Rombach
Introduction
Beam and truss structures
Spatial structures
 shear walls
 slabs
 shells
Material nonlinear analysis
3d models
Design of real concrete structures with finite element software
 model problems and errors
Prof. Dr. Ing. Gnter A. Rombach
Hamburg University of Technology
Email: rombach@tuharburg.de
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Special problems of concrete structures
complex material behaviour (cracks, time dependant)
detailing arrangement of rebars significant
construction process significant
complex loading exact value not known
no mass product fast design
massive members (Bernoulli hypothesis not valid)
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 3
Zuse Z1 193638
Built the first programmable computer in the world
Argyris: Civil Engineer
Clough: Civil Engineer
Zienkiewicz: mathematician;lecturer in faculty of civil eng.
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform
accident
Collapse: August 1991
Financial loss: 250 Mio US$
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform accident
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform accident tricells
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform accident tricells
7
3.45 3.41 3.25 2.32 Tension force T
1
[MN/m]
1.66 1.67 1.35 0.95 Tension force T
1
D
1
[MN/m]
N4 N3 N2 N1 Elementmesh
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
The Sleipner platform accident tricells
8
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Sleipner platform accident
9
Consequences:
distorted 8noded volume elements
should not be used
qualified staff
indenpendant checks
Sea Troll Plattform, Bj. 1995, h=472 m (330m)
better hard and software
more elements
substructure techniques
adaptive mesh refinement
nonlinear material models
independant checks
engineering knowledge required
Seite:
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Software faults
loadcase G had not been considered since version 10.096
minimum reinforcement had been estimated with f
yk
instead of f
yd
Errors
10
Numerical errors
2
45
 0,8  2
45
= 0,8008
2
50
 0,8  2
50
= 0,00
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Program errors
Software faults
Model errors
material model reinforced concrete behaves nonlinear
loading FEModel considers only nodal loads
design slab, shear wall, column, tension member,
shear reinforcement
modelling size of elements
type of element
support conditions
singularities
Errors
Reales Bauwerk
Numerisches Modell
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Modelling
12
u
2
v
2
2
u
1
1
v
1
M
V
N
M
Bemessung
F
sd
F
cd
V
N
Spannung
Knotenlasten
reale Einwirkung
Beam element
Beam element
stresses
design
loading
real structure
real loading
Numerical model
beam , plate, shell,
volume elements
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 13
Prof. Dr.Ing. G. A. Rombach
Hamburg University of Technology
Email: rombach@tuharburg.de
Design of real concrete structures with finite element software
Introduction
Beam and truss structures
Spatial structures
 shear walls
 slabs
 shells
Material nonlinear analysis
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 14
Beam or truss element
Beam element
Strains stresses
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
190.
187.
176.
124.
8.
137.
138.
178.
176.
193.
259.
139.
122.
141.
142.
horizontal
membrane
force
System
Width of beam b = 0,22 cm
see detail
Loading q = 1 kN/m
2,5m
60
80
9,5m
Discontinuity regions
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 16
Dregions in beam or truss structures
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 17
Beam with opening
2
max
2
8
10 12, 5
195
8
q l
M
kNm
= =
= =
max
/ 195/ 0, 6
325
N M z
kN
= = =
=
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
5,0m 5,0m
50
20
10kN/m
Opening 20/50cm
50 50
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Beam with opening
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
49.8
49.7
50.4
50.3
85.0
15.0
29.1
70.9
20.8
41.7
41.7
41.7
33.0
76.5
20.7
42.1
40.8
42.8
Bending Moment
Shear Forces
5,0m 5,0m
50
20
10kN/m
Opening 20/50cm
Model 3 Model 2 Model 1
Beam with opening
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Stress/Strain
section 11
left
Stress/Strain
section 11
right
Model 1 Model 2
1
1
Beam with opening
Stresses
section 11 right
Stresses
section 11 left
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
compression forces tension forces
Beam with opening  StrutandTie model
Tension tie Compression strut
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Summary 1: Beam and truss structures (Dregions)
The BernoulliHypothesis (linear strain distribution) is not valid in socalled
discontinuity regions. Thus beam elements, which are mostly based on a
linear strain distribution, can not estimate the forces in discontinuity regions.
It is important to model the stiffness in the discontinuity regions.
Dregions can be designed by means of strutandtie models whereas the
member forces of the truss systems at the boundaries can be used to
estimate the forces in the struts.
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Modelling of support  single span girder
rigid
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Modelling of support
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Modelling of support  single span truss
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Schornbachtalbridge
Bridge column with pile foundation
11m
15m
1,8m
Ortbetonramm
pfhle d=61cm
3m
3,6m
6
:
1
5
:
1
5
0
:
1
2,6m
3,04m
1,5m
7,22m
1,6m
5,72m
1,665m
1,225m
5
0
:
1
1
6
:
1
Bored
Piles
D=0.61 m
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Bending stiffness of piles is neglected
Estimation of pile forces
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Bridge column with pile foundation
Numerical
model
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
H
V
M
beam
horizontal
spring
Vertikal
feder
n=0
n=0,5
n=1
n=2
k
s
k (z)=k (d)
.
(z/d)
s s
n
n= 0 bindiger Boden
n =1 nichtbindiger Boden
Elastic support of piles
Beam
Horizontal
springs
Vertical
springs
Distribution of soil
stiffness
n = 0 cohesive soil
n = 1 noncohesive soil
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Bending moments in the piles
H = 870 kN
Base of pile fixed vertically
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
195.
C=400MN/m
pile cap cant move
horizontally
Pile cap
can move
+8
68
22
H = 870 kN
Bending moments in the piles
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Summary 02: Beam and truss models
32
Beam elements are based on a linear strain distribution
member forces in discontinuity region can not be calculated
but stiffness of the Dregions has to be considered
Nonlinear material behaviour of concrete should be considered (e.g. torsion stiffness)
A realistic model for the support condition has a significant influence on the member
force of the system. Restraints, which may lead to high forces, should be omitted.
The basic parameters of an elastic support on ground should be checked. The stiffness
modulus of the soil is estimated by an Oedometer test, where the soil is fixed by a horizontal
stiff ring. Therefore the real soil stiffness can be significant smaller.
An inclined axis of gravity (haunches) should be modelled with regard to the shear design of a
beam.
System und Belastung
Querkraft

