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Readings

Kauflin(2008).WorshipMatters. Chapters1827(pp.153212) Leisch(1996).TheNewWorship.Chapters89(pp.121144) Robinson(2011).ContemporaryWorshipSingers:Construct, Culture,EnvironmentandVoice. Chapters2&6(pp.4659;208 223).Thistextcanbeaccessedonline bit.ly/IXArES

DesigningWorshipwith PositiveTensions
Objectives:
1. Surveyarangeofculturaltensionsthatarisewithinmodernworshipexperience 2. Wherepossible,considerthetheologicalandhistoricalfootingsofthesetensions 3. Discusstheimplicationsofthesetensionsonthemodernworshipexperience

Outcomes:
At the completion of this session students will be expected to form a concise understanding of the arisingtensionsthatareinevitablyformedwhen21stCenturyChristiansgathertoworshipGod.

1. Defining Tension
Worshippers,specificallywesternChristians,existinasecularstatethathasembracedthenarcissismof celebritycultureandthehedonisticexpressionofselffulfilment.Consequently,thegatheringofGods people is actively (directly and indirectly) influenced by the social concerns of the age. Marva Dawn (1995), in her text Reaching Out without Dumbing Down, urges us to recognise and remember how easilyweassumetheselfcentredmindsetoftheculturethatsurroundsusandworkmoredeliberately torejectit(pp.109110).

Christian history has illustrated in numerous ways that the cost to the Church of shapingthewidecultureistobeitselfshapedandreshapedbymyriadofinescapable involvements.(GilbertquotedinEvans,2006,p.69)
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PositiveTensions
TheConciseOxfordEnglishDictionary(2008)definesTensionasastrainedstateorconditionresulting fromforcesactinginoppositiontoeachother(p.1485).Thisdefinitionsuggestsanegativeposition, butourconcernistodefinethetensionsweexperienceinourcorporategatheringsaspositive. While discussing Tensions in his book Worship Matters, Bob Kauflin (2008) suggests that we should examine these tensions in light of Gods Word (p. 157). Kauflin uses the word healthy (p. 156) to denotethepositiveplaceoftensionswithinourworshipconstructsrecognisingthatwhileonechurch argues for reverence, another [argues] for celebration. One rightly claims worship is about God, but another points out all the verses on edifying believers (p. 156). Kauflin asks, Isnt there a way to appreciate both perspectives in tension together? Shouldnt we think of these issues as both/and issuesratherthaneither/or?(pp.156157). Jesus is our guiding example here (isnt He always ). During Jesus time there were four ways with whichthereligiousinstitutionofJudaisminteractedwithitssurroundingculture:
1. TheSadduceessubordinatedthethingsofGodtothestate,allowingtheRomanstoappointandcontrol theHighPriest. 2. TheEssenesretreatedfromsocietycompletelywaitingforGodsmessianicintervention. 3. TheZealotsopenlyrevoltedagainstRomanrulechoosingtheaggressivestanceofthesword. 4. ThePhariseestriedtoexistinRomansocietyallthewhiletryingtoadheretorulesthatgovernedtheir culticrites.

Jesusrejectedeachoftheseoptions.WhilecommentingonJesusresponsetohissurroundingculture Feinberg & Feinberg (1993) write that Jesus was in the world but not of it. Unlike the Pharisees, his separationwasnotmerelyexternal.Herejectedthephilosophiesandvaluesoftheworldinfavourof heavenlyprinciples,butthatkepthimneitherfromproclaimingthegospelnorfrommeetingpeoples needs(p.394). BeforecontinuingourreviewofarangeofPositiveTensionswemustidentifysomegoverningprinciples thatmightguideourdiscussion.Again,Kauflin(2008)ishelpfulhere.Heoutlinesthreeprinciplesthat guidetheorderingofhischurchservicesandtheirdesign(p.155):
1. DowhatGodclearlycommands 2. DontdowhatGodclearlyforbids 3. Usescripturalwisdomforeverythingelse

