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Experiment 2 : DUO-TRIO TEST

OBJECTIVES
SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
Sensory difference test methods have been classified into Attribute-specified difference
test and Overall difference test. While, the sensory difference test methods have been
classified into the test method for consumer discrimination test needs to involve consumers
natural attention and perception. The overall difference test where consumers do not need to
selectively attend to attend to particular attribute is generally recommended. (Anonymous,
2011)
Power of sensory Difference Test is a test method to be used needs to be determined by
several factors which are theoretical statistical power as well as various physiological and
cognitive effects which influence the operational power. The sequence of the effects caused
by physiological and cognitive perceptual biases such as adaptation and memory effects have
been reported as important factors affecting this operational power (Kim & Lee, 2012; Lee,
Chae, & Lee, 2009). The statistical power indicates the probability to detect a true sensory
difference and operational power also indicates the operational probability to detect a true
sensory difference (Bi, Lee, & OMahony, 2010; van Hout, Hautus, & Lee, 2011)
The duo-trio test was developed by Peryam and Swartz on 1950. This test represented
an alternative to the triangle test which more complex test psychologically. This test useful
for products that had relatively intense taste, odor and/ or Kinestethetic effects such may
impact sensitivity.( Chae, Lee, & Lee, 2010)
The test performance of the three different types of Duo-Trio method with fixed
(constant) reference design in comparison to the (variable- reference) triangle method which
are discriminability and sequence effect. (Anonymous, 2011)
A Duo-Trio Test is an overall difference test which will determine whether or not a
sensory difference exists between two samples. This method is particularly useful to
determine whether product differences result from a change in ingredients, processing,
packaging or storing. Besides, an overall difference exists can be determine where no specific
attributes can be identified as having been affected. This test is equally sensitive to the
triangle test and is simple and easily understood compared with the Paired Comparison test. It
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Experiment 2 : DUO-TRIO TEST


has advantage that a reference sample is presented which avoids confusion with respect to
what constitutes a difference, but a disadvantage is that three samples, rather than two must
be tasted.( Kim & Lee, 2012)
A Duo-Trio Test is about the present to each subject an identified reference sample,
followed by two coded samples, one of which matches the reference sample. Subject is
known as tester, who needs to taste samples provided then indicate which coded sample
matches the reference. The number of correct replies must be count and refer to a table for
interpretation. Two design options are available for a duo-trio test. The conventional approach
is a balanced the reference between the control and test products. However, in some
situations, the reference may be kept constant. (Kim & Lee, 2012)
An orientation session is recommended prior to the actual test to familiarize subjects
with the test procedures and product characteristics. This is because the format, task and
evaluation procedure for Duo-Trio Test must be understood before start the test.
(Anonymous, 2011)
Theoretically, Duo-Trio with fixed (constant) reference design might be more suitable
for studying consumers discriminability that need to regard sequence effects of difference
tests using three stimuli, position of each stimulus was more important than the number of the
stronger one (Lee, Chae, & Lee, 2009). Then, comparison is needed when the reference was
balanced, Duo-Trio was more sensitive when the stronger-reference or preferred reference
was used (Chae, Lee, & Lee, 2010; Kim & Lee, 2010; Kim & Lee, 2012).

PROCEDURES
1. Mouth was need to rinse first by using distilled water before tasting each sample,
2. The sample was begin from left until right.
3. Retaste as often as we need

RESULT
Results were attached as appendices.

