ventral border of
Sartorius patella and fascia & the thigh;extensor of
ligaments between shank
ilium and neighboring
Tensor fascia latae fascia lata tightens the fascia latae
patella and tibia; fascia of abduct thigh; flexes
Biceps femoris tuberosity of ischium
shank shank
Quadriceps femoris
greater trochanter and
a) Vastus lateralis
surface of femur
b) Rectus femoris ilium near acetabulum patella and adjacent
extensor of the shank
c) Vastus medialis femur
d) Vastus intermedius surface of femur
ischial and pubic aponeurosis which passes
Gracilis adducts leg
symphysis to tibia
Adductor longus and
pubis femur adduct thigh
Adductor femoris
medial epicondyle of
Semimembranosus ischium femur, proximal end of extends thigh
transverse process of
Semitendinosus fascia of shank extends thigh
second caudal vertebrae

Muscles of the Shank

Origin Insertion Action
proximal parts of tibia and st
Tibialis anterior first (1 ) metatarsal flexor of foot
Extensor digitorum lateral epicondyle of tendon inserted on each
extensor of digits
longus femur digit
extensor and flexor of
Peroneus fibula metatarsals and digits
surface fascia; femur,
Gastrocnemius tendon, and fascia of extensor of foot
Soleus fibula extensor of foot
Plantaris patella and femur flexor of digits
tibia, fibula, adjacent
Flexor digitorum longus phalanges flexor of digits
scaphoid and medial
Tibialis posterior tibia, fibula, fascia extensor of foot
cuneiform of ankle

Hyman, LH. 1965. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. Chicago, USA: The University of Chicago Press.

Sia, AJ. n.d. Cat Muscular System. Manila, Philippines: Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences,
University of the Philippines Manila