NoticetheopenessofKauflinsworshipdesignprinciples.ItseemstomethatKauflinisseekingtobuild asenseofgraceintohisconstruct;allowingfornewdevelopmentsandunderstandingsthatmightnot be known to him this very moment. Kauflin qualifies his position stating three reasons for this positioning(pp.154155): 1. Contextual: Every generation and church is responsible to weigh its practices and traditions againsttheunchangingauthorityofGodsWord.Forexample,shouldweenterGodspresence withsinging,dancingandinstruments(Ps149)orshouldweexcludesuchcelebrationinlinewith Heb.12:28whichsuggeststheneedforaweandreverence?
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2. Bias:EveryonereadstheBiblethroughthefilteroftheirown bias; driven by their own experiences, practices and preferences.ContemporaryworshippersopenupthePsalms andfindcommandstoclap,danceandshout(Ps35:27;47:1; 149:3) while Traditionalists insist that Scripture should be read by ordained ministers (Neh. 8:27) and that everything shouldbedoneinanorderlymanner(1Cor.14:40). 3. GeneralGuidelines:Godhasnotprescribedaspecificliturgicaldesign,butthisdoesnotallow fortheWhateverPrinciple:wecanworshipGodanywaywewant!Therearesomescriptural guidelinesincludingprayingtogether(1Tim.2:12),pastorsaretopreachandteachGodsWord (2Tim.4:2),andwearetosingpraisestoGod(Col.3:16).

RegulativeandNormative
EssentiallywhatKauflinisoutliningaboveisapositivetensionbetweentheRegulativeandNormative principles.Kauflin(2008)explainsthesetwoprincipleswriting,
JohnCalvinandothersdevelopedwhathascometobeknownastheregulativeprincipleofworship.Thisis theconvictionthatanythingwedoinapublicmeetingofthechurchmustbeclearlycommandedorimplied in Scripture...Another approach is called the normative principleBroadly stated, the normative principle holdsthatwhateverScripturedoesntforbidisallowed.(p.154)

Farley(2008),inhisarticleWhatisBiblicalWorship?BiblicalHermeneuticsandEvangelicalTheologiesof Worship,furtherdefinestheregulativeprinciple: 1. PraxisOrientated Regulative Principle: A praxisorientated regulative principle is a hermeneutical approach to a biblical theology of worship that defines the norm for Christian worship as the apostolic practice of corporate worship in the firstcentury church. Thus, according to this principle, liturgical practices are biblical only if there are explicit NT [New Testament] commands or normative examples of those particular practices [Key advocates of thisapproachareJohnPiper,D.A.CarsonandTimothyKeller].(p.592) 2. Theologically Orientated Regulative Principle: This hermeneutical approach to a biblical theology of worship derives norms for Christian worship by evaluating the way that particular liturgical practices communicate biblical truths in a ritual and symbolAccording to this theologically orientated method, liturgical forms or rituals are biblical insofar as they embody truths taught in the Bible, and not merely because the apostolic church actually practiced the formsorritualsinquestion[KeyadvocatesofthisapproachareSimonChan,RobertWebberand AllenRoss].(p.596) a. Patristicecumenical model: The first school [of the theologically orientated method], the patristicecumenical model, is very widespread in works on liturgical theology that have emergedwithinthedisciplineofliturgicalstudiesinthebroaderecumenicalworldoutsideof evangelicalism[KeyproponentsofthismodelareSimonChanandRobertWebber].(p.597)

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b. Biblicaltypological model: The second school employing a more theologically orientated regulative principle is a biblicaltypological approach to hermeneutics. It differs from the patristicecumenical school in that it draws upon both OT [Old Testament] and NT [New Testament]indevelopingabiblicaltheologyofworship[Keyproponentsofthismodelare AllenRoss,HughesOliphantOld,MichaelHortonandJohnWitvliet].(p.602) abiblicaltypologicalapproachhasthegreatestmeritandpotentialfordevelopingan evangelicalbiblicaltheologyofworship.(Farley,2008,p.612)

Do you agree with Farleys summation that a biblicaltypological approach has the greatestmeritwhendevelopingabiblicaltheologyofworship?Ifnot,whynot?Howdo youthinkyourbiasmightbeinfluencingyourviewtoagreeordisagree?