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DISCUSSION
This experiment is about the performance of the fixed-reference duo-trio (DT) method
was investigate as a consumer discrimination method. This method has generally found to be
superior to the (variable reference) triangle method due to the favourable sequence and
memory advantage. In this experiment, the samples prepared are the product of potato chips.
This experiment needs the subjects to search the sensory attributes for potato chips.
The results were recorded for five persons. The persons are Nurhana, Fatin, Shayidah,
Vanisha and Aniza Each person was prepared with the same product samples which are two
difference brand of potato chips. Each tray has a marked control sample (R) and two coded
samples which one sample is identical with (R) and the other is difference. Each person need
to identify the coded samples which identical with R. Nurhanas tray contains sample which
coded with code 304 and 834. Nurhana found that sample with code 304 is identically to the
reference. She found that the texture of the sample is identically to the sample. Potato chip
coded as 304 is more crispness as the reference compared to sample of potato chip coded as
834. Fatins tray contains samples coded with code 378 and 800. She found that the sample
coded with code 800 is identically to the reference due to the color of the sample. The color
of potato chips coded as 800 is dark yellowish as the color of sample compared to sample of
potato chip coded as 378. Next, the Shayidahs tray contains samples coded with code 284
and

224. She found that the sample of potato chip coded 224 is more identically to the

reference since the taste of that sample is more saltier as the reference compare the potato
chip coded with code 284. Vanishas tray contains samples coded with code 709 and 994. She
found that the sample coded with code 994 is identically to the reference due to the color of
the sample. Her reason same as reason gave by Fatin which the sample is dark-yellowish
same like the reference compared to the other one sample. The last subject is Aniza. Her tray
was contain samples coded with code 370 and 168. She was found that sample coded as 370
is more identically to the reference due to the taste of the potato chip which more saltier same
like the reference.
The discrimination of the fixed-reference duo-trio method, improved with brand
encoding of the reference or engaging consumers preference within the pre-viewing phase.
Such modifications seem to be important to induce more natural consumers perception
because branded products are often consumed in normal life situation. There are not real
brand loyal consumers were tested in the present study. It just can be hypothesized that for
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loyal consumers who are more familiar to or have stronger affects towards one original
sample (reference), familiarization engaging consumers involvements and affective state of
mind could also induce more efficient form of the decision strategy used for the test. This
also lead toward the improvement of test power. Therefore, the effects of these test methods
should be further investigated using different groups of consumers having different degree of
familiarity to the products.
The significant sequence effects were found only in triangle method. Variability
introduced by test sequences can be confounded with test order effects and individual
difference when each consumer performs 2-3 tests in a session. The results indicated that the
duo-trio with fixed reference had the operationally favourable stimulus sequences. These
results suggest that in order to optimize the test power, the duo-trio with saltier and/or
preferred reference should be recommended utilizing the fixed-reference design and a scheme
to stabilize the memory of the reference, rather than randomizing all the possible test
sequences of the method.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
From the results obtained, it can be concluded that Dou Trio Test is more suitable to
be tested for consumer that are unfamiliar with any types of food product brands. Based on
the result, group members recognize the different based on the taste and colour of the potato
chips. The results indicated that the duo-trio with fixed reference had the operationally
favourable stimulus sequences. These results suggest that in order to optimize the test power,
the duo-trio with saltier and/or preferred reference should be recommended utilizing the
fixed-reference design and a scheme to stabilize the memory of the reference, rather than
randomizing all the possible test sequences of the method.

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REFERENCES
1. Adrian, E. D, 1954, The physiological basis of perception. In J. F. Delafresnaye (Ed.),
Brain
mechanisms and consciousness. Springfield, Ill.
2. Anonymous, 2011, Duo-Trio Test, Society of Sensory Professional, at website:
http://www.sensorysociety.org/knowledge/sspwiki/Pages/Duo-Trio%20Test.aspx,
access on 1st March 2015.
3.

Heymann H & Lawless H.T, Sensory Evaluation of Food Principles and Practices,
New York, Springer.

4. Kim M. A & Lee H. S., 2012, Operational power outweighs statistical power:
Optimization of test performance of the triangle and duo-trio method , Ewha
Womans
University, South Korea, Danielle van Hout Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, The
Netherland, at website :
http://www.agrocampus-ouest.fr/math/
sensometrics2012/Slides/Lee_ Kim_vanHout .pdf, access on 1st March 2015.

APPENDICES

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