7
4
7
k
N
6
0
7
k
N
375kN
375kN
Normalkraft
90kN

1
2
1
3
k
N

1
2
5
8
k
N
45kN
1176kN
Verformung
29,3mm
26,3mm
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 414243444546474849505152535455565758596061 4,0m
12,5m 12,5m 25m
50m
1,0m
(g+q)=30kN/m

8
2
4
0
k
N
m

6
5
2
0
k
N
m
1190kNm
1150kNm
1100kNm
Biegemoment beide Trgerenden eingespannt
und unverschieblich
beide Trgerenden eingespannt
ein Lager horizontal verschieblich
1240kNm.
1
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Pin Support
Corners
Point Loads
Singularities in shear walls
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
a2
a3
a4
a5
v5
v4
v3
v2
v1
a1
v =a
i i
.
F =C a
i i
. .
M =F a =C a
i i i i
2
. . .
M= M = C a =C
i i
2
.
. .
C
=
C a
i
2
l
E ,I
A
c c
v
l
E ,I
A
c c
Deep beam supported on columns
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
h/b=
24/48cm
l
x
=7,20m
l
y
=
3
,
6
0
m
l
=
2
,
4
m
d=24cm
System and Loading
q = 20 kN/m
FiniteElementeModel
X
Y
0.78
Main membrane forces and
beam bending moments
Deformed Structure
Deep beam supported on columns
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hau ptmembra nkrfte M e mbrank raftn(S chnittinF eldmitte) x 50.5 54.8 Ve rschoben eStruktur X Y
membrane forces
Horizontal membrane force n (section in midspan)
x
50.5
54.8
FiniteElementeModel
Deformed Structure
X
Y
Deep
Beam
supported
on
columns
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 37
Connection of different types of elements
u
2
v
2
u
1
2
v
1
Plane shell element (2D) Beam element (2D)
2 translation degrees of freedom 2 translation degrees of freedom +
1 rotation degree of freedom
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
shell element
Increase of
truss length
truss element
shell element
Coupling of the mid joint
truss element
Connection of different types of elements
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
3.7
2.5
3.7
2.5
main membrane forces and truss bending moments
2.0
1.6
2.0
1.6
Deformations
Deep beam supported on columns
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
1
1
2 2
3
3
4
4
80. 60.
99.
213.
182.
131.
142.
152.
150.