2. Designing Worship with Positive Tensions


Worshiphasalwaysbeenahotlydebatedtopic.ThehowtoofChristianworshipandtheircorporate gatheringconstructswillalwaysbechallengedbyreformersandequallydefendedbyconformists;here inliesanotherpositivetension.WarrenWiersbe(2000)providesfurtherwarninginthisareastating,
Another difficult area of tension is the conflict between the objective and the subjective in worship. Were too prone to judge a worship experience by our feelings rather than by the fact that we have obeyedGodandtriedtopleaseandglorifyHim.(p.109)

Theregulativeandnormativeprinciplesarethelensthroughwhichweviewthediscussion.Wemust nowlookatthesubjectofourviewing;thatisthetopicswhichcaptivateourthinking,discussionand subsequentpractice. Kauflin (2008) will guide our review at this point. He has outlined a number of tensions (nine) in his book Worship Mattersofwhichwewillsurveyfive: TranscendentandImmanent HeadandHeart VerticalandHorizontal PlannedandSpontaneous SkilledandAuthentic

BobKauflin,authorofWorship Matters:LeadingOtherstoEncounter theGreatnessofGod

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TranscendentandImmanent
God is both awe inspiringly distant and at the same time intimately close; the wonderful tension between His being simultaneously transcendent and immanent. Specifically, this tensionspeakstotheinteractivequalitiesofGodwithhiscreation. Lewis (2001) states that relationally, God is transcendent in being, Immanent universally in providential activity, and immanentwithHispeopleinredemptiveactivity(p.498).

Godsimmanenceandtranscendence isthetensionofnearandfar!

MillardJ.Erickson(1998)inhisacclaimedtextChristianTheology providesuswithanimportantlistofimplicationsforbothTranscendenceandImmanence: ImplicationsofTranscendence(pp.343345): 1. Thereissomethinghigherthanhumans. 2. Godcanneverbecompletelycapturedinhumanconcepts. 3. Oursalvationisnotourachievement. 4. TherewillalwaysbeadifferencebetweenGodandhumans. 5. ReverenceisappropriateinourrelationshipwithGod. 6. WewilllookforgenuinelytranscendentworkingbyGod1. ImplicationsofImmanence(pp.337338): 1. Godisnotlimitedtoworkingdirectlytoaccomplishhispurposes. 2. GodmayusepersonsandorganisationsthatarenotavowedlyChristian. 3. WeshouldhaveanappreciationforallthatGodhascreated. 4. WecanlearnsomethingaboutGodfromhiscreation. 5. Godsimmanencemeansthattherearepointsatwhichthegospelcanmakecontactwith theunbeliever.

Ericksonconcludeshischapter,GodsNearnessandDistance:ImmanenceandTranscendencewiththis helpfulsummation: As with Gods immanence, so also with his transcendence we must guard against excessive emphasis.WewillnotlookforGodmerelyinthereligious[corporate]ordevotional[individual]; wewillalsolookforhiminthesecularaspectsoflife.Wewillnotlookformiraclesexclusively, butwewillnotdisregardthemeither.Someattributes,suchasholiness,eternity,omnipotence, express Gods transcendent character. Others, such as omnipresence, are expressive of his immanence.ButifallaspectsofGodsnaturearegiventheemphasisandattentionthatthebible assignstothem,afullyroundedunderstandingofGodwillbetheresult.WhileGodisneverfully withinourgraspsincehegoesfarbeyondourideasandforms,yetheisalwaysavailabletous whenweturntohim.(p.345)

Forexample,Christiancounsellingwillnotdifferfromothertypesofcounselling(naturalisticorhumanistic)onlyinbeing precededbybriefprayer.TherewillbetheanticipationthatGod,inresponsetofaithandprayer,willworkinwaysnot humanlypredictableorachievable.(Erickson,1998,p.345) Page5 DesigningWorshipwithPositiveTensions 2012DrDanielK.Robinson


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HeadandHeart
Oftenpresentedasanirreconcilabledispute,thetensionbetweenhead and heart is observed in the difference between cerebral [head] worship and experiential [heart] worship. But this neednt be an issue of either/or! As we seek to design worship with positive tensions we must learn to integrate both head and heart into our corporate gatheringsbecause,asKauflin(2008)states,botharecrucialtobiblical worship(p.165). Whilediscussingthechallengeofachievingbalancebetweenheadand heart,MarvaDawn(1995)encouragesustoavoidthedangersbothof intellectualismandofemotionalism(p.72).Sheremindsusthatifwefocusonthemindalone[we] wontengagepeopleswillandheartsothattheyactonwhattheyknow.[Ifwe]focusexclusivelyon trainingtheemotions[we]encouragefaithwithoutsubstance(p.72). UsingOurHeads Itisimportantthatweuseourmindsinworshipbecauseweareleadingbelieversinabattleforthe truth (Kauflin, 2008, p. 165). This must be more than simply singing songs with theologically sound lyrics or preaching doctrinally astute sermon. It is about, as Paul states in Colossians 3:2, setting our mindsonthingsaboveinordertoknowChristmoredeeply(Phil.3:10).Whileacknowledgingthatour God is transcendent, always beyond a comprehensive understanding, we do well to worship God intelligently.Godwantstostretchourmindstothelimitsasweconsiderthegreatnessofhisbeingand thewonderofhisworks(Kauflin,2008,p.166). UsingOurHearts FormanyChristians,theuseoftheirheartsinworshipimmediatelyconjures upfearsofmanipulation;directlyandindirectly.Remember,ouraimhereis toachievebalance;holdingbothorientationsintension.BryanChapell(2009) acknowledges the natural outcome of contemplating [intellectually] Christ andHisgospelwhenhewrites,Enthusiasmforworshipistobestimulated notsimplybyhowwellthemusicpleasesonessensibilitiesbutbytheawe inspiringrecognitionthatmyworshipengagesmyheartindialoguewiththe CreatoroftheUniverse(p.76).Furthermore,Kauflin(2008)remindsus, God is particularly interested in our joy. He tells us, Be glad in the LORD, and rejoice, O righteous, and shout for joy, all you upright in heart! (Psalm 32:11). When the church gathers, the sense of confidentjoyinGodshouldbepronounced.(p.167)
Followyourheart,buttakeyour brainwithyou!

Doyoufindit easiertoworship Godwithyour headoryour heart?Isthere currentlyan imbalanceinhow youmanagethis tension?

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VerticalandHorizontal
Worship has a multidirectional application; that is the activity of worshiphasthreedimensions.Aswitheachsubjectoftensionthat wearelookingathere,anyimbalancecanleadtoimproperworship andadilutingofourliturgicaldesigns. Two of the dimensions in Christian worship are vertical and one is horizontal.Letslookatthembriefly

TouchingHeaven,ChangingEarth

VerticalProvocation:GodtoUs WorshipmustalwaysbeginwithGod.Rememberwearepowerless,outsideofChrist,toworshipGod.It wasGodwhofirstlovedus(1Jn.4:19;Rom.5:8).Moreover,ourabilitytoloveasChristhaslovedusisa giftfromGod;Godisalwaystheinitiator! VerticalResponse:UstoGod OurresponsetoGodsloveforusshouldbeoneofthanksgivingandadoration.Godhascommandedus toworshiphimbecausehismoralperfectionrequiresit.Itsidolatroustoworshipanythingotherthan whatissuperiortoeverythingelse.AndonlyGodisinthatcategory(Kauflin,2008,p.177). Horizontal:OnetoAnother The result of our communing with God (vertical interaction) and the acknowledgement of his great love for us should be the outworking of love and encouragement for one another. Pauls teaching directs us to observe the corporate gathering (Heb. 10:2425), buildingeachotherupwithhymns,awordofinstruction, arevelation,atongue,oraninterpretationoftongue(1 Cor.14:26).DavidPeterson(1992)inEngagingwithGod commendsbalancewriting,
TheGoddirectedministryofprayerorpraiseandthe notionofedificationareintimatelylinkedintheNew Testament(e.g.Col.3:16;Eph.5:19).Evenpsalmsand hymns and spiritual songs (RSV), which are expressionsoffaithandthankfulnesstoGod,aretobe considered simultaneously as the means of teaching and admonishing one another. This does not mean that prayer or praise is a means to an end, namely edification.WeworshipGodbecauseofwhoheisand becauseofhisgracetowardsus.(p.221)
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Whenthechurchgathers (Peterson,1992,p.221)