1
0
3
.

2
1
4
.

1
1
7
.

1
3
3
.
Schnitt 33
Schnitt 11
Schnitt 22
Schnitt 44
X
Y
Detail
Stress distribution in a corner
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
2.0
2.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
1.0
1.0
horizontal reinforcement
2.07
10.42
0.41
3.49
secti on in
midspan
3.5
4.5
4.5
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2
.0
3
.0
0.5
4.0
4.0
vertical reinforcement
7,20 m
3
,
6
m
Reinforcement
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Reinforcement
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Summary: Shear walls
Singularities (e.g. pin support, single forces) should be omitted
Modelling of the support of deep beams should be done with great care
Numerical restraints should be omitted (e.g. supports, coupling of nodes)
An incompatible element mesh should be omitted (e.g. connection of beam
and plain shell elements)
An automatic design of plain shells is not possible
Elastic finite element analysis of shear walls are useful to develop a strut
andtie model
Scheibenelement
Stab in Scheibe
verlngern
Stabelement
Scheibenelement
Gelenkige Kopplung
mit Mittenknoten
Stabelement
X
Y
Z
l +a
4
x
l +a
4
x
l +a
4
x
l +a
4
x
l
x
a a
l
y
z
z
2
z
1
Zugstrebe
c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
s
t
r
u
t
D
r
u
c
k
s
t
r
e
b
e
Druckstrebe
horizontale Membrankraft
in Feldmitte (in kN/m)
Fc=31kN
z
=
3
,
8
m
0,55m
Fs=31kN
4.80
3.96
8.17
36.6
+

TUHH  Prof. Rombach 44
Design of real concrete structures with finite element software
Prof. Dr.Ing. G. A. Rombach
Hamburg University of Technology
Email: rombach@tuharburg.de
Introduction
Beam and truss structures
Spatial structures
 shear walls
 slabs
 shells
Material nonlinear analysis
3d models
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Stt zenraster 1,50m
Stt zen 24/24cm
Slabs
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Hauptmomente
Lastfall g=10 kN/m2
146.5
125.0
100.0
75.0
50.0
25.0
0.0
25.0
50.0
75.0
100.0
Main bending moments and shear forces
Loading: g = 10 kN/m
2
Sttzenraster 1,50m
Sttzen 24/24cm
2.6
25.0
50.0
75.0
100.0
125.0
150.0
175.0
200.0
225.0
250.0
728.0
Main Shear Force
Loading g=10 kN/m2
Corners
Pin support
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Missing Support
Missing Support
Corner
Corner
Pin Support
Opening
Singularities
Hauptquerkraft Hauptmomente
1m
Y
X
m =0
y,r
m =0
x,r
10.
10.
10.
10.
90.
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Singularities  point load
no
yes
yes
yes
X Y
Z
F
F
v =
F
U
Detail
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Starre Scheibe
a) 2D resp. 3D
Model
b) Pin support of
one node
c) Pin support of
all supported nodes
d) restraint of
the end nodes
e) Pin support of
stiff slab
f) Elastic support
Modelling of wall support
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
X
Z
Node
Coupling
Slab
Column
Restraint
Deformation
One way slab
Load on left span only
Bending
moments
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Walls  partially missing support
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 52
Singlecolumn footing
52
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 53
Singlecolumn footing shell analysis
Membrankraft in
horizontaler Richtung in kN/m
Membrankrfte
3010.
2900.
1302. 2816.
2817.
Setzung in mm
2
.
8
3
m
m
2
.
4
5
m
m
5,0m
Membrane forces
Membrane forces in
horizontal direction
Settlements
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Circular Slab
TUHH  Prof. Rombach 55
Shells
2
5
m
2
8
m
2
8
m
p
p
S
S h
2r
p
p
p
p
Fleckenlast
Ve rtikalschnit t Horizontalschnitt
Patch
load
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Anzahl der Elemente in Umfangsrichtung bzw. ber die Hhe
Elementnetz A
16 x 11 32 x 22 64 x 44
Elementnetz B
Elementnetz C
N
x
200 kN/m
C B A
X
Y
Z
M
x
100 kNm/m
X
Y
Z
C
B
A
Shells
Inner forces in circumferential
direction
Mesh A Mesh B Mesh C
16x11 32x22 64x44
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
Introduction
Beam and truss structures
Spatial structures
 shear walls
 slabs
 shells
Material nonlinear analysis
3d models
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
Aims
more realistic model
correct deflections (e.g. slabs)
more economical design due to load redistribution
reduce restraint forces
more realistic analysis of damages
analysis of experiments
Problems
reinforcement must be known (e.g. linear analysis)
load combination is not possible
numerical model
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
59
f /
yk s
f /
tk,cal s
Betonstahl
s
su
s
Material models
steel
resistance
Strains stresses and
stress resultant
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
60
Tension
Stiffening
Effect
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
61
tension stiffening effect
modification of steel strains concrete tension
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
62
Tension Stiffening Effect
f
I
= 25,4 mm stage I elastic
f
II,1
= 88,0 mm stage II without TS
f
II,2
= 83,0 mm stage II with TS modification of steel strains
f
II,3
= 48,0 mm stage II mit TS concrete tension
Big differences
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
63
Safety concept
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Material models
concrete: uniaxial and triaxial
tensile strength
long term behaviour (s+c)
load history
cracking
reinforcement: elastic  plastic
64
Nonlinear analysis of beams and columns
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
bond: with/without slip
tension stiffening
Kornverzahnung Dbelwirkung
Numerical Modelling
reinforcement bars: discret smeared
bond: fixed  soft
cracks: discret  smeared
65
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
Material models
concrete: uniaxial and triaxial
tensile strength
long term behaviour (s+c)
load history
cracking
reinforcement: elastic  plastic
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
66
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
Material parameters of concrete:
Compressive strength f
ck
Tensile strength f
ct
Shrinkage and creep
ElasticModulus
Poissons ratio
........
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
25 120
1
8
0
1
5
0
5
5
0
670cm
Draufsicht
Ansicht
67
plan view
Sideview
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
180
150
d=28/10 +
s
d=16/10
s
d=28/10 +
s
d=28/10
s
d=16/10
s
Special Column
SES Bangkok
Rebar
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
The conclusion of the various analyses is that the offset colum heads, as
detailed, are able to carry the design service and ultimate loads....
Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Hauptm omente Lastfall g=10kN /m2 146. 5 125. 0 100. 0 75 .0 50 .0 25 .0 0 .0 25 .0 50 .0 75 .0 100. 0
Aims
More realistic analysis
Fast analysis and design
Simplifications seems not to be required
Problems
Manpower for input
Difficult to check the results
Important details may be overseen
Calculation of reinforcement
not possible (e.g. shear walls) ......
Relevant load arrangement ?
Modelling of whole structures
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Plan view
Side view
3D (1. BA)
26,4 m
Bored piles d = 1.20m
Wing wall t = 1.0 m
wall t = 0.4 m
Beam
2,2x2,0 m
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Flow of forces
detailing
wrong correct
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
loads
restraints
Dead load
Soil pressure
Temperature = 16 K
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Shear design
Seite:
Stirrups [cm
2
/m]
Bored piles d = 1.20 m
Section
AA
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Shear design
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
design
Seite:
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
design
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Parametric studies on truss system
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Arch bridge
Parametric study: soil stiffness
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Summary: Complex 3Dshell analysis
Detailing and flow of forces (e.g. in frame corners oder massive members)
should be considered.
Restraint forces should be checked with regard to the cracked state.
Stiffness change of members due to cracking of concrete and variation of
possible soil stiffnesses should be considered in the design.
The numerical model should be to checked for D and singularity regions.
Automatic design (bending, shear) of shear walls or shell structures is not
possible. Truss forces are needed for design.
Great effort is needed for checking the analysis and for the graphical and
numerical output.
Modifications of the structure requires the analysis of the whole structure.
TUHH  Prof. Rombach
Finite Element Design of Concrete Structures
Prof. Dr.Ing. Gnter A. Rombach
Hamburg University of Technology
Email: rombach@tuharburg.de
Rombach G.: Finite element
design of concrete structures
Thomas Telford
ISBN: 0 7277 3274 9
Published 2004
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