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PlannedandSpontaneous
A great deal of time is spent by both clergy and laity planning the structure and presentation of our corporate gatherings. Even in the worshipsettingsthataimtoachievespontaneouslydrivenworshipa certainamountofplanningisrequired.Perhapsthebestexampleof thebalanceweseekbetweenplannedandspontaneousworshipis observed in the professional jazz musician. The art form of jazz is AllowingGodtodirectourworship driven to spontaneously create (improvise) musical structures that mightmeanswitchingtoplanB further develop established melodies. The capacity to achieve the heights of improvisation (often referred to as stepping outside) can only be realised when the instrumentalisthasspentconsiderableamountsoftimepracticinghisscalesandthepiecethatmustbe improvised.Simply,thereisnospontaneitywithoutplanning.Kauflin(2008)outlineswhatplanningcan andcannotdoforourworship: Planningcan(pp.183184):
MakesusawareofourneedforGodbeforethemeeting Helpustoclarifyourgoalsandhowtomeetthem Causeustoexplorecreativitywiththeuseofdifferentmusicalstylesetc. Allowmusicteammemberstopreparefortheirindividualcontributions Openupopportunitiesforworshipparticipantstosharepersonaltestimoniesetc.

Planningcannot(pp.182183):
ReplacedependenceontheHolySpirit SubstitutelisteningtotheHolySpiritduringthemeeting Guaranteethatthemeetingwillrunsmoothlyaccordingtoplan Ensurethatwehavemadetherightplans Replacedivineauthority

Sowheredoesspontaneityfitintoourworship?Howdoweallowourplans to be directed by the HolySpirit? Firstly, as Kauflin tells us, pursuing spontaneity isnt simply about breaking our routine or being creative (p. 184). Spontaneous worship is driven to allow God to improvise, stepping outsideourexpectationsforthemoment.Thismightmeanallowingroomfor unplannedmomentsincludingprayer,scripturereadingorapropheticword from someone recognised with that gifting. Another way of expressing spontaneity (though the terms are not synonymous) is through expectancy. We should endeavour to lead our corporate gatherings with an expectant sensethatGodwillbepresentamongHispeople,andthatHemightjusthave somethingtoaddtoourmeetingwithhimandeachother.

Whenplanningfor worshipdoyou findyourselfover planningorunder planning?Could yourworship designdowith moreplanningor morespontaneity?

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SkilledandAuthentic
Having already covered the positive tension of planned and spontaneous we must now address the issue of skilled and authentic.Whenweallowthevalueofplanning(inordertoenable spontaneity)intoourworshipdesignsthediscussionofqualityand ThetermAuthenticcanbealoaded quantity inevitably arise. Once again it is important to commence termweshouldneverusethetermto valueordevalueanothersworship. our review by citing Gods orientation to the subject. While giving Moses instructions to build the temple God directed him to employ Bezalel and Oholiab and every craftsmaninwhosemindtheLORDhadputskill,everyonewhoseheartstirredhimuptocometodothe work(Ex.36:2).Godhasindividuallygifteduswithtalents,butitisuptoustofirstdevelopthoseskills andthenwillinglybringthoseskillstothebenefitofthecorporategathering. Kauflin(2008)directsourattentiontoRom.12:36asafundamentaltruthaboutthegiftsGodgivesus andhowweretoviewthem(p.198).Inourcurrentwesternculturethatprofessesahierarchyofskills andtalentitcanbehardtoconsidereachgiftequalwhilenottothinkingofoneselfmorehighlythan [one]oughttothink,buttothinkwithsoberjudgment,eachaccordingtothemeasureoffaiththatGod has assigned (Rom. 12:3). Following his discussion about gifts, Paul teaches the Romans how to maintainhumilitydespitegiftsbeingdistributedarbitrarily;hewrites,
Let love be genuine. Abhor what is evil; hold fast to what is good. Love one another with brotherly affection.Outdooneanotherinshowinghonor.Donotbeslothfulinzeal,beferventinspirit,servethe Lord. Rejoice in hope, be patient in tribulation, be constant in prayer. Contribute to the needs of the saintsandseektoshowhospitality.Blessthosewhopersecuteyou;blessanddonotcursethem.Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be haughty,butassociatewiththelowly.Neverbewiseinyourownsight.Repaynooneevilforevil,butgive thoughttodowhatishonorableinthesightofall.(Rom12:917)

In my bible this section is titled Marks of a True Christian (ESV, 2001). Pauls panacea was (and is) humility and service. Regardless of our place in the body of Christ, we do well to remember Pauls encouragementtoservewithhumility.Perhapsamatureorientationtoexcellencemightbehelpfulas weaimforhumility.WhilediscussingexcellenceinhisbookTheArtofCuratingWorship,MarkPierson (2010),havingalreadydeclaredhisantiexcellencestance,statesthatapreoccupationwithexcellence isnevergood(p.64).Hegoesontowrite,Ifexcellenceisaprimarygoal,thentheweak,thetimid,the depressed,thedisabled,theunskilled,thesick,theintroverted,theoverweight,thelessattractive,the poor, and the untalented arent going to get a look in (p. 65). Later Pierson qualifies his position exhortingChristianstobeexcellentintheirlifeandintheirexpressionofworship.Hesays,
Ifanyworshipemerging,alternative,charismatic,evangelical,reformed,oranyothergenreismore aboutwhatandhowitisdonethanwhyitisdoneandifhighqualitywhetherofvideoloops,music,or singingbecomesmoreimportantthantransformativeencounterswithGodthatallowpeopletofollow Jesusmorecloselyintheirworldandsubculture,thenthisworshipisntworthyofbeingcalledworship. (p.67)
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3. What about Performance?


Performanceinworshipcanbeatroublingtopictodiscussforsome.Toperform,somemightargue,is to draw attention to ones self; and this stands juxtaposed to the humility required in worship leadership.Perhapsitistimewereloaded(Liesch,1996)thetermperformancerecognisingthatwe cant deny that we are performing when we are positioned above or in front of other worshipers, [with] bright lights shining on us, and expensive sound systems amplifying our own voices and instruments(Ingalls,2012,p.25). In her very helpful article on the subject of performance in worship, Monique Ingalls (2012) defines performanceasahumanactivitythatcommunicatesourdeepestbeliefsandvaluesthroughrepeated, public action and transforms us in the process (p. 24). Simply, we perform when we conduct a task publicly.IngallspinpointsourgeneralissuewithperformanceinChristianworshipsuggestingthatwhen weseesomeoneperforminginworshipweimputequestionablemotivestotheiractions(p.24).She goes on to state that this judgement seems to run against the imperative we often hear to be authentic,toexpressourtruefeelingsandnottotrytobesomeonewerenot(p.24). The crux of Ingalls argument is that wevegottogetbeyondthequestionof whether or not we are performing and startaskingifourperformanceisfaithful (p. 26). She offers four points for consideration as we pursue faithful performance(p.27): 1. Stopdenyingthatweareperforming:likedenyingthatwehaveatradition(beliefsand practices handed down across generations), our constant denials of performance ring hollow. Worse, our denial can be a stumbling block that devalues disciplining and developingourGodgivenskills. 2. Clarifyourbeliefsandvalues,goalsandmissions,andworktoexpressthem:weshould payparticularattentiontothetensionstheboth/andsthatarenecessarypartsofour faith. 3. Invitehonestevaluationofourperformance:sometimesitsdifficulttoknowwhataspects ofourperformanceisdistractingorhinderingclearcommunication.Feedbackcanhelpyou watch for ideas that arent coming across or messages that your team conveys without meaningto. 4. Explain reasons for your performance choices: once weve clarified our core values and whatthebestmeansareforexpressingthese,wecanactivelyworktoreshapethewayour coworshippersinterpretourperformances.

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AchievingBalanceinPerformance
Ofcourse,wearenotalwaysgoingtogetthebalanceright!Therewillbetimeswhenwe(andmembers ofourministryteam)findourselveswithanimbalanceinworship.Howdowerecognisethisimbalance? Betterstill,whatdoesbalanceinperformancelooklike? Performance psychologist, David Roland (1997) cites dancer Alexander Grants description of a peak performancewriting,
themagicalperformancesarewhenyourevealthetruth,evenifitsonlytwiceinanight.Thatsamagic night, when suddenly the truth is revealed by the artist to the audience, not through talk, but through feeling,emotion,andcoordinationofmovementandmusic.(p.73)

Isntthisourideal:torevealthetruth,thetruthofChrist!UnlikeGrant,whoseekstorevealthetruth throughmovementalone,weshouldseektouseallthesensestopointtoChrist.Rolandillustratesfour levelsofattentionobservableinperformance(below):

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Roland proposes that point four (illustrated above), where the primary focus is on the big picture, enablestheperformertoeffortlesslyanddynamicallytransferattentionbetweenself,audienceandthe process.Howdoesthisfitwithourperformanceasministersofthegospel?InhistextWorshipbythe BookD.A.Carson(2002)observesthatsomewhopublicallyleadthecorporatemeetingsofthepeople ofGodmerelyperform;othersareengrossedintheworshipofGod.Somemerelysing;someputona greatshowofbeinginvolved,butotherstransparentlyworshipGod(p.59). CarsonsobservationofaworshippersperformanceorientationseemstoalignwithRolandslevelsof attention.Thecorrelationcanbepresentedasfollows: Carson suggests that to transparently worship God is to have transparent conduct which can be observedbyothers(p.59).Indefiningperformanceappropriateforworship,Carsondoesnotshyaway fromthevisiblenatureofthetask.Carsoncentreshisconcernsonthegenuinenessoftheworshippers transparencystatingWhatisatstakeisauthenticity(p.59).
CorrelationofRolandandCarson(Robinson,2011,p.53)

Takeamomenttowritedownatimewhenyourworshipperformancehasfalleninto
eachofthefourlevelsofattention/worshipperformance.Wheredoyoufindyourself inworshipperformancemostoften?Whatdoyouneedtodoinordertotransparently worshipGodmoreregularly?

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References
Carson,D.A.(Ed.).(2002).Worshipbythebook.GrandRapids,MI:Zondervan. Chapell, B. (2009). Christcentered worship: Letting the gospel shape our practice. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Dawn, M. J. (1995). Reaching out without dumbing down: A theology for worship for this urgent time. Grand Rapids,MI:WilliamB.EerdmansPublishingCompany. Erickson,M.J.(1998).Christiantheology(2nded.).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. ESV.(2001).TheHolyBible:EngllishStandardVersion.Wheaton,IL:CrosswayBibles. Evans,M.(2006).Openupthedoors:Musicinthemodernchurch.London,UK:EquinoxPublishingLtd. Farley, M. A. (2008). What is 'biblical' worship?: Biblical hermeneutics and evangelical theologies of worship. JournaloftheEvangelicalTheologicalSociety,51(3),591613. Feinberg,J.S.,&Feinberg,P.D.(1993).Ethicsforabravenewworld.Wheaton,IL:CrosswayBooks. Ingalls,M.(2012,July/August).Perform:Reclaimingperformanceinworship.WorshipLeader,21,2227. Kauflin, B. (2008). Worship matters: Leading others to encounter the greatness of God. Wheaton, Illinois: CrosswayBooks. Lewis,G.R.(2001).God,attributesof.InW.A.Elwell(Ed.),Evangelicaldictionaryoftheology(2nded.,pp.492 499).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Liesch,B.(1996).Thenewworship:Straighttalkonmusicandthechurch.GrandRapids,MI:BakerBooks. Peterson,D.(1992).EngagingwithGod:Abiblicaltheologyofworship.DownersGrove,IL:InterVarsityPress. Pierson, M. (2010). The art of curating worship: Reshaping the role of worship leader. Minneapolis, MN: SparkhousePress. Robinson, D. K. (2011). Contemporary worship singers: Construct, culture, environment and voice. Unpublished Dissertation,GriffithUniversity,Brisbane,QLD. Roland,D.(1997).Theconfidentperformer.Paddington,NSW:CurrencyPress. Soanes, C., & Stevenson, A. (Eds.). (2008) Concise oxford english dictionary (11th, Revised ed.). New York, NY: OxfordUniversityPress. Wiersbe,W.W.(2000).Realworship:Playground,battleground,orholyground?(2ed.).GrandRapids,MI:Baker Books.

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